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PART I 



HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS 



TO THE READER OF THIS 
VOLUME 

Kindly handle this book with the utmost 
care on account of its fragile condition. 
The binding has been done as well as pos- 
sible under existing conditions and will 
give reasonable wear with proper opening 
and handling. 

Your thoughtf illness will be appreciated 



UNITED STATES 



EXPLORING EXPEDITION 

G^W DURING THE YEARS 

p 5 ^5 1838, 



NH 



1838, 1839, 1840, 1811, 1842. 



UNDER THE COMMAND OF 

CHARLES WILKES, U.S.N, 
YOL. XV. 



THE 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

OF 

ANIMALS AND PLANTS, 

BY 

CHARLES PICKERING, M.D., 

MEMBER OF THE SCIENTIFIC CORPS ATTACHED TO THE EXPEDITION. 



BOSTON: 
GOULD AND LINCOLN, 

50 WASHINGTON STREET. 
LONDON: TKUBNER AND COMPANY. 

1863. 



: L A D E L P II I 



St. James Street. 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



ANIMALS AND PLANTS, 



CHAPTER I. 

ANIMALS AND PLANTS REMOVED FROM THEIR NATIVE LOCALITIES 
BY THE HAND OF MAN. 

In taking up the subject of the Geographical Distribution of species, 
it will at once be perceived, that human interference must be taken 
into consideration ; the face of nature having been greatly changed 
by the removal of the forest, the cultivation of the soil, and the intro- 
duction and dissemination of foreign animals and plants. 

Detached observations, tending to show the amount of this interfe- 
rence, are given in the twenty-first and succeeding chapters of my 
Races of Man. To extend similar observations to all the countries of 
the globe, seems an endless task ; and it becomes necessary, with the 
accumulation of facts, that some general plan should be adopted in 
arranging the results. 

On reflection, the subject of the introduction of foreign animals and 
plants, will be found to resolve itself into tracing out the history of 
each species. A list will, therefore, naturally assume the chronolo- 
gical order : and Egypt, from its containing the earliest records of the 
human family, and from its geographical position and other collateral 
circumstances, becomes the most convenient country for a point of 
reference. 



2 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In the following pages, the species unknown in Egypt are inserted 
in notes. The chronological order is thus preserved, while the 
remarks are rendered capable of indefinite extension. This permits 
other countries to be included ; and the plants and animals introduced 
by Polynesians and aboriginal Americans along the isles and shores 
of the Pacific, to be brought under investigation in connexion with 
their native names. 

The observations embraced in this and the preliminary chapters, 
are to be regarded as an introduction to the volume on Geographical 
Distribution prepared during the voyage of the Expedition. The 
ground must first be cleared of sources of error, before we can arrive 
at a view of the real order of Nature. 

I. THE NATURAL CONDITION OF EGYPT. 

To a stranger accustomed to lands clothed with vegetation, Egypt 
presents a most uninviting aspect. An upland waste of bare light- 
coloured soil, save only upon the bottom of the narrow trench formed by 
the river and within reach of its overflow. After leaving the vicinity 
of the Mediterranean, this interminable waste appears on a general 
view to be entirely devoid of vegetation : but plants can be found 
by searching for them; and these Desert plants, of less than a hundred 
kinds, and in general not remarkable in their appearance, constitute 
all that is Botanically interesting in the flora of Egypt. 

In striking contrast with the Desert, the bottom of the river-valley, 
or the river-flats, have been always thickly covered with grasses and 
other herbaceous and humble plants. Traces of the original growth 
may still be distinguished : the species being few, and of European 
affinity; and notwithstanding the warm latitudes, Tropical forms, 
even in the Thebaid, are rare and inconspicuous. 

In these two phases of Egyptian vegetation, the only tree appears 
to have been a willow (Salix), growing sparingly along the river- 
brink; and perhaps the only shrubs, an occasional tamarisk, and a 
low bushy Acacia, both belonging to the Desert. 

On closer examination, the powdery soil is found to be devoid of 
Mosses, Ferns, and Lichens (the exceptions being, two or three Mosses 
in the walls of cisterns, the Adiantum capillus veneris along the 
Mediterranean, and a few Lichens in elevated situations, chiefly on 
the tops of the Pyramids) : other tribes abounding in Europe are also 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 3 

absent, as the Saxifragacece, the Droseracece, the Primidaceoe, the 
Violacece, the Valerianacece, the Gentianacece (the genus Erythrgea being 
excepted), the Orchidacece, perhaps the genus Carex, the Onagracece, 
the Hypericacece, the Globulariacece (a species along the Mediterranean 
being excepted), the Crassulaceaz, the Dipsacaeece (a Scabiosa along the 
Mediterranean being excepted), the heaths and whole tribe of the 
Ericaceae, and the Rosacece (with the exception of a Poterium, growing 
near the Mediterranean in the Desert). 

The Egyptian flora will be found to be extremely simple. Zygo- 
phyUaceee (so peculiarly a Desert tribe) are rather numerous, as also 
Resedacece; but the most prominent feature, is an unusual variety and 
prevalence of Salsolacece; and of other plants that resemble them in 
sensible properties. 

The river-flats along the Nile were originally a pastoral tract, in 
all probability abounding in game. As to species, there appears to 
have been no local provision ; but the river opened a path to Northern 
climates to various antelopes, to the lion, hyosna, ichneumon, genette 
(Viverra), chameleon, and even to Tropical birds; and these en- 
countered Asiatic animals advancing southward along the banks. 
There are, however, a few species of birds and quadrupeds that belong 
properly to the Desert. 



II. THE ANTE-HISTORICAL EGYPTIANS. 

When man entered Egypt, and especially when he began to cultivate 
and irrigate the soil, game by degrees became rare, and some of the 
larger kinds disappeared from the valley. 

The indigenous plants being unsuitable for the purposes of Agri- 
culture, this art could not have originated on the banks of the Nile ; 
but, together with the objects of cultivation, came from some foreign 
and distant land. 

In artificial conservatories or greenhouses, plants from the extreme 
North and others from the Tropics, when subjected to the same 
amount of warmth and moisture, are often found to flourish side by 
side. Some analogy may be found in the climate of Egypt. It 
is favourable for the introduction of plants from every quarter; and 
the soil having been upturned for ages for agricultural purposes, the 
existing vegetation of the river-flats consists mainly of weeds. 



4 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In most countries, Monumental history commences with relics of a 
period of barbarism. Such relics are not found in Egypt ; but it 
would seem, that the first colonists who settled on the Lower Nile, 
were already far advanced in civilization. 

III. EGYPT DURING THE BUILDING OF THE PYRAMIDS. 

According to Diodorus and Clemens Alexandrinus, the Books of 
Thoth were composed before the time of Menes, the first king of 
Egypt. This would make Literature, and perhaps the art of loriting, 
anterior to all known monumental history. — On the portion of a 
mummy-case found at Sakhara by Gliddon (and now in Wash- 
ington), the animals forming the hieroglyphic characters are painted, 
not conventionally as in Lepsius PI. 19 to 22, but according to the 
colours of life ; a circumstance indicating the very commencement of 
the art of writing. 

It seems a natural suggestion, that Idolatry may have had its origin 
in hieroglyphic writing. However this may be, the Mythological system 
of the Egyptians was evidently complete at the commencement of 
their Monumental history. — Gods are figured apart from hierogly- 
phic writing under the Fourth Dynasty; but such representations 
continue rare until the time of the Sixth Dynasty. 

The hieroglyphic character of the cobra occurs on the Washington 
mummy-case; and the species, as appears from the coloured figure, is 
the indigenous C. haje. — On monuments of the Third and later dynas- 
ties, the cobra is found to be connected with the mythology (as at the 
present day in Hindostan) ; and from the time of the Sixth Dynasty 
(see Lepsius II. PL 115), is also the distinguishing mark of kings. 

The hieroglyphic character of the feather, occurs on the Washington 
mummy-case ; exemplifying the general rule, That birds and parts of 
birds represent vowel and such other sounds as are pronounced without 
the aid of lips.* The highly finished paintings on this mummy-case, 
enable us to identify the birds selected for hieroglyphic writing : thus, 
the owl, is the barn owl (Strix flammea) ; one of the small birds, is 
the sparroiv (Fringilla domestica) ; and the young Gallinaceous bird, 
is the chick of the red-legged partridge (Perdix). 

* The seeming exception of the owl for the letter " m," may he explained hy the con- 
cealed "m," or the sound uttered with the lips closed. And this harmonizes with the 
Greek adoption of the owl for the " hird of wisdom." 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 5 

Checkered Nubian baskets are figured on the Washington mummy- 
case. — The wooden Nubian neck-pillow is figured under the Third 
Dynasty (Lepsius II. PI. 4) ; and Nubians themselves, as early, at 
least, as the Fourth (Lepsius II. PI. 19). Nubians are also figured at 
Benihassan under the Twelfth Dynasty (Champollion PI. 395). 

The hieroglyphic sign of the flag-shaped fan occurs on the Wash- 
ington mummy-case ; and at the present day, these fans are made of 
the leaves of the Down palm (Hyphame crinita) . — The tree is planted 
at regular intervals in a garden plan of the time of the Seventeenth 
or Eighteenth Dynasty (Champollion-Figeac PL 55). 

The Washington mummy-case is composed of layers of linen. — 
White garments are figured under the Third and Fourth Dynasties 
(Lepsius II. PI. 4 and 19) ; and on all the subsequent monuments, 
form a distinguishing mark of the Egyptians. The process of spinning 
and weaving is represented under the Twelfth Dynasty at Benihas- 
san. The flax (Linum usitatissimum) is properly a northern plant; 
but I found it cultivated throughout the Arab countries to the Dekkan 
inclusive. 

The Washington mummy-case is coated with chunam, or fine, 
smooth plaster; a material which has been in common use in Egypt 
throughout all monumental history. 

According to Manetho, Men'es led an army beyond the limits of 
Egypt, and became renowned. — Wilkinson states (Thebes and Egypt, 
p. 341), that the canal Bahr Yusef is sometimes called "El Menhi or 
Menhee," apparently from Menes. If the derivation is correct, this 
will form a remarkable instance of permanence in a name. Com- 
pare Herodotus ii. 99. 

According to Manetho, Athothis, the second king of Egypt, was of 
the Medical Profession, and wrote on Anatomy. — Clemens Alexandri- 
nus states, that six of the Sacred Books of the Egyptians treated of 
Medicine ; and Herodotus speaks of the skill and high reputation of 
the Egyptian physicians. 

As the art of medicine was practised, it seems probable, that the 
traffic in drugs was also in existence. — Egypt has always been the 
centre of this traffic ; and Homer, the earliest Greek writer, pointedly 
alludes to " the drugs of Egypt." 

The traffic in -perfumes and valuable gums would naturally be 
united with that in drugs. — Direct evidence of its existence under the 



Q CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Eleventh Dynasty, was found in the lining of the coffin described by 
Birch.* 

The traffic in gems or precious stones, procured in distant lands, 
was probably also in existence ; though I do not know of any direct 
evidence of the fact. — Garnets and cornelian, according to Charapol- 
lion-Figeac (Egypte Ancienne, p. 208), are figured in the Tribute 
processions of the Eighteenth Dynasty : and a variety of precious 
stones are mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. 

In all probability, gold was also known. — Birch speaks of orna- 
mental gilding on the above-mentioned coffin of the time of the 
Eleventh Dynasty ; and according to Rosselini, the hieroglyphic name 
of "nkbt," or gold-washing, occurs on monuments as old or older than 
the Twelfth Dynasty. 

Manetho further states, that Athothis constructed a palace at 
Memphis ; and that Onenephes, the fourth king of Egypt, built •pyra- 
mids. — In after times, this palace and these pyramids may have been 
the earliest monuments known to the Egyptians themselves. 



Some of the pyramids built of adobes or sun-dried brick may be 
among the most ancient. — The one identified, belongs to the time of 
the Twelfth Dynasty. 

Wooden beams are said to enter into the construction of these py- 
ramids ; and an examination of the kinds of timber might decide the 
question, as to the presence of navigation upon the Mediterranean. — 
Trees are figured under the Third Dynasty ; and river-barges, propelled 
by numerous oars and larger than any now used on the Nile, under 
the Fifth ; but the material for their construction may have been 
derived from cultivated groves. 

According to Manetho, Sesorthus, the second king of the Third 
Dynasty, erected the earliest buildings of hewn stone. A knowledge 
of copper is implied : and abandoned copper mines, that were worked 
as early, at least, as the Fourth Dynasty, have been discovered at 
Wadi Maghara, in the Sinai Peninsula. 

Lepsius found the signs of the seasons and their months upon the 
stones of the great pyramid at Daschur ; showing, that a Calendar was 
in use during the Third Dynasty. Lepsius also states, that the divi- 

* Letter on mummies : in Gliddon's Otia iEgyptiaca. London, 1849. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 7 

sion of the day into hours, minutes, and 60x60 parts of a minute, 
was known at an early period to the Egyptians. 

The name and portrait of King Senefru of the Third Dynasty, 
have been found at Wadi Maghara, in a tablet recording a successful 
military campaign against a long-bearded nation belonging to the 
White race (Lepsius II. PL 2). A tomb constructed during his reign 
has been found by Lepsius, between Abusir and Sakhara. 

The hieroglyphic sign of the guitar occurs in the name of King 
Senefru; showing, that music was cultivated. — Harpers are figured 
under the Fourth Dynasty ; and at Benihassan under the Twelfth 
Dynasty, musical instruments are in the hands of foreigners. 

Numerals occur on the walls of the above tomb (Lepsius II. PI. 3) ; 
evidence of a knowledge of geometry is found in the construction of 
the pyramids; and there are reasons for supposing, that nearly all the 
leading truths in mathematical science had been discovered. Herodotus 
(who lived before the time of Euclid) held the opinion (ii. 109), 
that the Greeks obtained their knowledge of geometry from Egypt. 

The feather of the ostrich (Struthio) is figured in the above tomb 
(Lepsius II. PL 3) ; showing, that the traffic in the feathers and eggs 
of this bird was in existence. — The ostrich is figured at Benihassan 
under the Twelfth Dynasty ; and also, clusters of the feathers and eggs, 
similar to those carried in later times in the Tribute processions of 
the Eighteenth Dynasty. 

The young shoot of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), is also 
figured. This is clearly a tropical plant; and its introduction into 
Northern Africa and Palestine must have produced a marked change 
in the aspect of the country, and some difference also in the habits of 
the people. In hieroglyphic writing, the date palm is devoted to 
chronological subjects ; advantage having been taken of the circum- 
stance, that the tree lives several centuries, and annually produces a 
ring of leaves. This original selection seems also to be the source of 
the remarkable etymological interferences in regard to the name of 
this tree, in all European languages. — Separate figures of the date 
palm occur at Benihassan. 

The ibis is also figured in this tomb (Lepsius II. PL 5) . This bird 

appears to have been always associated with the inventor of the art of 

writing, or author of the Books of Thoth. The ibis is sometimes 

figured separately ; but usually rests on an artificial perch, or standard. 

The animal selected as emblematic of a priest, is usually considered 



g CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

to be the jacked ; but except in the superior height, the figures agree 
better with the fox ( Vulpes) . — However this may be. here would seem 
to be the source of the legendary accounts of the cuuning of the fox, 
which have come down to the present day. 

Animal sacrifices are represented in the same tomb (Lepsius II. 
PL 3) ; and the head of the oryx is included among the offerings. This 
species of antelope appears to have been regularly domesticated. — 
And under the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties, is often represented as 
kept in herds. 

The head and neck of a large undetermined species of crane (Grus) 
is also figured among the offerings (Lepsius II. PL 3). This bird 
appears to have been likewise domesticated. — And on monuments of 
the Fourth, Fifth, and Twelfth Dynasties, is repeatedly represented 
as kept in flocks. Single figures occur as late as the Eighteenth 
Dynasty. 

The ibex, or Capricorn, is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. 
PL 6). — The capricorn is of frequent occurrence on the subsequent 
monuments ; but is always represented single, and is perhaps to be 
regarded as kept in captivity, rather than fairly domesticated. 

The hedgehog (Eriuaceus auritus), is figured in the same tomb 
(Lepsius II. PL 3). — The hedgehog is frequently carried in cages 
on the subsequent monuments, and may have been regarded as a 
sacred animal : but I met with none of these representations that 
were later than the Twelfth Dynasty. 

The domestic goose is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 6). 
— And on all the subsequent monuments. 

The dog is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 3) ; having 
the tail curling, but the muzzle pointed, like that of the jackal. — 
Numerous varieties of the dog are figured at Benihassan under the 
Twelfth Dynasty ; and among them, the greyhound, employed as in 
modern times for its superior swiftness in the chase : a kind of sport, 
moreover, said to be well known in Nubia. 

The sheep is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 6) ; a re- 
markable variety with spreading horns, which appears soon to have 
become extinct. — Curved horns make their first appearance at Beni- 
hassan, under the Twelfth Dynasty : but the original peculiar head 
was continued in later times in the mythology and hieroglyphic 
writing. 

The bullock is represented in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 3). — 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 9 

A long-horned variety, which occurs on the monuments as late as the 
Twelfth Dynasty. A hornless variety is figured under the Fourth 
Dynasty (Lepsius II. PI. 9 and 22) : and at Benihassan, the bullock is 
represented in the. state of secondary wildness ; parti-coloured indi- 
viduals being associated with other game in the hunting scenes. 

The donltey is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 5) . — Droves 
of donkeys are figured under the Fourth Dynasty; and under the 
Fifth, the animal is caparisoned as a beast of burden. 

A figure in the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 5), is perhaps intended 
for the -pig. — I found no figure of the pig at Benihassan, nor on any 
monument prior to the time of the Seventeenth Dynasty. In a tomb 
at El Kab, a drove is made to subserve agricultural purposes in the 
peculiar manner described by Herodotus ii. 14 ; while goats are thus 
employed on the anterior monuments. 

Various kinds of vases are figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. 
PL 5) ; evidently of earthenware or 'pottery. — The details of the art 
of making pottery are represented at Benihassan, under the Twelfth 
Dynasty. 

The hieroglyphic sign of the branch of a tree for rowing, occurs in 
the same tomb (Lepsius II. PL 5) ; and indicates, that rafts of earthen 
jars were floated down the Nile, in the same manner as at the present 
day. — This use of branches for rowing, is supposed to be the origin 
of the Latin word " ramus." 

The name of King Schafra, of the Fourth Dynasty, has been found 
in tombs constructed during his reign at Gizeh. He is usually consi- 
dered to be the builder of the Middle Pyramid at this place ; but the 
point is not definitively settled. 

Herds of the domestic goat are figured in these tombs (Lepsius II. 
PL 9) ; and the variety or breed, presents nothing unusual in its as- 
pect. — Representations of the goat are of frequent occurrence on the 
subsequent monuments. 

A priest clad in a leopard skin is figured in one of the same tombs 
(Lepsius II. PL 9) ; and similar representations occur at a somewhat 
later date (PL 21). The skins were doubtless brought from a dis- 
tance. — Indeed, leopard skins still form an article of traffic at Mocha. 

The dog-faced ape (Cynocephalus) is figured in one of these tombs 
(Lepsius II. PL 13) ; doubtless brought down the Nile from Abyssinia 
or from Central Africa. — The cynocephalus is again figured at Beni- 
hassan ; and from the time of the Seventeenth Dynasty, is found to be 



10 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

connected with the Mythology; as the monkey is in Hindostan at the 
present day. 

A species of monkey (Cercopithecus) is figured in the same tombs ; 
and also at a somewhat later date (Lepsius II. PI. 13 and 36). — Other 
kinds of monkeys are represented at Benihassan, but apparently, all 
derived from the Upper Nile. At no period, do I find these animals 
connected with the Egyptian Mythology. 

The hyaena is represented in the same tombs (Lepsius II. PI. 10) ; 
and apparently in a semi-reclaimed state. 

The habits of the Early Egyptians appear to have been in great 
part pastoral ; but agricultural occupations are also represented in these 
tombs; together with the grape (Vitis), and the art of making wine. — 
The details of this art are again figured on monuments of the time of 
the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties. 

Clusters apparently of figs (Reus carica) are included among the 
offerings of fruits and vegetables (Lepsius II. PL 10). — The fig tree is 
distinctly represented at Benihassan, and on monuments of the time 
of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties. 

Crops of grain and the process of reaping, are represented in the 
same tombs (Lepsius II. PI. 9) : perhaps rye, or spelt, but probably 
wheat (Triticum hybernum). — The ambiguity continues on the subse- 
quent monuments : but wheat is mentioned under its current Egyp- 
tian name in Genesis xviii. 6, and Numbers v. 15 ; and under its 
current Greek name by Homer, Odys. ix. 191, and xxiv. 208. 

The paper-rush (Papyrus) is figured in the same tombs ; together 
with the process of writing, and rolls or books (Lepsius II. PL 9 and 
12). — The plant is frequently represented on the subsequent monu- 
ments : but its cultivation having been neglected in modern times, it 
has nearly, if not altogether, disappeared from Egypt. The latter 
circumstance, among others, indicates a foreign origin. 

The sacred water-lily or lotus (Nymphaea) occurs among the offerings 
in the same tombs (Lepsius II. PL 10). — The species is probably the 
N. cserulea ; for though I met with no flowers painted blue prior to 
the Twentieth Dynasty, the margin of the leaves, even in highly 
finished representations, is invariably entire. The N. caerulea is per- 
haps indigenous ; or if floated down the Nile, remains to be disco- 
vered in Central Africa. The blue Nymphsea of East Africa, seen by 
myself at Zanzibar, has dentate leaves. I met with dried flowers of a 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. H 

third blue Nymphaea in a drug shop at Mocha ; probably the N. stel- 
lata of Hindostan. 

A figure among the offerings (Lepsius II. PI. 14, 36 and 68) seems 
intended for the root of the Typha ; which is said to be esculent. — 
Aeschylus (Ag. 1521) speaks of beds of rushes or rash-mats ; made, 
according to Aristophanes (Acharn. 874, and Lys. 721) and the scho- 
liast, of " psiathos ;" or, as would appear from the current Greek name, 
of the leaves of T. latifolia. This species is unknown in Egypt ; but 
the T. angustifolia was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Rosetta. 

Further in regard to the habits of the Early Egyptians : Persons 
are represented in these tombs, employed in curing fish : and the 
mode of carrying burdens is, by the balance-beam on the shoulder ; as 
among the Polynesians at the present day. 

A portrait of King Chufu, or Cheops, of the Fourth Dynasty, has 
been found at Wadi Maghara ; in a tablet recording the military con- 
quest of a long-bearded nation belonging to the White Race (Lepsius 
II. PI. 2). His name occurs also at Gizeh, in the Great Pyramid, 
admitted to be his tomb ; and in small tombs in the vicinity, apparently 
constructed during his reign. 

The arrows of the Nubian archers, figured in one of these small 
tombs (Lepsius II. PI. 19), may have been from the real (Arundo 
donax). — On some early monuments, the Nubian and Egyptian arrows 
are marked at regular intervals, like joints (Rosselini II. PI. 117 and 
118) ; and the arrows of the foreigners at Benihassan, were doubtless 
from the reed. In the time of Pliny, the reed appears to have been 
extensively cultivated in Egypt ; and its rarity at the present day, 
is partly to be attributed to the change in the mode of warfare. 

During the reign of Chufu, hieroglyphic writing was used generally, 
and for common purposes ; as appears from quarry-marks in red chalk 
still remaining on interior stones of the Great Pyramid. 

The chambers and internal passages of the Great Pyramid are in 
part constructed of sienite ; floated down the Nile from the First 
Cataract. 

The base of the Great Pyramid has been found to conform to an 
exact meridian line : and other evidence of the advanced state of 
astronomical science has been discovered. — Tables of the Constellations 
were found by Champollion in tombs of the time of the Twentieth 
Dynasty. 



12 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

An inscription having reference to the construction of the Great 
Pyramid, as interpreted to Herodotus (ii. 125), contained notices of the 
two following plants: The "krommya" or onion (Allium cepa). — 
Figured under the Seventeenth or Eighteenth Dynasty ; and men- 
tioned under its current Egyptian name in Numbers xi. 5, and under 
its current Greek name by Homer. 

And the "skoroda" or garlic (Allium sativum). The interpreters, 
however, in conversing with Herodotus, may have had in view the 
plant figured in the neighbouring tombs, to be noticed presently. — 
The garlic is mentioned by Homer ; but at the present day, is very 
sparingly cultivated in Egypt, and even, according to Hasselquist, 
forms an article of importation. 

The name of King Menkera, of the Fourth Dynasty, occurs on the 
wooden coffin discovered in the Third Pyramid at Gizeh. This pyra- 
mid is therefore the tomb of King Menkera ; and though the smallest 
of the three, is built entirely of sienite from the First Cataract, agree- 
ably to the statement of Herodotus ii. 134. — The memory of King 
Menkera appears to have been much venerated by the Egyptians ; and 
his name occurs in sacred writings and prayers composed centuries 
after his decease. 

The inscription on this wooden coffin, has been ascertained by Birch 
to be an extract from the Osiris-myth ; and the high antiquity of this 
sacred drama is thus demonstrated. The material of the coffin, de- 
scribed as " a kind of cedar," may have been imported ; for the Coni- 
ferous trees at present cultivated in Egypt, hardly afford timber of 
sufficient size. 

In a tomb at Gizeh, apparently constructed during the reign of 
Menkera, are figures of a species of Allium (Lepsius II. PI. 36) ; per- 
haps the garlic, or the onion, but agreeing better with the shallot 
(Allium Ascalonicum). — According to Zalikoglous' account of the 
Greek usage,* the "gethyon" of Theophrastus vii. 4, is the shallot. 
This plant was seen in Greece by Bory de St. Vincent ; and in Egypt, 
by Alpinus. 

Men probably of the Negro Race are represented in the same tomb 
(Lepsius II. PI. 36) ; at least, if we may judge from their wearing the 
three-lobed emblem. — This emblem occurs at Benihassan as a black 
writing style (Champollion PI. 361) ; but in other instances, on monu- 

* Modern Greek Lexicon by Zalikoglous. Venice, A.D. 1815. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 13 

ments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties, appears to be a 
plant, not unlike the Iris : and analogy may also be remarked in the 
color of the Iris flower. The Iris sisyrincliium, according to Forskal 
and Delile, is indigenous in Lower Egypt. 

On the monuments of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties, Lepsius 
found the cubit to be "524 millimetres" in length; and the standard 
weights and measures, to be the same with those used in later times by 
the Babylonians and Persians. 

The name of King Useskef, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found 
in tombs at Gizeh (Lepsius II. PL 40) ; and also in the beautiful tomb 
at Sakhara, which appears to have been constructed during his reign. 

A portrait of King Sahura, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found at 
Wadi Maghara, in a tablet recording the military conquest of a nation 
belonging to the White Race (Forty Days in the Desert, PI. 12) ; his 
name occurs also on the stones of the North Pyramid at Abusir, which 
is thus ascertained to be his tomb (see Lepsius II. PI. 39). 

The name of King Nefrukera, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found 
at Sakhara and Gizeh, in tombs apparently constructed during his 
reign. 

Crops of barley (Hordeum), distinguished by the inferior height and 
the thicker and beardless spikes, are figured in one of these tombs 
(Lepsius II. PI. 47. Compare also Champollion, PL 417). — Barley is 
again figured on monuments of the Sixth and Seventeenth Dynasties ; 
and is mentioned under its current Egyptian name in the Hebrew 
Scriptures; and under its current Greek name, by Homer. 

The porcupine (Hystrix) is figured in the same tomb (Lepsius II. 
PL 4G). The living specimen may have been imported into Egypt 
from the East. 

The name of King Ransesr, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found 
on the stones of the Middle Pyramid at Abusir ; which is thus ascer- 
tained to be his tomb. His name occurs also at Wadi Maghara, and 
in small tombs at Gizeh, apparently constructed during his reign (Lep- 
sius II. PL 55, 59, and 152). 

The name of King Tetkera, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found 
at Sakhara, in a tomb apparently constructed during his reign (Lep- 
sius II. PL 63). 

The name of King Assa, of the Fifth Dynasty, has been found at 
Gizeh, in tombs apparently constructed during his reign (Lepsius II. 
PL 67 and 74). A papyrus written by one of his officers (and dis- 



14 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

covered at Thebes by Prisse), is described by De Rouge, as having the 
letters slightly cursive ; thus making some approach to hieratic writing. 

Many of the above tombs, with others at Gizeh not later than the 
Fifth Dynasty, were pointed out to me by Mr. Bonomi ; and in the 
original paintings, I met with figures, in color, shape, and relative 
size, corresponding with the water-melon (Citrullus). — Similar figures 
occur on monuments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Dynasties ; 
and the water-melon, under its current Egyptian name, is mentioned 
in the Hebrew Scriptures (Numbers xi. 5). 

Also, figures of a long, green, slightly curved fruit, perhaps intended 
for the hairy cucumber (Cucumis chate). — Similar figures occur on the 
subsequent monuments. This species of cucumber is cylindrical and 
devoid of papillse, and if I understood aright, is called "gutteh" in 
Lower Egypt: it seems therefore to be the "khth" of Exodus ix. 32. 

Figures perhaps intended for the fruit of the pomegranate (Punica 
granatum) ; being apparently distinct from the small earthen vases of 
similar shape. — The pomegranate tree, with its fruit, is figured on 
monuments of the Seventeenth Dynasty (Rosselini II. PL 68); and is 
mentioned under its current Egyptian name in Numbers xx. 5, 
Deuteronomy viii. 8, and Solomon's Song iv. 3 ; and under its cur- 
rent Greek name, by Homer, Odys. vii. 115. 

And in a single instance, figures, possibly intended for the cabbage, 
but more resembling heads of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus). — The 
"kinara" of Sophocles, Ptolemy Euergetes, and Athengeus, is consi- 
dered to be the artichoke ; and this plant is abundantly cultivated in 
Egypt at the present day. 

The name of King Atai, or Othoes, of the Sixth Dynasty, has been 
found at Hamamat, on the Kosser road (Lepsius II. PI. 115) ; but 
apparently, not on a contemporaneous monument. 

The name of King Pepi, or Phiops, of the Sixth Dynasty, has been 
found at Wadi Maghara, Sauiet el Meitin, Schech Said, Hamamat 
(Lepsius II. PL 110, 112, 115, and 116), and even as far up the Nile 
as Napata near in Dongola ; together with the date of the sixteenth 
year of his reign. 

The name of King Mentuatep, of the Sixth Dynasty, has been found 
at Hamamat (Lepsius II. 149), and in other localities; together with 
the date of the second year of his reign. 

Of the domestic animals and plants thus far mentioned, most of 
them will be found to be of Northern origin. Of the plants, however, 



ON INTRODUCED ANTMALS AND PLANTS. 15 

seven are decidedly Tropical ; the doum palm, date palm, papyrus, 
fig, pomegranate, hairy cucumber, and water-melon : some of these 
may have come from Abyssinia, or from the mountains of Yemen ; 
but the doum palm being excepted, the remainder are sufficiently 
hardy to bear transportation by an extra-tropical route. I have met 
with no evidence of the existence, at this early period, of a Southern 
route of communication with India, by the way of Meroe and by sea. 



The name of King Nefrukera II., of perhaps the Seventh Dynasty, 
has been found at Wadi Maghara, and at Kauamat (Lepsius II. PL 
116). 

The name of King Merenra, of the same dynasty, has been found at 
"Wadi Maghara, Chenoboskion (Lepsius II. PI. 113), and in a tablet on 
the Kosser road. Other kings of the dynasty of the Nefrukeridaa, are 
known from the genealogical tablet at Abydos; but their names have 
not been found on contemporaneous monuments. 

The name of King Mentuatep II., or Mentuatep Nebtura, of per- 
haps the Eighth Dynasty, has been found at Assuan (Lepsius II. PI. 
149) ; but perhaps, not on a contemporaneous monument. 

The name of King Nachtenra, apparently of the Ninth or Tenth 
Dynasty, occurs in the genealogical table of the chamber at Karnak ; 
but has not been found on contemporaneous monuments. 

Tombs of kings of the Eleventh Dynasty have been discovered at 
Gurna, in the northwest quarter of Thebes ; and in one of them, the 
coffin of King Nentef II. was procured. This coffin is now in the 
British Museum ; and, on examining the lining, Birch met with inscrip- 
tions in hieratic writing. This is properly cursive hieroglyphic writing: 
for it bears the same relation to hieroglyphics, as handwriting does to 
printed letters. 

Birch found ivory employed in the ornamental work on the same 
coffin (procured in all probability from the African elepltant, on the 
Upper Nile) : 

Also, obsidian (brought probably from some distant locality, there 
being no volcanic district immediately around Egypt) : 

And bronze. — The art of forming this compound metal, has by 
other means been traced beyond the historical records of Greece.* 
Direct evidence has been obtained that the traffic in tin was carried 
on in the days of Homer ; plates of this metal having been recently 

* See Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 



16 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

unrolled in a mummy at London, and in another at Boston ; the latter, 
belonging to the time of the Twenty-Second Dynasty. 

The ovals of three other kings, bearing the name of Nentef, have 
been found in the same series of tombs at Gurna. 



IV. THE HYKSOS PERIOD. 

The name of Amenemha, the first king of the Twelfth Dynasty, has 
been found on a stela (now in the Museum at Paris) ; together with 
the date of the eighth year of his reign. 

The name of Sesurtesen, the second king of the Twelfth Dynasty, 
has been found on monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia ; together 
with various dates, the latest of which is in the forty-third year of his 
reign. He appears to have first erected obelisks; thereby introducing 
a marked change in monumental history. — Obelisks bear inscriptions 
dedicating an adjoining temple. They were placed only in the royal 
or dynastic cities ; the same that in the Egyptian Tables of Chrono- 
logy, seem to be designated by their tutelar deities ; as Memphis, by 
Pthah or Vulcan ; Heliopolis, by Ra ; Elephantine, by Num or 
Agathoda?mon ; Crocodilopolis, by Seb or Saturn ; Abydos, by Osiris ; 
Tanis, by Typhon ; Thebes, perhaps by Horus; and it is known, that 
Sais once possessed obelisks. 

Obelisks erected by Sesurtesen, still remain at Crocodilopolis (in the 
Faium) and at Heliopolis. The one at Heliopolis is not of sienite, but 
of granite proper ; and the place from which it was transported, remains 
unascertained. A fragment of a colossal statue of Sesurtesen, in " black 
granite," is now in the Museum at Berlin. 

The most ancient temple hitherto discovered, is situated in Nubia, at 
the Second Cataract of the Nile, and w T as built by Sesurtesen. His 
portrait has been discovered near the sanctuary, in a stela, or stone 
slab, recording the conquest of Nubian and Lybian tribes. He also 
founded the temple at Karnak, in Thebes. 

The tomb of one of his military chieftains, in the series at Benihassan, 
is conspicuous by the columns at the entrance. — The same supposed to 
have furnished the Greeks with the idea of the Doric architecture. 

The name of Amenemha II., the third king of the Twelfth Dynasty, 
has been found on the monuments ; together with various dates, the 
latest of which is in the thirty-fifth year of his reign. 

The remaining tombs at Benihassan were also excavated during the 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 17 

Twelfth Dynasty. The paintings on the walls represent a vast variety 
of subjects: including, most unexpectedly, the greater part of the 
arts and trades practised among civilized nations at the present day ; 
also, birds, quadrupeds, fishes, and insects, amounting to an extended 
treatise on zoology, well deserving the attention of naturalists. The 
date accompanying these representations, has been astronomically de- 
termined by Biot at about B. C. 2200* (Cbampollion-Figeac, Egyp. 
Anc.) ; and Lepsius' chronological computation corresponds. 

The tomb dated in the reign of King Sesurtesen II., contains the 
earliest record hitherto discovered, of the introduction of a body of 
foreigners into Egypt. The strangers belong to the White Race ; are 
termed " captives," a point of agreement with the Hyksos of Manetho 
(Josephus, C. Apion. i. 14); use the javelin; and, unlike the Egyp- 
tians, wear variegated garments. 

In an adjoining tomb (Champollion, PL 396), a kindred nation, wear- 
ing only the cincture, and therefore inhabiting a warm climate, is repre- 
sented fighting the EgjqDtians. The siege of a fortified place is also 
represented. And Lepsius (Briefe aus Aegyp. p. 367) observed one 
of these foreigners in the state of servitude among the Egyptians. — In 
a royal tomb of the Nineteenth Dynasty, the same foreign nation wears 
the Bedouin fillet. 

The scarlet portion of the variegated garments may have been dyed 
with kermes (Coccus ilicis) ; an insect production, obtained around the 
northern shores of the Mediterranean. — The use of kermes is mentioned 
in Genesis xxxviii. 28 ; Exodus xxv. 4 ; Leviticus xiv. 4 ; Proverbs 
xxxi. 21 ; Isaiah i. 18 ; and also by Ctesias, Theophrastus, and Pliny. 

The domestic and useful animals and plants of the anterior monu- 
ments, again make their appearance at Benihassan ; figured too in the 
same peculiar varieties ; and, notwithstanding the lapse of time, addi- 
tional kinds are surprisingly few. I met with only the four following: 

Among the various species of ducks, a flock possibly of the domesti- 
cated bird. — Ducks, apparently, are swimming in artificial pools in 
a garden-plan of the time of the Seventeenth or Eighteenth Dy- 
nasty (Rosselini, II. PL 69); and tame ducks are mentioned by 
Aristophanes, Plautus, and Varro. 

Perhaps, the Indian bullock (Rosselini, Monum. Civil. PL 20). — 

* The astronomical observations procured at Babylon, and sent by Calisthenes to Aris- 
totle, went back to B. C. 2233 (Clinton, Fast. Helien. I. pp. 281 and 368). The Chi- 
nese are said to possess records of equal antiquity. 



18 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The same variety is figured on monuments of the Nineteenth Dynasty ; 
but always, I believe, as inhabiting the enemy's country. 

Albino rabbits (Lepus cuniculus), carried in cages, and perhaps re- 
garded as sacred ; (distinguished by the shorter ears from the hare, 
which is separately figured in the hunting scenes). — I met with no 
figures of the rabbit elsewhere on the monuments ; and in the time of 
Athenoeus (ix. 63), the animal was unknown in Egypt. The rabbit 
is mentioned by Polybius, Varro, and Poseidonius ; but it seems to 
belong properly to the West; and according to Leo Africanus, is indi- 
genous in Mauritania. 

And the cheeta, or hunting leopard (Felis jubata); led by a cord, 
and doubtless brought from Nubia. — The cheeta is again figured in 
the tribute-processions of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. 

As to the stag (Cervus elaphus) figured in the hunting scenes ; 
some of these may include the game of Northern climates; but Wil- 
kinson was assured, that stags are sometimes seen in the vicinity of 
the Natron Lakes (Anc. Egypt. III. p. 23). The tiger (Lepsius, II. 
PI. 131), was probably from the shores of the Caspian. 

The Nubian clubs figured at Benihassan (Champollion, PI. 395), 
were probably made of the material employed at the present day; 
said by my Dongola attendant to be " selem " wood. From Forskal's 
account of the Yemen usage, the "selem" would appear to be a species 
of Acacia, and perhaps the A. Nilotica. 

An Acacia tree is separately figured at Benihassan (Champollion, 
PL 353), probably the last named A. Nilotica, planted for the use of 
its timber in constructing river-barges. This is mentioned by Hero- 
dotus ; and is practised at the present day. I found the A. Nilotica, 
the most common tree around villages situated upon the margin of 
the Desert. 

The Cucurbitaceous plant figured at Benihassan (Champollion, PI. 
357), growing over a frame, and having oblong fruit and deeply lobed 
leaves, is perhaps the balsam-apple (Momordica balsamina). — The bal- 
sam-apple seems to be mentioned by Avicenna and Abd Allatif ; and 
was seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

The name of Sesurtesen III., the fifth king of the Twelfth Dynasty, 
has been found in the sanctuary of the temple at Semneh, above the 
Second Cataract ; also, in other parts of Nubia, and on the Kosser 
road ; together with the date of the sixth year of his reign. The 
adobe pyramid at Daschur, appears to be his tomb. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 19 

The name of Amenemha III. or Amenemha Moeris, the sixth king 
of the Twelfth Dynasty, has been found in the pyramid near the 
Labyrinth; the latest, apparently, of the Egyptian pyramids, "sixty- 
nine in number," and each of them constructed for a king's tomb. 
The name of Amenemha III. has also been found at Wadi Maghara : 
and he is considered to be the builder of the Labyrinth. 

The word " hbni," meaning ebony, has been traced by Lepsius in 
hieroglyphic writing as far back as the Twelfth Dynasty. The wood 
was doubtless brought down the Nile ; but may nevertheless have 
been derived, by the direct interior route, from the island of Mada- 
gascar. — Sticks of ebony are carried by Southern delegates in the 
tribute-processions of the Eighteenth Djmasty ; and Herodotus speaks 
of ebony being brought down the Nile. 

The Egyptian Ritual, or Book of the Dead (the most voluminous 
work in hieroglyphic writing hitherto discovered), has been traced by 
Birch, by means of extracts on coffins, as far back as the Twelfth 
Dynasty. 

The name of Amenemha IV., the seventh and last king of the 
Twelfth Dynasty, has been found on a stela, and on other movable 
articles now in the museums of Europe. 

The name of Sebeknefrura, the first king of the Thirteenth Dy- 
nasty, has been found among the ruins of the Labyrinth (Lepsius, II. 
PL 140). 

The name of King Sebekatep II. of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has 
been found on a large stela, now in Paris. 

The name of King Nefruatep, of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has been 
found on a statue, now in the Museum at Bologna. 

The name of King Sebekatep III. of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has 
been found among the ruins at Abydos. A colossal statue of this 
king, is now in the Museum at Paris. 

The name of King Sebekatep IV. of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has 
been found among the ruins at Abydos. 

The name of King Sebekatep V. of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has 
been found on a granite altar, procured at Abydos. 

Birch found " beer" mentioned on mummy-cases of the time of the 
Thirteenth Dynasty. It was probably the Egyptian beverage called 
booza ; which is manufactured from barley, as described by Herodotus 
ii. 77. — Alpinus states, that "farina loliacea" is used in making booza; 



20 CHKONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

and in all probability, the practice is not of recent origin. The Lolium 
perenne and L. temulentum were seen by Forskal and Delile, growing 
around the towns of Lower Egypt. 

The name of King Rakamai, of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has been 
found in one of the excavated chambers or tombs at Siut (Lepsius, II. 
PL 150). The soldiers figured in this tomb (Champollion, PI. 349) 
are all on foot, resemble those at Benihassan, and are armed with 
similar weapons. 

The name of King Sebekemsaf, of the Thirteenth Dynasty, has been 
found at Konosso, and at Hamamat on the Kosser road (Lepsius, II. 
PI. 151) : a coffin dated in his reign, is now in the Museum at Leyden. 

According to Birch, Sepulchral vases having the form of the four 
Genii of the dead, were first used during the Thirteenth Dynasty : and 
the usual formula relating to the doctrine of Transmigration, is in- 
scribed on the scarabseus of King Sebekemsaf, now in the Museum 
at London. 



About this time, Lower Egypt, in some unexpected manner, fell into 
the hands of the Hyksos. According to Manetho, These people came 
from the East, were of obscure or ignoble origin, and obtained posses- 
sion of the country without fighting. Manetho (or perhaps Josephus) 
alludes to an opinion held by some, that the Hyksos were Arabs : and 
the event is possibly connected with the introduction and substitution 
of the Arabic as the spoken language of Egypt. 

After establishing their authority, The Hyksos proceeded to maltreat 
the native population ; killing some, and reducing the wives and chil- 
dren of others to slavery ; also, demolishing the temples (a circum- 
stance indicating a different religion); and at length, they made one 
of their number king. Salatis, the first Hyksos king, set up military 
posts, and collected tribute or taxes throughout Upper and Lower 
Egypt : and Manetho further states, That Salatis directed especial 
attention to the northeastern frontier, and built there a stronghold or 
fortified city, from a jealousy of the rising power of the Assyrians. 

A triangular game of military conquest has been going on between 
Egypt, Asia Minor, and the East, perhaps from the commencement of 
monumental history; and still remains unsettled. The relative geogra- 
phical position will explain, Why the Persians did not move against 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 21 

Egypt before obtaining possession of Asia Minor; and, Why Alex- 
ander would not move against Persia without first securing Egypt. 
The very latest invader of Egypt had scarcely established himself 
at Cairo, before he adopted the Egyptian View, and shaped his 
measures accordingly (see Thiers, Hist. Revol. Francaise). 

The Hyksos kings were counted as an Egyptian Dynasty, and the 
names of some of them are given by Manetho ; but no building erected 
by their orders, has been identified. It further appears, that during 
the rule and oppression of the Hyksos or " Shepherds," the legitimate 
Egyptian kings maintained their line of succession, and perhaps, in 
Upper Egypt, some independence. 

The name of Sekennen-raken, an Egyptian king, apparently of the 
Fifteenth or Sixteenth Dynasty, has been found in one of the tombs at 
El Kab ; but not on a contemporaneous monument. 

According to Manetho, At the end of five hundred and eleven years, 
and after protracted wars, the Hyksos were expelled from the greater 
part of Egypt, and were hemmed up in the before-mentioned strong- 
hold on the Northeastern frontier. 

The Turin papyrus ends here, after enumerating some two hundred 
and fifty successive kings; among whom, Lepsius found sixty-five 
belonging to the Hyksos Period. — Seeming allusions or traditionary 
reminiscences of the Hyksos, occur in Genesis xlvi. and xlvii., and in 
Herodotus ii. 128. 

V. EGYPT UNDER THE PHARAOHS. 

The Egyptian king who recovered his authority, appears to have 
been Aahmes, the head of the Seventeenth Dynasty. According to 
Champollion-Figeac, the epitaph of one of his military officers con- 
tains an allusion to wars in Lower Egypt ; and inscriptions at Massara, 
dated in the twenty-second year of his reign, record the opening of 
quarries for the repair of temples at Memphis. A portrait of King 
Aahmes, has been found on a stela, now in the Museum at Mar- 
seilles. 

The rearing of temples, is not the only change that now takes place 
in Monumental History. Figures of gods are no longer rare ; but the 
sculptures teem with manifestations of idolatry and polytheism. Were, 
however, all other marks wanting, the Pharaonic structures might 
readily be recognised, 



22 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

By the figures of the horse. Sieges and military campaigns (con- 
ducted on foot) are occasionally represented on the anterior monu- 
ments ; but with the acquisition of the horse, a change appears to 
have taken place in the national character; and the Egj'ptians became 
a warlike and conquering people; leaving on their monuments, ample 
illustration of the so-called " Heroic Ages." 

The name of Amenatep, Aminadab or Amenophis, the second king 
of the Seventeenth Dynasty, has been found on various monuments 
(some of them, according to Champollion-Figeac, recording foreign 
wars) : his memory was held in veneration in after times ; and a 
statue of this king is now in the Museum at Turin. Amenatep built 
a portion of the temple at Karnak (De Rouge) ; and the queen asso- 
ciated with him on the monuments (Lepsius, III. PL 1), appears to 
have been of the Nubian or the proper Ethiopian race. 

A box for holding small sepulchral images, dated in this reign, is 
mentioned by Birch, as the earliest instance hitherto discovered of 
the custom of depositing these images. They are all inscribed with 
the same extract from the Ritual. 

According to Champollion-Figeac, Tetmes, the third king of the 
Seventeenth Dynasty, built the most ancient portion of the temple at 
Medinet Habu ; also, a cave-temple at Ibrim, in Nubia ; and a mag- 
nificent colossal statue of this king, is now in the Museum at Turin. 

Clusters of a red fruit, not unlike that of the lote tree (Zizyphus lotus), 
are figured in a tomb at El Kab. — This tree is usually considered to be 
the "loton" celebrated by Homer (Od. ix. 97) : and the modern Egyp- 
tians have a traditional assertion, that it bears " the finest of all 
known fruits." 

Crops of a brown-headed grain, pulled while the stems are green, 
in these respects resembling the millet (Echinochloa Italica), are 
figured in the same tomb; but the single terminal head, and in a 
second representation (in a royal tomb of the Nineteenth Dynasty) 
the superior height, agree better with Penrdsetum typhoideum ; espe- 
cially, as the latter plant has its spike always erect, and in some 
varieties ovoid. — The Pennisetum bears the same Egyptian name as 
the millet ; and hence arises a difficulty in tracing its history. It is, 
however, distinctly figured by Dodonaeus. 

Foreigners belonging to the "White Race, are represented in the state 
of servitude in the same tomb. 

Tetmes II., the fourth king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, maxle addi- 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 23 

tions to the temple at Medinet Habu ; and also erected buildings at 
Esneh, and at Semneh in Nubia. 

The practice of blackening the eyelids with " kohl" (a preparation 
said to be composed partly of antimony), seems to be figured on the 
monuments, at least as far back as the Seventeenth Dynasty. — The 
use of kohl, or eye-paint, is mentioned in 2 Kings ix. 30 ; and among 
Greek writers, by Ion and by Julius Pollux v. 16, 101. 

The plant figured in the Asasif, and on subsequent monuments 
(Lepsius, III. PI. 19 and 78), is perhaps, the white variety of the beet 
(Beta vulgaris). — The current Egyptian name of the beet is "selk;" 
and in this word, we recognise the "seytlon" or " teytlon" of Melan- 
thius, Aristophanes (Pac. 1008), Eudemus, and Athenceus ii. 57. 
The beet, under its Latin name, is mentioned by Plautus and Martial. 

The incense-burner is figured in the Asasif, and on subsequent 
monuments (Lepsius, III. PI. 19, 58, 71, and Champollion-Figeac, PI. 
86). — Frankincense is supposed to be the product of Boswellia thurifera, 
an indigenous tree of Hindostan. The " lbnh" of Leviticus ii. and xxiv., 
Numbers v. 15, Isaiah lx. 6, and Jeremiah vi. 20, may be compared 
with the " libanos" of Euripedes and Dioscorides, and with " luban," 
the current Egyptian name of olibanum or frankincense. 

According to Birch, the mummy-cases of the time of the Seventeenth 
Dynasty are usually of sycamore wood (Ficus sycomorus). — The mysti- 
cal sacred tree (which in some representations is clearly the sycamore) is 
figured at the commencement of the Eighteenth Dynasty; and also, a 
tank with trees, apparently sycamores, planted around (Lepsius, III. 
PI. 37 and 40). 

According to Lepsius, the Hyksos did not quit the Egyptian frontier 
until the commencement of the reign of Tetmes III. This would place 
the building of Jerusalem later than B. C. 1550 : for, according to 
Manetho, Jerusalem was built by the Hyksos ; and at the time of its 
foundation, the Assyrians ruled in Asia. 

Tetmes III. thus became the head of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The 
date of his thirty-fifth year has been discovered ; and his long and 
apparently peaceful reign is remarkable for the vast amount of build- 
ing. At Thebes, the temple in the Asasif was completed, and addi- 
tions were made at Karnak, and at Medinet Habu : in other parts of 
Egypt and in Nubia, temples were erected, continued, or commenced, 
at Esneh, El Kab, Edfu, Ombos, Elephantine, Amada, Eguisse, Sem- 
neh, Ibrim, and Wadi Haifa : two obelisks of some ninety feet in 
height, were placed at Karnak ; and other obelisks, in situations from 



24 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

which they have been removed (two having been carried to Alexan- 
dria, one to Constantinople, and one to Rome) : but above all, we 
are indebted to Tetmes III. for an important historical document, the 
Genealogical Table of the chamber of Karnak, now in the Museum at 
Paris. 

According to Champollion-Figeac, a manuscript, or papyrus, con- 
taining a contract dated in the fifth year of Tetmes III., is now in the 
Museum at Turin. 

In the Procession of foreign nations bearing tribute to Tetmes III., 
the head and neck of the domestic fowl (Champollion-Figeac, PI. 61) is 
brought in the prepared state as a curiosity. The inference is, that 
the living bird was unknown in Egypt; though in some distant land, 
in Hindostan or the region beyond, perhaps already the companion of 
man. The above is the only known figure of the domestic fowl on the 
Egyptian monuments ; and I do not find the bird mentioned in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, nor in Homer, Hesiod, nor in any writings more 
ancient than Theognis 862, the Batrachomyomachia, Epicharmus, 
and iEschylus. 

In the same Tribute-procession, the young elephant, being led by 
men of the White Race, could not have been procured on the Upper 
Nile ; in all probability, it is an Indian elephant, brought by land, by 
the Nabathean or a more northern route. The accompanying large 
tusks of the African elephant, may even have been derived from 
maritime intercourse between India and Equatorial Africa. — The hear 
led by the corresponding delegates in a later Tribute-procession, also 
indicates a Northern nation. 

The above two instances furnish unequivocal evidence of intercourse 
with India ; not so with the living exotic tree, carried by delegates 
who do not seem to belong to the White Race. This tree has a 
checkered receptacle (denoting Nubia and South Arabia), and in foli- 
age resembles the sycamore ; and also, the Salvadora Persica. — Pliny 
and other ancient writers, speak of the "persea" tree having been 
planted in Egypt by Perseus (a tradition which may have had its 
origin in this very painting) : and the account by Dioscorides of the 
"persea" and its medicinal use, agrees very well with the descrip- 
tion of the Salvadora by Forskal (p. 32). The^Salvadora was seen in 
Upper Egypt by Delile. 

The above exotic tree, notwithstanding the discrepance in the foliage, 
is by some writers referred to the Cordia myxa. It has also been asr 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 25 

serted, that some of the mummy-cases are made of this wood : a point 
on which I am unprepared to offer an opinion. — Birdlime is said to 
be procured from the Cordia myxa ; and according to some authorities, 
is mentioned in Amos iii. 5. 

Living plants in pots, perhaps the Crocus, are carried by a third 
set of delegates. These wear the simple cincture, denoting a warm 
climate ; but manifest a taste for the fine arts, and we are again 
reminded of Asiatic Greeks. — The Crocus is mentioned by Homer, and 
by Pliny xxi. 17 ; and several species of this flower are known to be 
indigenous in Greece. 

Strings of beads, apparently for rosaries or prayer-beads, are brought 
by delegates in this Tribute-procession. 

Baskets of a blue pigment resembling indigo, are figured in this 
Tribute-procession: possibly the "blue earth" known to be procured 
in mines in the Valley of the Euphrates. The question could pro- 
bably be settled by a chemical analysis of the ancient Egyptian pig- 
ments. 

According to Champollion-Figeac (Eg. Ana, p. 208), rings of silver 
are figured in this Tribute-procession. — Silver is mentioned in the 
Books of Moses, and by Homer ; and the mummy recently unrolled at 
London (of the time of perhaps the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty), "con- 
tained a silver plate." 

According to Champollion-Figeac, Amenatep II., the second king 
of the Eighteenth Dynasty, continued the temples at Karnac and in 
Nubia, and erected new ones at Bigeh and Kalabsheh. His name has 
been discovered in a cave-temple at Ibrim ; also, at Sarbut-el-Khadem, 
in the Sinai Peninsula : and a colossal statue of this king is now in 
the Museum at Turin. 

Tetmes IV., the third king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, completed 
the temple at Amada ; made additions to those at Wadi Haifa and 
Thebes ; and set up obelisks (one of which is now at Rome). An in- 
scription at Philae, dated in the seventh year of his reign, records a 
victory over the Lybians : and a stela, also dated in his reign, was 
found in front of the Great Sphinx at Gizeh (Lepsius, III. PI. 68). 

Branches of myrtle (Myrtus communis) carried by females, are 
figured on monuments of about this period (Rosselini, II. 99). — The 
myrtle is clearly a Tropical plant, introduced into the Mediterranean 
countries : Pliny speaks of it as a stranger to Italy ; mentioning, however, 
the recorded fact, That a stock was found growing on the site selected 



26 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

for the building of Rome. Both Theophrastus and Pliny notice the 
presence of the myrtle in Egypt : where it is still common in gardens. 

The fruit tree figured in one of the tombs at Gurna (Rosselini, II. 
PI. 68), is possibly intended for the pear (Pyrus communis). — The 
pear is noticed by Homer and by Virgil ; and according to Forskal and 
others, is cultivated in Lower Egypt at the present day. 

The tall ornamental tree, figured in garden plans at Gurna (Cham- 
pollion, PL 174, and Rosselini, II. PI. 68), is possibly intended for the 
poplar (Populus nigra). — Various ancient writers mention the poplar; 
and the tree was seen by Forskal and others in the gardens of Lower 
Egypt. 

According to Champollion, Amenatep III., the fourth king of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty, opened the quarries at Silsilis; and from this 
time, sandstone became the favourite building material. The two 
colossi so conspicuous, still sitting on the plain at Thebes, are statues 
of this king; but the immense temple once behind them, has been de- 
stroyed to the foundations, which are now traced with difficulty. 
Amenatep III. built the great temple at Luxor ; and smaller temples 
at Elephantine, and at Soleb in Upper Nubia ; he also set up obelisks ; 
carried on wars in foreign countries ; and the names of some sixty 
tribes conquered by him, are recorded on the monuments, together 
with the date of the thirty-sixth year of his reign. 

The flower of the Nelumbium does not occur on the Egyptian monu- 
ments ; but there is less certainty in regard to the fruit. I repeatedly 
met with figures resembling this fruit ; as, for instance, the emblem 
designating Asiatic prisoners. — Herodotus distinctly describes the 
Nelumbium, and saw the plant growing in Egypt ; where it appears 
afterwards to have become extinct, and to have been only recently 
re-introduced. 

According to Lepsius, Amenatep IV., the fifth king of the Eighteenth 
Dynasty, introduced a foreign religion into Egypt : a portrait of this 
king occurs in the sculptures at Amarna. 

Her, or Horus, the sixth king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, re-esta- 
blished the ancient religion. He also made additions to the temples at 
Luxor and in the Asasif ; constructed cave-temples at Gebel Addah 
in Nubia, and at Silsilis ; and the date of the seventh year of his 
reign has been found on the monuments. Champoliron-Figeac de- 
scribes some finely executed statues of this king, now in the Museum 
at Turin. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 27 

Birch met with a mummy possibly belonging to this reign ; and 
ascertained, that the dead were provided with funeral papyri (doubt- 
less, as in later times, inscribed with portions of the Egyptian Ritual). 
Bodies of this early period are rare ; but I saw at Thebes an un- 
opened inner mummy-case, highly finished, and in the style of work- 
manship of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. 

De Rouge met with a sort of secret or cipher writing upon two stela 
of the time of the "Eighteenth Dynasty :" and Champollion remarked 
something of the same kind in the ro} 7 al tombs at Bab-el-Meluk. — 
The art of writing in cipher, or in occult characters, is known to have 
been long practised in the East ; and seems to be mentioned by 
Homer, II. vi. 168. 

The reign of Ramses, the head of the Nineteenth Dynasty, was 
evidently brief; the date of only his second year being found on the 
monuments. He completed some of the columns at Luxor ; set up 
a large stela at Wadi Haifa in Nubia ; and his unfinished tomb has 
been discovered in the Royal cemetery at Bab-el-Meluk. 

Meneptha Sethos, the second king of the Nineteenth Dynasty, made 
additions to the temple at Karnak ; commenced the temple at Gurna; 
and set up obelisks (one of which is now at Rome). His name has 
been found on other monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia ; on 
the cave-temple near Benihassan ; at Wadi-el-Moyeh, in the Desert of 
the Thebaid towards the Red Sea ; at Sarbut-el-Khadem ; at Elephan- 
tine ; and at Silsilis, on an excavated chapel bearing the elate of the 
twenty-second year of his reign. 

The completion of the Egyptian Cycle of time or Great Year, in 
B. C. 1413, appears to have taken place under this king. The subject 
will be again noticed ; with ancient computations in which this date 
falls in the " fifth year of Concharis ;"* in verification of a statement, 
derived in all probability by Syncellus from Manetho. 

Meneptha Sethos carried on foreign wars : and among the records 
of his conquests on the temple at Karnac, the scene containing tufts 
of fern and a forest of fir-trees (Abies picea) could not have been 
x nearer than Lebanon (Rosselini, I. PL 46). The tall flag-staffs placed 
on the Pharaonic temples, were doubtless trunks of fir or pine, im- 
ported by sea, and probably from Syria. 

The plant in the hands of an Asiatic captive at Gurna (Champol- 

* The three Acencheres hold the same position in Manetho's list, as Meneptha Sethos 
does on the monuments. 



28 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

lion, PL 167), may be compared with the lucerne (Medicago sativa). — = 
Pliny states, that the "medica" or lucerne, was "brought from Media 
into Greece during the wars of Darius :" the plant is also noticed by 
Aristotle, Theophrastus viii. 8, and Virgil ; and was seen in Egypt by 
Clot-Bey and Figari, cultivated for feeding cattle. 

On the walls of the tomb of Meneptha Sethos, the people of the 
North (Champollion-Figeac, PL 1) have black nut-gall markings on the 
skin. I found this custom still extant in Yemen, the material being 
doubtless derived from the oaks of Syria and the country around the 
sources of the Euphrates. — The oak (Quercus) is mentioned in the 
Books of Moses ; and is said to be indigenous as far south as Pales- 
tine : trees have been planted even at Thebes, as appears from Theo- 
phrastus ; but the grove had become extinct in the time of Pliny ; 
and oaks are now so rare in Egypt, that I met with them only in 
the Botanic Garden at Cairo. 

In the original painting in the tomb, there is an appearance of fur, 
or perhaps of downy feathers, upon the cloaks of these people of the 
North. 

This tomb was opened by Belzoni, and among the movable articles 
found therein, were wooden statues coated with bitumen : mentioned 
by Birch, as the earliest evidence hitherto discovered of the use of 
bitumen in embalming. This material is supposed to have been brought 
by land from the valley of the Euphrates. 

Ramses II., the third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty, conducted 
military campaigns both in Asia and on the Upper Nile. His con- 
structions are more numerous than those of any other king, and are 
scattered all over Egypt and Nubia : but notwithstanding the vast 
size and costliness of many of them, a Decline of the Arts is manifest; 
strikingly parallel to that which took place at a later period of the 
World's history under the Romans. 

Ramses II. has left several important historical documents; and 
especially, the Genealogical Tablet at Abydos. His campaigns are 
narrated in a poetical form in the Sallier Papyrus. His name has 
been found as far up the Nile as Barkal, in Dongola ; and the date of 
the sixty-second year of his reign is inscribed on a stela, now in the 
Museum at Florence. A finely executed portrait of this king in 
polished syenite, is in the possession of Mr. Francis C. Lowell, of 
Boston. 

A remark of Manetho respecting names, deserves notice in this 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 29 

place : for if Egypt derived its Oriental name of Mussera from Ramessu 
or Ramses, this will limit the antiquity both of the Mizraim of the 
Hebrews, and of the Ernies or Hermes of the Greeks. 

Smiths working iron, are represented on the monuments (Rosselini, 
II. PL 50) : and I found the triangular bow figured on the Rames- 
seum, or the great temple built by Ramses II. at Thebes. — The 
triangular bow is again figured on the temple at Medinet-Habu : and 
according to our English Version, metallic bows are mentioned in 
Job xx. 24, and in 2 Samuel xxii. 35. Iron, according to Gesenius, 
is mentioned in Genesis iv. 22, Deuteronomy xxvii. 5, Psalm cv. 18, 
Isaiah xlviii. 4, and in other portions of the Hebrew Scriptures. 
Hesiod (Op. and Di. 151) refers to a traditional period when the use 
of iron was unknown. 

The plant figured in the great cave-temple at Abu Simbel (Cham- 
pollion, PI. 5), and also on other monuments (Rosselini, III. PL 5, 
I. PL 19, and Champollion, PL 273), is perhaps the scammony, Convol- 
vulus scammonia. — The drug scammony is mentioned by Antiphanes, 
Theophrastus, Gato, and Athenseus ; and the living C. scammonia was 
seen by Sibthorp in Rhodes, and by Hasselquist at Damietta. The 
C. Siculus, which in some respects agrees better with the above figures, 
was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The hieroglyphic word "sschin" (Champollion, Diet. 392), may be 
compared with the "shshn" of 1 Kings vii. 19, 2 Chronicles iv. 5, 
Solomon's Song, and Hosea xiv. 18, and with "susann" the current 
Egyptian name of Pancratium Illyricum. — This plant was seen by 
Forskal (p. 209) in gardens at Alexandria : and the P. maritimum, 
usually regarded as a distinct species, was found indigenous in that 
vicinity by Delile. 

The hieroglyphic word "tat" (Salvolini) may be compared with 
" tut," the current Egyptian name of the black mulberry (Morus 
nigra). — The "moron" of JEschylus (in Phrygibus) is referred by 
Athenaaus to the "sykaminos" of Eubulus, Amphis, Theophrastus, 
Pythermus, and Hegesander, admitted to be the M. nigra. This tree 
was seen by Bory de St. Vincent, cultivated in Greece ; and by Forskal 
and others, in the gardens of Egypt. 

The name of Meneptha II., the fourth king of the Nineteenth Dy- 
nasty, has been found in various parts of Egypt ; at Silsilis ; at San, 
or Zoan ; on some of the temples at Thebes ; and in his own tomb at 
Bab-el-Meluk. I met with this king's name in an excavated chamber 



30 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

or tomb about three miles above Girgeh and eastward of the Nile ; 
near some mounds of rubbish that mark the site of an ancient city, 
possibly of the lost Lepidotum. 

The tomb of Meneptha III., the fifth and last king of the Nine- 
teenth Dynasty, has been found at Bab-el- Meluk ; and his name 
occurs also on some of the temples at Thebes. 

The reign of Merrira, the first king of the Twentieth Dynasty, 
appears to have been brief. He is chiefly known from having appro- 
priated the tomb of one of his ancestors at Bab-el-Meluk : but according 
to Gliddon, his name occurs also in the Queens Valley at Thebes, and 
on a column now in the Museum at London. 

Kamses III., the second king of the Twentieth Dynasty, built the 
great hall of the temple at Medinet-Habu : but notwithstanding its 
vast dimensions, the walls barely afford room to record his battles. 
In one of them, the number of the enemy left dead upon the field, 
is set down at twelve thousand five hundred and thirty-five. And 
nations not previously figured, now make their appearance. 

A naval combat is also represented ; and from Manetho and the 
statement of the Theban priests to Germanicus (Tacitus ii. 60), the two 
foreign nations fighting the Egyptians should be the Phoenicians and 
the Greeks of Cyprus. The timber of at least the foreign vessels, 
was doubtless procured in Syria, Asia Minor, or European Greece. 

In another part of the temple at Medinet-Habu, Ramses III. is re- 
presented playing games, like draughts or chequers, with his daughters. 
According to Manetho (Josephus, C. Apion i. 15), this king or his 
brother, would seem to be the Danaus of the Greeks. 

I did not find the pigeon distinctly represented on the Egyptian 
monuments : the figure at Medinet-Habu bears little outward resem- 
blance, but from some attendant circumstances is referred by Wilkinson 
to the carrier pigeon. — The common domestic pigeon is mentioned by 
Homer and Herodotus ; and carrier pigeons, by Pherecrates, Athengeus, 
and the Pseudo-Anacreon. 

Ornamental wood-work appears to have been carried to great per- 
fection at Thebes during the reign of Ramses III. Cushioned chairs 
are figured in his tomb ; together with other cabinet furniture, richly 
carved, and presenting some unexpected coincidences with the most 
approved patterns of the present day. 

The Cucurbitaceous plant figured in this tomb, having serrated cor- 
date leaves, but devoid of fruit, is perhaps the gourd (Lagenaria). — 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS 31 

A similar figure occurs in the tomb of a later king of this dynasty. 
The gourd is distinctly mentioned by Aristophanes, Theophrastus, 
Cato and Pliny ; is figured by Matthioli ; and is cultivated in Egypt 
and in the other Mediterranean countries at the present day. 

A portrait of Ramses IV., the third king of the Twentieth Dynasty, 
has been found on the walls of the temple at Karnak. His name 
occurs also in his tomb at Bab-el- Meluk ; on the temples at Medinet- 
Habu, and Elephantine ; and on various movable articles, now in the 
museums of Europe. 

The name of Ramses V., the fourth king of the Twentieth Djmasty, 
has been found in his tomb at Bab-el-Meluk ; also, on the temples at 
Karnak and Medinet-Habu ; on an ^obelisk ; on a stela, at Sarbut-el- 
Khadem in the Sinai Peninsula; and on movable articles, now in 
the museums of Europe. 

The tomb of Ramses VI., the fifth king of the Twentieth Dynasty, 
has been found at Bab-el-Meluk ; and his name is inscribed in the 
order of succession upon the temple at Medinet-Habu. 

The name of Ramses VII., the sixth king of the Twentieth Dynasty, 
is inscribed in the order of succession at Medinet-Habu ; and a tomb 
supposed to be that of this king, has been found at Bab-el-Meluk. 



About this time, other nations begin to furnish historical records. 
Some of the remains at Nineveh, and also in Greece and Italy, are 
probably as ancient as the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty, but none 
have been traced with certainty so far back. Notwithstanding the 
variety of sculptures and inscriptions, and the paintings on the ancient 
pottery, it is surprising how little aid in our immediate inquiry can be 
obtained from the monumental history of Greece and Nineveh. 

Our principal dependence henceforward, is on transmitted writings, 
or written history : for we have arrived at the lifetime of individuals 
whose words are extant; and eye-witnesses are accessible in all suc- 
ceeding generations down to the present day. 

The " bdlh" of Genesis ii. 12, and Numbers xi. 7, is referred by 
Josephus and others to the " bdellion." — Pliny speaks of the " bdel- 
lium" as the gum of a Bactrian tree, and likewise distinguishes " bdel- 
lium Indicum." Bdellium is an aromatic gum, said to be the product 
of Amyris commiphora, an indigenous tree of Hindostan. 



32 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The " slvyh" of Genesis ii. 5 and xxi. 15, and Job xxx. 4 and 7 
may be compared with the " schea" of Haly Abbas and Avicenna, and 
with "shyeh," the current Egyptian name of the Artemisia Judaica. — 
This is an indigenous plant of the Desert of Suez and Palestine ; but, 
according to Delile, is collected and sold for medicinal purposes at 
Cairo. 

The " kwtz" of Genesis iii. 18, Isaiah xxxii. 13, and Jeremiah iv. 3, 
may be compared with " kus," the current Egyptian name (according 
to Forskal) of Senecio Arabians. — This plant was found by Forskal 
and Delile, growing as a weed at Cairo. The S. vulgaris was also seen 
by Delile at Damietta. 

The " drdr" of Genesis iii. 18, and Hosea x. 8, may be compared 
with " tartir," the current Egyptian name of one or more Salsolaceous 
plants ; incuding the Salsola articulata, and (according to Delile) the 
Suceda hortensis. — The first of these is confined to the Desert ; but the 
latter, according to Forskal, becomes a weed in the gardens of Cairo 
and Yemen. 

The " zyt" of Genesis viii. 11, Exodus xxvii. 20, Leviticus xxiv. 2, 
Judges ix. 9, and Micah vi. 15, maybe compared with "zeytoon," the 
current Egyptian name of the olive (Olea Europea). — The " elaia" or 
olive, is mentioned by Homer : but in the time of Tarquinius Priscus 
(according to Fenestella), was unknown in Italy, Spain, or Barbary. 
Pliny speaks of trees growing around the Egyptian Thebes. 

The " gml" of Genesis xii. 16 and xxxvii. 25, Leviticus xi. 4, Deute- 
ronomy xiv. 7, Judges vii. 12 and viii. 26, 1 Kings x. 2, and Job. i. 3, 
is admitted to be the " djemmel" of modern Egypt, or the camel 
(Camelus dromas) . — The camel is figured at Nineveh, and on the Him- 
yaritic monuments of Yemen ; but not on the Egyptian monuments. 
This exclusion may have been through design ; for the Egyptians 
during some centuries appear to have prevented the diffusion of the 
camel in the West. Herodotus speaks of the camel only as inhabiting 
the East ; and in the time of the Eomans, the animal was so rare in 
Numidia as to be only once mentioned (Cassar, Bell. Afr. 68). Its final 
introduction, carrying population into districts previously uninhabi- 
table, must have produced a revolution in society throughout North 
Africa. 

The " oadsh" of Genesis xxv. 34, 2 Samuel xvii. 28 and xxiii. 11, 
and Ezekiel iv. 9, may be compared with "a'ds,"the current Egyptian 
name of the lentil (Ervum lens) . — Lentil pottage, conspicuous from its 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 33 

" red" colour, continues to be a favourite article of diet with the Egyp- 
tians. 

The " dgn" of Genesis xxvii. 28, Numbers xviii. 27, Deuteronomy 
xxviii. 51, Lamentations ii. 12, and the " d'hn" of Ezekiel iv. 9, may 
be compared with " dokhn," the current Egyptian name of the Pen- 
nisetum (already mentioned), and also of the millet (Echinochloa 
Italica) . — The " kegchros" is mentioned in the Hesiodic Poems, and 
Herodotus speaks of its being cultivated both at Babylon and on the 
Borysthenes ; a geographical range corresponding with that of the 
millet. I frequently met with fields of millet, both in Upper and 
Lower Egypt. 

The "lwz" of Genesis xxx. 37, may be compared with "louz," the 
current Egyptian name of the almond (Amygdalus communis). — The 
almond is mentioned under its current Greek name by Ctesias, Xeno- 
phon, and other ancient writers. 

The "lbnh" of Genesis xxx. 37, and Solomon's Song iv. 6 and 14, 
may be compared with the " libanotis" of Theophrastus and Dios- 
corides, admitted to be the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). — This 
shrub grows to a large size, and is a favourite in the gardens of Egypt. 

It should be observed, however, that in the Somali country the term 
"lubanum" is applied to all gum-like articles of commerce : and that 
in Hosea iv. 13, the "lbnh" appears to be a tree. According to the 
Septuagint and Arabic Versions, the " lbnh" of Genesis xxx. 37, is the 
Sty rax officinalis; an indigenous tree, not to be found in irrigated 
gardens, though perhaps within reach on the neighbouring mountains. 
— The " styraka" of Herodotus iii. 107, and Pliny xii. 55, according to 
the received opinion and Greek usage, is gum storax (the product of 
S. officinalis) : the living tree has been seen by Sibthorp and others, 
on the mountains of Syria, Cyprus, and Greece. 

The " tzry" of Genesis xxxvii. 25 and xliii. 11, Jeremiah viii. 22, 
and Ezekiel xxvii. 17, may be compared with " oschar," the current 
Egyptian name of the Asclepias procera (Calotropis) . — A sugar-like sub- 
stance is obtained from this plant in Persia (according to Serapion, 
De temp, simplic. 50, and Ange de Saint-Joseph, as quoted by Delile) . 
I met with the plant in the Desert of the Thebaid ; and though un- 
known in Lower Egypt, it reappears (according to Hasselquist and 
Lynch) in the region around the Dead Sea. 

The "br" of Genesis xli. 35 and 49, Psalm lxv. 13, Proverbs xi. 26, 
Joel ii. 24, and Amos v. 11, may be compared with the "pyros" of 



34 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Homer, with the Latin "far," and with "burr," the current name in 
Yemen (according to Forskal) of one of the kinds of Triticum. — 
Herodotus states, that the presents sent by the Hyperboreans to Delos 
were wrapped in the straw of the " pyros :" and by some writers, the 
Latin "far" is referred to the spelt (Triticum spelta). Belon appears 
to be the only modern traveller who has seen spelt in Egypt. 

The " btnm" of Genesis xliii. 11, may be compared with " botm," the 
current Egyptian name of the imported berries of the terebinth (Pis- 
tacia tere bin thus). — The " terebinthos" of Xenophon (Anab. iv. 4,7), 
and Josephus (Bell. Jud. iv. 9, 7), is admitted to be the terebinth : a 
tree well known at the present day in Syria and Greece. Belon 
mentions a tradition, that the Persians lived on its berries before 
becoming acquainted with bread. 

The "seneh" of Exodus iii. 2, 3, 4, and Deuteronomy xxxiii. 16, is 
by some writers referred to the " sena" of the modern Egyptians : and 
the geographical range corresponds with that of the " sena gebely" or 
Cassia obovata. — I found this plant growing in the Desert at the head 
of the Red Sea ; and Forskal met with it, also in the Desert near Cairo. 

According to the Septuagint Version, the biting fly (Stomoxys) is 
mentioned in Exodus viii. 21, and Psalm lxxviii. 45. — The insect 
resembles, and is often mistaken for the house-fly ; but is separately and 
distinctly mentioned by Homer (II. xxi. 294), Philon Judseus (De vita 
Mosis ii.), and Tertullian (Adv. Marcion. i. 14). 

The " mrrym" of Exodus xii. 8, may be compared with " murreyr," 
the current Egyptian name (according to Delile) of Picris altissima. 
— The Septuagint Version agrees; as appears from the Greek name 
taken in connexion with Sibthorp's account of a species of Picris eaten 
in Greece. 

Hermas iii. 9, 20, refers the " mrrym" of Exodus to the Centaurea 
calcitrapa. — A plant distinctly characterized by Theophrastus vi. 5; 
and abundant in Lower Egypt, where it likewise bears the name of 
" murreyr." 

The " azwb" of Exodus xii. 22, Leviticus xiv., and Psalm li. 9, 
may be compared with the " yssopos" of Theophrastus, and with 
"yssopo," the current Greek name of Satureja Juliana. — This plant is 
indigenous in Greece : and two kinds, the wild and the cultivated, are 
mentioned by Theophrastus. Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the 
importation of " hyssopus" into Egypt from Palestine. 

The "mr" of Exodus xxx. 23, Psalm xlv. 8, Proverbs vii. 17, and 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 35 

Solomon's Song v. 5, is admitted to be the " mur" of Modern Egypt, 
our well-known myrrh. — Herodotus ii. 40, speaks of " Smyrna" or 
myrrh : and the tree which produces it, appears to have been known 
to Theophrastus. The Somali country is the principal source of the 
myrrh of commerce ; but I learned at Mocha, that a portion is really 
produced in Yemen. 

The "knmwn" of Exodus xxx. 23, Proverbs vii. 17, and Solomon's 
Song iv. 14, is admitted to be cinnamon. And the etymology of the 
name (as already stated) implies intercourse with China; or at least, 
with the Indo-Chinese countries. — "Kinnamomon" or cinnamon, is 
mentioned by Herodotus iii. Ill, and by other Greek writers. 

The " kdh" of Exodus xxx. 24, and Ezekiel xxvii. 19, maybe com- 
pared with " kadi," the current name in India and Yemen (according 
to Rheede and Forskal) of the Pandanus odoratissimus. — A fragrant oil 
prepared with this plant, is mentioned by Rhazes, Serapion, and Ibn 
Baitar. 

The " hlbnh" of Exodus xxx. 34, is usually referred to the " chal- 
bane" of Theophrastus ix. 7, Celsus, and Dioscorides, or our modern 
galbanum. — Theophrastus and Pliny speak of the "chalbane" as the 
product of a Syrian ferulaceous plant : and according to Forskal (Mat. 
Med.), gum galbanum is imported into Egypt from Persia. 

According to Beckmann, lead is mentioned in Numbers xxxi. 22. — 
And also by Herodotus iii. 56, and other ancient writers. 

The name of Ramses VIII., the seventh king of the Twentieth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments ; together with 
the date of the third year of his reign. 

Ramses IX., the eighth king of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty, 
founded the temple of Khons at Thebes. His name also occurs on 
other temples ; and in his own tomb at Bab-el-Meluk ; together with 
the date of the sixth year of his reign. 

Cadmus lived " about one hundred and thirty years before the fall 
of Troy" (Castor, Eusebius, and Clinton i. p. 86) ; and according to the 
belief of Sophocles, Herodotus, Aristotle, and ancient writers gene- 
rally, he introduced the alphabet from Phoenicia into Greece. 

The name of Ramses X., the ninth king of the Twentieth Egyptian 
Dynasty, has been found in his tomb at Bab-el-Meluk ; and on other 
monuments ; together with the date of the seventeenth year of his 
reign. 

The name of Ramses XI., the tenth king of the Twentieth Egyptian 



36 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Dynasty, has been found in his tomb at Bab-el-Meluk ; and on other 
monuments ; together with the date of the second year of his reign. 

The name of Ramses XII., the eleventh king of the IVentieth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found in his tomb at Bab-el-Meluk : a 
great religious procession, which took place during his reign, is repre- 
sented at Gurna. 

From the etymology, it has been conjectured, that Jephthah's 
daughter became the Iphigeneia of the Greeks. Homer, it is worthy 
of remark, is silent respecting Iphigeneia. 

The name of Ramses XIII., the twelfth king of the Twentieth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found in his tomb at Bab-el-Meluk. 

The inscriptions on the Tripods of Amphitryon and Laodamas, seen 
and copied by Herodotus v. 59 and 61, were in the "Cadmean Letters," 
and in pure alphabetic writing. 

The same inscriptions are perhaps the most ancient specimens of 
Greek literature, at present known. — Homer speaks of hymns to the 
gods, recited during the Trojan war ; and gives the name of one of 
the poets who preceded him, Thamyris (II. i. 472 and ii. 594). 

Hercules is regarded by Homer and Clinton (i. p. 78) as a real 
historical personage ; a military chieftain, who wore armour, led an 
army, and who died " twenty-six years before the fall of Troy." 

The lioney-bee (Apis), is mentioned in the history of Samson (Judges 
xiv.) — And among Greek writers, by Homer and Hesiod. 

The end of the Trojan war is placed by Callimachus in B. C. 1127 
(Clinton i. p. 140) : and Manetho identifies the Pharaoh of the Odys- 
sey with King Thuoris. If in the Africano-Manetho Table of chro- 
nology, Ave count downwards from the "fifth year of Concharis" or 
Acherres (the completion of the cycle), the above date will fall in the 
first year of King Thuoris. If, however, we count from the same 
point in Josephus, the last year of King Thuoris will fall in B. C. 1072; 
and the difference, will be 55 years 10 months.* 

* This difference or uncertainty of 56 years or fourteen olympiads, often makes its 
appearance in the chronological computations of the Greeks. According to Africanus, The 
first registered olympiad (B. C. 77G) was the Fourteenth : and we find the difference of 
fourteen full olympiads, in the Olympiad of Iphitus, placed by Callimachus and Africanus 
in B. C. 828, and by Eratosthenes in B. C. 884; and in the Fall of Troy, placed by Callima- 
chus and Africanus in B. C. 1127, and by Eratosthenes in B. C. 1183. Phanias of Eresus 
omitted " fifty-five years" between the Beturn of the Heraclidae and the registered 
Olympiads (Clinton i. p. 128 and 139) ; and we find the latter interval, between B. C. 
1257, the date assigned by Callimachus to Cadmus, and B. C. 1312, given by Hales as 
the current Jewish date of the Exodus. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 37 

Some similarity in names may be remarked, between Thuoris, 
called Proteus by Homer and Herodotus, and Peher Sesamen, the 
fifth king of the Twenty-First Egyptian Dynasty. The name and 
portrait of Peher Sesamen have been found on the temple of Khons 
at Thebes ; together with evidence, that he was by profession a priest. 

The "rwsh" of Deuteronomy xxxii. 32, and the "rash" of Deu- 
teronomy xxix. 18, Psalm lxix. 27, Amos vi. 12, Hosea x. 4, Job xx. 
16, Jeremiah ix. 15, and Lamentations iii. 19, may be compared with 
the "mekon roias" of Theophrastus ; usually referred to the field- 
poppy (Papaver rhseas.) — This species, together with the P. hybridum, 
were seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing 
spontaneously around Alexandria. 

The "lonh" of Deuteronomy xxix. 18, Proverbs v. 4, Amos v. 7, 
Jeremiah ix. 15, and Lamentations iii. 19, may be compared with the 
" balin" of Xanthus and Pliny xxv. 5, and with " beloni," the current 
Greek name of the Caucalis daucoides. The frequent association of 
the " lonh " and " rash," suggests the " koneion " of the Ancient Greeks ; 
a poison known to have been composed partly of poppy juice. — 
According to Delile, the C. daucoides was received from Egypt by 
Reichard. 

The "khwkh" of the history of Saul (1 Samuel xiii. 6), and of 
Proverbs xxvi. 9, Solomon's Song ii. 2, Isaiah xxxiv. 13, and Job 
xxxi. 40, may be compared with "chouk," given by Delile as the 
current Egyptian name of several thorny plants, including the Cir- 
sium, Syriacum. — This thistle, according to Sibthorp, abounds in the 
Grecian Archipelago and in Cyprus. 

The flea (Pulex), according to the received opinion, is mentioned 
in the history of Saul (1 Samuel xxiv. 14). — Among Greek writers, 
the flea is distinctly noticed by Aristophanes (Nub. 145 and 831). 

The name of Pianch, the sixth king of the Twenty-First Egyptian 
Dynasty, and also a priest, has been found on the monuments by 
Lepsius. 

The "pwl" of the history of David (2 Samuel xvii. 28), and of 
Ezekiel iv. 9, may be compared with the "fabula" of Plautus, and 
with " fool," the current Egyptian name of the bean (Vicia faba) . — 
At the present day, this plant is one of the principal objects of culti- 
vation in Egypt ; for the sake of both the seeds and stems. 

The "rtm" of Psalm cxx. 4, and of the history of Elijah (1 Kings 
xix. 4), is admitted to be the "raetsem" of the modern Egyptians, 



38 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Spartium monospermum. — This is an indigenous plant of the Desert 
of Suez and the Sinai Peninsula; where the charcoal obtained from it, 
forms an article of traffic with Egypt. 

The name of Pischam Miamn II., the seventh and last king of the 
Twenty-First Egyptian Dynasty, and also a priest, has been found on 
the temple of Khons at Thebes. 

The manufacture of leather, has been traced in mummies as far back 
as the Twenty-First Dynasty, by means of the stamped leather bands, 
mentioned by Birch. — Similar bands, of morocco leather, stamped 
with the name of a king of the Twenty-Second Dynasty, were found 
in the mummy recently opened at Boston. I procured at Thebes, 
pegged morocco shoes, taken from mummies and penetrated with bitu- 
men ; together with part of a sash of soft leather, having the margin 
cut, as if by machinery, into lace-like fringe. 

In reference to the " almug trees" brought in the ships of Solomon 
(1 Kings x. 12, and 2 Chronicles ix. 11); I ascertained, that the joists 
used at Mocha for supporting the floors' and flat roofs, are imported 
ready-hewn from Zanzibar. 

The "twkyym" imported in the ships of Solomon (1 Kings x. 22, 
and 2 Chronicles ix. 21), are referred by Hieronymus, and by Syriac 
and Hebrew authorities, to the p>eacoch. This bird, in its wild state, is 
known to be peculiar to Hindostan : and I am informed by Mr. 
Hoisington, that the name " twkyym" belongs to the Tamil language. 
— Among Greek writers, the peacock is mentioned by Eupolis, Aris- 
tophanes, Strattis, Anaxilaus, Menodotus, and Athenaeus. 

The "ktzyowt" of Psalm xlv. 8, may be compared with "keschut;" 
given by Forskal (Mat. Med.) as the current Egyptian name of certain 
seeds, imported from Syria and used as a cosmetic, especially by the 
Jews. — The plant, however, remains unascertained. 

The "bshm" of Solomon's Song v. 13 and vi. 2, may be compared 
with " abuscham," the current name in Yemen of the balm-tree (Amyris 
opobalsamum) . — Josephus mentions a tradition, That the balm-tree 
was introduced into Palestine by the Queen of Sheba ; and Strabo's 
account of its place of origin corresponds. After the time of the 
Romans, the balm-tree disappeared from the valley of the Jordan ; 
but " living plants brought at great expense from Yemen," were seen 
by Belon in a garden near Cairo. The re-introduction proved unsuc- 
cessful ; for, thirty-one years later, the stocks could not be found by 
Alpinus. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 39 

The " hdk" of Proverbs xv. 19, and Micah vii. 4, may be compared 
with "hadak," the current name in Yemen of the Solanum corda- 
tum. — This species has not been observed further north ; but the 
allied S. coagulans was seen by Delile at Syene. According to Fors- 
kal, The property of coagulating milk is common to all plants of this 
genus. 

The "hrwl" of Proverbs xxiv. 31, Job xxx. 7, and Zephaniah ii. 9, 
may be compared with " karilli," the current Egyptian name of the 
Sinapis Alllonii. — This is a species of wild mustard, observed by Delile 
growing among the flax crops of Egypt. 

The "kmsn" or "kymwsh" of Proverbs xxiv. 31, Hosea ix. Q, and 
Isaiah xxxiv. 13, may be compared with "hemsis," given by Forskal 
(p. 77) as the current Egyptian name of a species of sorrel (Rumex 
roseus). — The R. roseus, according to Sibthorp, is also found in Cyprus. 

The "tpwh" of Proverbs xxv. 11, Solomon's Song ii. 3, and Joel i. 
12, may be compared with " tiffah," the current Egyptian name of the 
apple (Pyrus malus). — The apple is noticed by Sappho, Theocritus 
xi. 39, Cato, Tibullus v. 31, and in the Copa : at the present day, 
the tree is very generally cultivated in the Arab countries, notwith- 
standing the inferior quality of the fruit. 

The house-fly (Musca domestica), is mentioned in Ecclesiastes x. 1. 
— And also by Homer, and other Greek writers. 

The " krkm" of Solomon's Song iv. 14, is referred by Gesenius to 
the turmeric (Curcuma longa) ; and according to Graham, The name 
" kurcum" is sometimes given to turmeric at Bombay. — The " Indian 
kyperos" of Dioscorides and Pliny, is by some writers referred to the 
turmeric ; and the imported root is well known in Egypt, as appears 
from Alpinus iv. 13. 

The "kpr" of Solomon's Song i. 14 and iv. 13, may be compared 
with the "kapparis" of Aristophon, Timocles, Clearchus Solensis, 
Plautus, and Athenaeus, and with " kabar," the current Egyptian name 
of the caper bush (Capparis spinosa). — The berry-like flower-buds of 
this plant have long formed an article of commerce in the Mediterra- 
nean countries. 

The "agwz" of Solomon's Song vi. 11, may be compared with 
"gios," the current Egyptian name of the tm?m^ (Juglans regia). — 
The walnut is noticed by Epicharmus, Sophocles, Philyllius, and 
Athenaeus ii. 38: and by Theophrastus, under the name "karya 
Persike ;" as appears from Pliny's referring to the Greek name for 



40 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

proof " that the tree was originally brought from Persia." The 
walnut tree was seen by Hasselquist in Palestine ; but its cultivation 
in Egypt is regarded as recent. 

The " nrd" of Solomon's Song i. 12 and iv. 13, may be compared 
with "uard," the current Egyptian name of the rose: and indeed, the 
notice of the " nardos" in Mark xiv. is sufficiently descriptive of the 
essential oil or attar of roses. — Homer, Celsus, and Pliny mention a 
fragrant oil of roses. And Theophrastus alludes to the presence of 
the rose in Egypt : where, though foreign to the natural vegetation, 
it is cultivated for commercial purposes at the present day. 

An evident connexion is found in the modern Greek application of 
term " nardos" to the lavender and its essential oil ; also, in the 
" iphyon" of Epicharmus, Theophrastus, and Athenseus ii. 83, being by 
some writers referred to the lavender. Sibthorp met with the Lavan- 
dula spica in Greece; and Delile found an allied species in the Egyp- 
tian Desert (perhaps the same seen by myself in Yemen and in the 
Dekkan). The L. stoechas is frequent throughout the Grecian Archi- 
pelago ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently 
introduced into Egypt. 

However, the " nardos Indikos" mentioned by Theophrastus and 
Pliny, is referred by Garcias and Royle to the root of Nardostachys 
jatamansi: an indigenous plant of Hindostan. — The importation of 
Indian nard is also mentioned by the Arab medical writers. 

The Africano-Manetho numbers (counting from the "fifth year of Con- 
charis/'and omitting the years assigned to the Twentieth Dynasty), give 
B. C. 991 for the accession of Scheschenk, the first king of the Twenty- 
Second Dynasty : and we obtain the same date from the old Egyptian 
Chronicle (for 194 + 228 = 422 = 83 + 209 + 130). Scheschenk, or 
Shishak, ruled Egypt before the death of Solomon (1 Kings xi. 40, 
and 2 Chronicles x. 2), and captured Jerusalem " in the fifth year of 
Rehoboam" (1 Kings xvi. 25, and 2 Chronicles xii. 2). A record of this 
event, together with a portrait of King Scheschenk, was found by Cham- 
pollion on the walls of the temple at Karnak. King Scheschenk 
commenced the great unfinished hall at Karnak ; and the date of the 
twenty-second year of his reign has been found on a stela at Silsilis. 

Userkan, the second king of the Twenty-Second Egyptian Dynasty, 
continued the unfinished hall at Karnak : his name has also been 
found on the great temple at Bubastis in Lower Egypt; on a papy- 
rus ; and on a vase, once in the possession of the ancient Roman family 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 41 

of Claudia. He, or one of his successors bearing the same name, is sup- 
posed by Champollion and others, to be the " Zerah" who was defeated 
by Asa (2 Chronicles xiv. 9). 

The name of Peher, the third king of the Twenty-Second Egyptian 
Dynasty, has been found on the monuments by Lepsius. 

The name of Userkan II., the fourth king of the Twenty-Second 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments by Lepsius. 

The name of Scheschenk II., the fifth king of the Twenty-Second 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments by Lepsius. 

The name of Takelet, orTiglath, the sixth king of the Twenty-Second 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments ; together with 
dates of the eleventh and fifteenth years of his reign. 

From examples already given, it will be perceived, that the names 
of animals and plants used in Egypt are the Scriptural names. Fur- 
ther, in some instances, these current Egyptian names go behind the 
Greek language, supply the meaning of obsolete Greek words, and 
show international relationship, the more intimate the further we 
recede into antiquity. 

In Egypt, the white poplar (Populus alba), is called "hour:" the 
AXErnis of Homer and Hesiod is but the same word softened into the 
Greek idiom. — And at a later period, we find the tree called "leyke" 
by the Greeks. Theophrastus expressly alludes to the presence of the 
" leyke" in Egypt. 

The makeanhs AirEiroio of Homer, Od. vii. 106, is perhaps the Popu- 
lus nigra (already mentioned); but may also be compared with the aspen 
(Populus tremula). — The aspen was seen in Greece by Belon and Sib- 
thorp ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is cultivated in gardens 
at Cairo. 

In Egypt, the chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is called " hommos :" and 
the kyamoz of Homer can be readily identified. — The shape of the 
seed, singularly resembling a ram's head, may account for the " kyamos" 
being regarded unclean by the Egyptians of the time of Herodotus. 

In Egypt, the edible lupine is called " termes :" and in this word we 
recognise the epebinooz of Homer. — Theophrastus' statement respect- 
ing " the woody stem of the erebinthos" corresponds ; but in later times, 
we find the Greek name transferred to a different plant. 

The MfiAr of Homer, Od. x. 302, is referred by Dioscorides and 
Galen to the " armala ;" and may be compared with " harmal," the 
current Egyptian name of Peganum harmala. — This is an indigenous 



42 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

plant of the Desert ; but according to Belon, the Arabs make constant 
use of the seeds, from a superstitious belief, That they are a preserva- 
tive against Evil Spirits. 

As to the mhaon of Homer and Hesiod (a plant in all probability 
not received from Egypt), the circumstance of the Greek word equally 
signifying a sheep, seems to cover an allusion to the downy coating of 
the quince (Cydonia vulgaris) . — The quince is distinctly mentioned by 
Stesichorus (quoted by Athenoeus) ; and in a law of Solon, referred 
toby Plutarch (Conjug. praecept. 1): the "malum "of Virgil seems 
also to be the quince. I have uniformly found the quince succeeding 
better than the apple in the Arab countries. 

The meaia of Homer, Hesiod, and Aristophanes, according to Sib- 
thorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Fraxinus ornus. — Theophras- 
tus states, that the "melia" and " boymelia" grow in Egypt : and the 
F. ornus and F. elatior are enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among 
the trees planted there in gardens. Seeds of the F. ornus, were seen 
by Delile in the drug shops of Cairo. 

The Greek name meaja seems to imply a knowledge of the drug 
manna, a product of one or more species of Fraxinus. — And Diodorus 
Siculus xvii. 75, Curtius vi. 4, Polyamus iv. 3, 32, and Athena^us xi. 500, 
expressly mention an oak-like tree that distils honey. Other plants, 
however, besides the species of Fraxinus, yield manna. The "elaiomeli 
of Palmyra" mentioned by Dioscorides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta, is 
referred by Rhazes (De Angin. ix. 51) to this drug : and Rauwolf and 
Tournefort ascertained, That the manna of the Arabs is chiefly pro- 
cured from the Alhagi maurorum, an indigenous low shrubby plant 
of the North African and Asiatic Desert. 

The oArr-A of Homer and Herodotus is by some writers referred to 
the Latin "far" (already noticed); but the usage in certain parts of Italy 
indicates the rye (Secale cereale). — The "secale" of Pliny, according 
to Greek and French usage, is the rye. This is a grain of northern 
climates; and though cultivated in Syria, Alpinus appears to be the 
only modern traveller who has seen it in Egypt. 

Forskal found the Vicia sativa growing as a weed in Egypt, and 
called "faurum;" a compound word which admits of being translated, 
"the far of Rome or Constantinople." The zea of Homer and Xeno- 
phon, according to Zalikoglous' account of the Greek usage, would 
seem to be a species of Vicia or vetch ; and confusion may have arisen 
from the practice in ancient times of sowing mixed crops. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 43 

The AiiTos herb of Homer, II. ii. 776, is referred by Bory and 
Chaubard to the Lotus Argolicus; a plant still serving for pasturage 
in Greece. — The L. corniculatus (which perhaps does not differ) was 
seen by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The Anro-E, however, is by some writers considered identical with 
the " melilotos ;" and the latter is referred by Serapion to the " achilel 
melich, or Trigonella hamosa. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in 
Cyprus; and by Alpinus, Hasselquist, and Forskal in Egypt; where, 
however, it is perhaps indigenous. 

Homer's account of the Lotophagi brings to mind a peculiar con- 
serve, said to be used in child-stealing, and bearing nearly the same 
Egyptian name as the "helbeh" or fenugreek (Trigonella fcenum- 
grgecum). — I found the fenugreek a favourite article of diet with the 
Parsees of India: and the "triphyllon" of their forefathers (Herodotus 
i. 132) may be compared. 

Homer's account of the Egyptian "nepenthes" drug, is sufficiently 
descriptive of opium. — Diagoras and Erasistratus condemned the use 
of opium ; and Pliny further speaks of the drug being adulterated at 
Alexandria, and of the " garden white-poppy (Papaver somniferum) 
from which it is obtained. Opium is still one of the staple productions 
of Egypt. 

The "saffron-coloured garments," mentioned by Horner, imply a 
knowledge of the safflower, or dyer's saffron (Carthamus tinctorius). — 
I found this plant very generally cultivated throughout the Arab 
countries, from Egypt to the Dekkan inclusive. 

The Arros of Homer, II. xi. 105, according to the received opinion 
and Greek usage, is the Vitex agnus-castas. — This shrub is said to 
abound along river-banks in Greece and Syria : but may not be in- 
digenous ; for it belongs to a Tropical genus ; and is enumerated by 
Forskal and others among the garden plants of Egypt. 

The " gutran" timber, mentioned by Forskal as imported into 
Egypt, may be compared with the keapon of Homer (Od. v. 60), 
Herodotus, and Aristophanes ; the current Greek name, according to 
Sibthorp, of one or more species of juniper; and especially, of the J. 
oxycedrus. — Callixenus (quoted b}' Athenaeus v. 38) states, That the 
galley of Ptolemy Philopator was partly of "kedros" wood. The 
importation and medicinal use of juniper-berries in Egypt, is men- 
tioned by Alpinus and Forskal. 

The eroN of Homer, Callixenus, Pliny, and A then reus v. 38, is 



44 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

usually referred to the Thuya Orientalis'. — Theophrastus speaks of the 
tree growing at the Oasis of Amnion, and in Cyrene, localities in which 
it must have been planted. The T. Orientalis continues to be a favourite 
ornamental tree in Egypt ; and was found by Belon, growing wild on 
the mountains of Asia Minor. 

The lcrnAriszos of Homer, Herodotus, and Thucydides ii. 34, accord- 
ing to the received opinion and Greek usage, is the cypress (Cupressus 
sempervirens). — A funereal tree with the Ancient Greeks; and planted 
at the present day in all Muslim cemeteries, from the Mediterranean 
to Hindostan. 

The niTYS of Homer (II. xiii. 390), and Herodotus, may be com- 
pared with Pinus maritima. — According to Sibthorp, the P. maritima 
abounds in Greece, and is the only species found in Cyprus. Forskal 
speaks of the importation of pine timber into Egypt. And ' the P. 
Halepensis was seen by Delile in a garden at Cairo; and is enumerated 
by Clot-Bey and Figari among the plants long known in Egypt. 

The aao>nh of Homer (Od. i. 183), Hesiod, and Ibycus, according to 
the received opinion and Greek usage, is the laurel (Laurus nobilis) . — 
The leaves and branches used (according to Callixenus) in the festival 
of Ptolemy Philadelphus, were probably imported ; for I find no notice 
of the cultivation of the laurel in Egypt. Alpinus speaks of the medi- 
cinal use of the imported berries. 

The ntEos of Homer (II. xxiv. 268) and Theophrastus, according 
to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is 
the box (Buxus sempervirens). — The writing-tablets of the Early 
Greeks are known to have been usually made of box-wood ; and ac- 
cording to the Septuagint Version, such tablets are mentioned in Isaiah 
xxx. 8. The living plant appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The KrANEi of Homer, and Herodotus vii. 92, is considered to be 
the cornel (Cornus). — Two species are mentioned by Theophrastus; 
and the C. mascula and C. sanguinea were both seen by Sibthorp in 
Greece : from which country, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, they 
have recently been introduced into the gardens of Egypt. 

The nTEAEA of Homer, Hesiod, and Aristophanes (Nub. 1008), ac- 
cording to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the elm (Ulmus campestris). — This tree was seen by Delile 
in gardens at Cairo ; where, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, it has 
been long known. 

The KAHerH of Homer and Theophrastus, according to the received 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 45 

opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the European 
alder (Alnus glutinosa). — This plant was seen in Egypt by Hassel- 
quist. 

The nAATANisTox of Homer and Herodotus, translated "platanus" 
by Cicero, is considered to be the Oriental 'plane (Platanus Orienta- 
lis). — According to Pliny, the " platanus" was first brought over the 
Ionian Sea to adorn the tomb of Diomedes : the trees at this tomb are 
mentioned by Theophrastus ; who also alludes to the presence of the 
"platanos" in Egypt. I found the P. Orientalis abundantly planted 
throughout Middle and Lower Egypt. 

The itea of Homer (II. xxi. 350, and Od. x. 510), according to the 
received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is one or 
more species of willow (Salix). — The "tzptzph" of Ezekiel xvii. 5, 
may be compared with " safsaf," the current Egyptian name of the 
willow. I met with a single young willow, growing, apparently indi- 
genous, by the river-margin in the Thebaid ; perhaps the S. subser- 
rata, a species seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

The KrnEiros of Homer and Herodotus, according to the received 
opinion and Greek usage, is one or more species of Cyperus. — Tubers 
of a Cyperus were unrolled in the Boston mummy, perhaps the G. 
rotundus .• a species seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Delile, at 
Alexandria, Rosetta, and Cairo. 

The seainon EAEoerEnTON of Homer (II. vi. 39, and Od. v. 32), 
according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the smallage 
(Apium graveolens). — Rhazes recommends the medicinal use of the 
seeds of the "carafs" or smallage; and these are enumerated by 
Forskal among the articles of the Egyptian materia medica ; but the 
living plant, if distinct from the celery (a point which will be again 
adverted to), appears to be unknown in Egypt. 

The aeipion of Homer (II. iii. 152) and the Hymn to Ceres 427, 
and the "lilium" of Virgil, according to Pliny's description (xxi. 11), 
is clearly the garden lily (Lilium candidum). — Neither Forskal nor 
Delile met with the lily in Egypt ; and Clot-Bey and Figari state, 
that the plant is rarely seen beyond the Pasha's gardens. 

The batos of Homer (Od. xxiv. 230), Pindar, and Theophrastus, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Bubits frutieoms. — This plant was seen in Palestine by 
Hasselquist ; and by Delile at Rosetta, where it had doubtless been 
introduced. 

12 



46 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The takingos of Homer and others, is referred by Linnasus and 
Bory de St. Vincent to the Delphinium Ajacis. — The name " ayakbouh," 
given to this plant in Egypt, favours the reference; as also the accounts 
of the Greek usage by Forskal, Zalikoglous (article "jacinthe"), and 
Scarlatus.* 

The ion of Homer and Theophrastus, is usually referred to the 
Viola odorata. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and ac- 
cording to Clot-Bey and Figari, is a favourite in the gardens of Egypt. 

The snorros of Homer (II. xviii. 414, and Od. xx. 151), Plato, 
Theopompus, and Athenams, is clearly sponge. — The Eastern portion 
of the Mediterranean continues to furnish large supplies of this article 
of commerce. 

The HAEKTroN of Homer, Hesiod (quoted by Hyginus, 154), and 
Herodotus iii. 115, is clearly amber ; a fossil gum procured on the 
shores of the Baltic. This light and valuable substance was doubtless 
transported by land to the Adriatic : and the transfer in ancient times 
of the name of the Rhone to the Po, seems to indicate the route of 
this traffic in tin and amber. 

The " dbywnym " of the account of the siege of Samaria (2 Kings 
vi. 25) is referred by Linnaeus to the Omithogalum umbellalum. — This 
plant is considered to be the " ornithos gala" of Nicander, Dioscorides, 
and Atheneeus ix. : it was seen by Sibthorp in Greece, and by Hassel- 
quist in Palestine, but appears to be unknown in Egypt. An allied 
species, the 0. Arabicum, inhabiting Barbary, and figured by Rudbeck 
and Besler, was received from Egypt by Linnaeus. 

The name of Userkan III., the seventh king of the Twenty-Second 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments; together with 
the date of the eleventh year of his reign. The mummy recently un- 
rolled at Boston, contained the name of Userkan III., and proved to 
be the body of an individual who died during this king's reign. 

The noAioN of Hesiod (quoted by Theophrastus ix. 21), and of 
Musoeus, Dioscorides, and Pliny, is referred by Sibthorp and others to 
the Teucrmm polium. — This plant was seen by Forskal in the environs 
of Alexandria ; where, however, according to Delile, it is indigenous. 

The maaaxh of Hesiod, according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, would seem to be either the common mallow, Malta rotund i folia, 
or an allied species, M. sylvestris. — In Egypt, I frequently observed 

* Modern Greek Lexicon of Scarlatus of Byzantium. By A. Koromelas. Athena, 
1839. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 47 

the field-culture -of a mallow closely resembling the M. rotundifolia ; 
and M. sylvestris and M. verticillata, are enumerated by Clot-Bey and 
Figari among the Egyptian esculent plants. 

However, the "malache" described by Theophrastus i. 5, is clearly 
the hollyhock (Alcea rosea) ; and in this instance also, Greek usage 
is conformable. — The A. rosea was seen by Sibthorp indigenous on the 
mountains of Greece. The A. ficifolia (by some considered as only a 
variety), was also found by Sibthorp indigenous in Greece ; was seen 
by Hasselquist in Palestine ; and according to Forskal, is cultivated 
at Cairo for the sake of the leaves, which are esculent and are used in 
Egyptian cookery. 

The zkoaymos of Hesiod and others, according to Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, is the Scohjmus Hispanicits. — This plant was seen 
by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo and Alexandria, 
Another species, S. rnaculatus, was seen by Delile near Rosetta ; and 
by Hasselquist, in Palestine. 

The maza* of Hesiod (Op. 590), Achreus, and Herodotus, so far 
as the origin of the word is concerned, may be compared with " maseh," 
the current Egyptian name of the pea-bean, Phaseolus mungo. — This 
plant is mentioned by Maserjawia, Rhazes, and Avicenna ; is culti- 
vated in Nubia and Upper Egypt (according to Delile and Clot-Bey); 
and, as appears from Rabbi Schwarz ii. 2, is well known in Palestine. 

The name of Sheschenk III., the eighth king of the Twenty-Second 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments ; together with 
the date of the twenty-ninth year of his reign. 

The two-humped or Bactrian camel (Camelus Bactrianus) is figured 
on the monuments at Nineveh and Persepolis, on the Etruscan vases 
(Layard, PL 53 and 55, and Mon. Inediti, PI. 50), and is mentioned 
by Aristotle. — The two-humped camel is employed in Central Asia, 
and in the Crimea and the Caucasian countries ; but appears to have 
always remained unknown in Arabia ; and to have been rarely brought 
even as a curiosity into Egypt. 

In Egypt, the Narcissus tazetta is called "narjis:" the napkissos 
of Painphos, the Cyprian Verses, the Hymn to Ceres, Theophrastus, and 
Pausanias ix. 31, may be compared. — Pliny's description, however, 
agrees better with the N. poeticus; a species which has not been ob- 
served in the gardens of Egypt. 

* This name, it will be perceived, has been improperly transferred to the grain culti- 
vated by the aboriginals of America ; now called " maize " or Indian corn (Zea mays). 



48 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The name of Takelet II., the ninth and last king of the Twenty- 
Second Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments. 

The 2ta<dyainos of Orpheus, Philistion, Phanias of Eresus, Diocles, 
Dieuches, Cleophantus, Pliny, and Athenasus, according to the received 
opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the carrot 
(Daucus carota). — The description by Dioscorides, corresponds; and 
at the present day, the carrot is abundantly cultivated in Egypt. 

" At the command of the Delphic Oracle, Iphitus restored the Olym- 
pian games :" and this Olympiad of Iphitus, is placed by Callimachus, 
Africanus, and Clinton (ii. p. 500), in B. C. 828. Iphitus, by the 
general consent of Antiquity, was contemporary with Lycurgus, the 
Spartan lawgiver ; who (according to Simonides and others) was the 
son of Prytanis, the fifth king of Sparta in the Proclid line. 

Mane th o (or perhaps Africanus) evidently alludes to the Olympiad of 
Iphitus in stating, that the "First" Olympiad was celebrated in the 
time of Petubastes, the first king of the Twenty-Third Egyptian 
Dynasty. The Africano-Manetho numbers (counting upwards and 
downwards, from the Nineteenth Dynasty inclusive) give B. C. 825-3 
for the accession of Petubastes ; and we obtain nearly the same result 
from the Old Egyptian Chronicle (for 194 + 228 + 121 + 48 = 591, and 
135 + 209 + 130 + 116 = 590). The name of King Petpacht, or Petu- 
bastes, has been found on the monuments by Prisse and Lepsius. 

The "kykywn" of Jonah iv. G, may be compared with the "sikya" 
or "kikya" of Theophrastus and the early Greeks ; admitted to be a 
variety of the gourd (Lagenaria). — In Egypt, however, the musk-mehn 
(Cucumis melo) is sometimes called "kauun;" and the "sikyos" of 
Alcoeus, Phrynichus, and iEneas Tacticus 29, seems to correspond. 
The musk-melon is distinctly mentioned by Cratinus (according to 
Athenaeus), and by Galen (De Alinien. Facult. 2), Palladius (Martio 9), 
and Florentinus (Geoponica xii. 20). 

The name of Userkna, the second king of the Twenty-Third Egyp- 
tian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments by Lepsius. 

The First registered Olympiad, B. C. 776, is placed by Eusebius 
and the Parian Marble in the second year of the Athenian archon 
iEschylus; and by Eusebius and Clinton, in the time of the Jewish 
king Azariah or Uzziah. 

The name of Psimut, the third king of the Twenty-Third Egyptian 
Dynasty, has been found on the temple at Karnac; and also, on the 
ruins of a small building in the immediate vicinity. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 49 

According to Julius Africanus (as quoted by Eusebius), iEschylus 
was archon at Athens, when Jotham ruled at Jerusalem : the twenty- 
second year of iEschylus, is placed in the Parian Marble in B. C. 756 ; 
and Clinton's computation, makes this the date of the accession of 
Jotham. 

The Old Egyptian Chronicle (counting upwards), gives B. C. 752 
for the accession of the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. This dynasty has 
not been found on the monuments : and its connexion with the Com- 
pletion of a phoenix, will be noticed hereafter. 

The name of Schebek, the first king of the Twenty-Fifth Egyptian 
Dynasty, has been found on the monuments. He is considered to be 
the Sabacon of Herodotus. 

The name of Schebek II., the second king of the Twenty-Fifth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on the monuments ; together with 
the date of the twelfth year of his reign. He is supposed to be the 
"So" mentioned in 2 Kings xvii. 3. 

The "orb" of Isaiah xv. 7 and xliv. 4, Job xl. 22, and Psalm 
cxxxvii. 2, may be compared with " kharub," the current Egyptian 
name of the carob-tree (Ceratonia siliqua). — The "keronia" of Theo- 
phrastus and Pliny, is admitted to be the carob-tree : and Pliny further 
states, That it grows in Ionia and Syria, but not in Egypt ; where, 
indeed, it is rarely seen at the present day. The carob-tree has 
appeared to me to be foreign to the natural vegetation of the Mediter- 
ranean countries. 

The "notzwtz" of Isaiah vii. 19 and lv. 13, may be compared with 
" neschusch," given by Forskal as the current name in Yemen of the 
Inula odora. — This plant is cultivated in Yemen ; but has not been 
observed further North. There are, however, indigenous species of 
Inula in the Desert of Egypt and Palestine. 

The "kmn" of Isaiah xxviii. 25 and 27, may be compared with 
the/'kyminon" of Aristophanes and Theophrastus (Char. 10 and 19), 
and with " kammoun " the current Egyptian name of the cummin 
(Cuminum cyminum). — This plant is still a favorite article of cultiva- 
tion in Egypt. 

According to Gesenius, the mouse (Mus musculus) is mentioned in 
Isaiah ii. 20. — The mouse is figured in an Egyptian painting, appa- 
rently not as ancient as the Pharaonic period ; and is also mentioned 
in the Batrachomyomachia, and by Herodotus and Plautus. 

In reference to the internal affairs of Greece : The first Messenian 

13 



50 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

war (according to Tyrtseus) lasted nineteen years ; and (according to 
Pausanias) was brought to a close in Olymp. 14, 1, or B. C. 723. 

In the sixth year of the Jewish king Hezekiah (2 Kings xvii. 6 and 
xviii. 10), Shalmaneser captured Samaria; and removed the inhabi- 
tants, settling colonial Israelites in Media. — In the account of the Col- 
chians by Herodotus ii. 104, many points of resemblance will be ob- 
served. 

The series of recorded Babylonian eclipses preserved by Claudius 
Ptolemy (which has been of great service to historians and chronolo- 
gers), commences in "B. C. 717" (Alsted), during the reign of Mar- 
doch-Empadus. This king of Babylon is regarded by Clinton and 
others, as the Merodach Baladan mentioned in 2 Kings xx. 12, and 
in Isaiah xxxix. 1. 

The name of " Thrk," or Tirhakah, the third king of the Twenty- 
Fifth Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on a pylon or gateway at 
Medinet Habu ; also on mummy-cases ; and in inscriptions at Gebel 
Barkal in Dongola, dated in the twentieth year of his reign. Tir- 
hakah is mentioned in 2 Kings xix. 9 ; and also, by Strabo i. and xv. 

The Ethiopian queen Amnerith, or Ammeris, is placed by Eusebius 
immediately after Tirhakah : and she appears to have exercised some 
authority, at least in Upper Egypt. A mummy-case dated in her 
reign is described by Birch, and is now in the Museum at London. 

In a mummy unrolled at Bristol, Herapath ascertained, that a solu- 
tion of silver had been employed in the hieroglyphic writing; and 
further, that the solvent was probably nitric acid* 

Herapath found some of the bandages of this mummy dyed with 
indigo (Indigofera). — The "indicmn" of Vitruvius and Dioscorides, 
expressly stated by Pliny (xxxv. 27) to be imported from India, is 
admitted to be indigo : and some centuries later, as appears from the 
Mishna, and from Abulfeda and Niederstedt, the living plant was 
introduced into Palestine, Egypt, and Malta. Marco Polo and Nicolo 
Conti witnessed the manufacture of indigo in Eastern Asia. 

The first three kings of the Twenty-Sixth Egyptian Dynasty are 
known from Manetho : but their names have not been found on the 
monuments. 

The "mlw'h" of Job xxx. 4, may be compared with " mullasah," 
the current Egyptian name of the Suoeda baccata: and perhaps also, of 

* London and Edin. Philos. Mag., July, 1852. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 51 

some allied Salsolaceous plants. — The S. baccata was seen by Forskal 
and Delile, growing as a weed around Cairo and Alexandria. 

The "rtm" of Job xxx. 4, is perhaps the Spartium (already men- 
tioned) ; but Forskal gives " rsetsem " also, as the current Egyptian 
name of the Atriplex coriacea. — This plant was seen by Forskal and 
Delile, growing in the sands around Alexandria. 

The rAHxrm of the Hymn to Ceres 209,* and of Aristophanes, and 
Theophrastus ix. 16, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, is the Mentha pulegium. — This plant was 
seen in Egypt by Alpinus ; and Delile met with it, apparently indigenous 
at Alexandria. 

The ArAAAiAAS of the Hymn to Ceres, or the "anagallis" of Theo- 
phrastus, Dioscorides, and Galen, is usually referred to one or more 
species of Anagallis. — The A. arvensis is enumerated by Delile among 
the weeds of Egypt. 

According to the statement of Herodotus ii. 142, The Egyptian 
priests reckoned " three hundred and forty-one kings" prior to Psam- 
metichus. In the Africano-Manetho Table of chronology, one hundred 
and thirteen kings are named; and the unnamed kings of the Seventh, 
Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Seventeenth, and Twentieth Dynasties, 
will make up the desired number (for 113 + 70 + 27 + 16 + 60 + 43 
+ 12 = 341) . This requires the exclusion of the unnamed kings of the 
Ninth, Tenth, Fourteenth, Sixteenth, Nineteenth, and duplicate Seven- 
teenth Dynasties. 

VI. THE GREEK PERIOD. 

The Africano-Manetho numbers (counting upwards and down- 
wards) give B.C. 669-7 for the accession of Psamtik, or Psammetichus, 
the fourth king of the Twenty-Sixth Egyptian Dynasty : an accession 
marked, by the first introduction into Egypt of a body of Greeks (see 
Herodotus ii. 154). The name of King Psamtik has been found in 
the unfinished hall at Karnac; in the quarries at Tura; on the rocks 

* The Hymn to the Delian Apollo by the Blind poet of Chios, perhaps contains no 
descriptive expressions derived through the sense of sight : hut though quoted and con- 
sidered ancient by Thucydides, there is a circumstance indicating a later date than the 
time of Homer. In the Odyssey vi. 165, the date-palm on the Island of Delos is 
described as young and flourishing; but in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo 18, has 
become so old that all tradition of its origin is lost. — This date-palm is mentioned by 
Callimachus (Hymn to Delos) as still standing ; but it had disappeared before the time 
of Pausanias viii. 48, and Athenaeus. 



52 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

near Philge ; on an obelisk, now at Rome ; and on a papyrus and 
other movable articles in the museums of Europe ; together with 
various dates, the latest being in the forty-fifth year of his reign. 

The monuments of the Greek Period may be recognised, by a dif- 
ference in the style of art ; by the increased number of hieroglyphic 
characters, and the general want of care in sculpturing them ; by the 
re-duplication of the deities; and by the absence of all representations 
relating to manners, occupations, and the mechanic arts. 

Demotic Inscriptions have been traced as far back as the Twenty- 
Sixth Dynasty. Demotic or Enchorial writing, is regarded by Birch 
as " an outgrowth of the hieratic writing, which it superseded for the 
legal and ordinary purposes of life ;" and, as " an attempt to assimilate 
the Egyptian system of writing to the alphabetic Phoenician." In the 
form of the characters, some general resemblance may be observed 
between Demotic and modern Arabic writing. 

One of the new deities figured, has the head of the cat (Felis) . — 
The ambiguous representations at Benihassan, appeared to me after 
careful examination, to be intended for varieties of the dog. I do 
not find the cat mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures, nor by Homer, 
Hesiod, nor even in the Batrachomyomachia. It was, however, a 
common domestic animal in Egypt in the days of Herodotus. 

The ©piaaka of Alcman, Hipponax, Herodotus, and Athengeus iii. 
82, according to the received opinion and Greek usage, is the lettuce 
(Lactuca sativa). — At the present day, the lettuce is very generally 
cultivated throughout the Arab countries. 

In Egypt, the Sesamum Orientale] is called "semsem;" and in this 
word, we recognise the sasamh of Alcman, Stesichorus (or " according 
to some Ibycus"), Crates, and Athengeus iii. 75 and iv. 72. — Herodotus 
speaks of the sesamum and its oil, in his account of the Euphrates ; 
and Pliny alludes to the presence of the plant in Egypt; where at the 
present day, it is abundantly cultivated. Forskal met with the sesa- 
mum as far North as the island of Tenedos. 

In Egypt, the Calendula arvensis is called " kahleh ;" and in this 
word, we recognise the kaaxan of Alcman, Epicharmus, Nicolaus Da- 
mascenus, and Athengeus xv. 28. — Delile found the C. arvensis grow- 
ing spontaneously around Cairo ; and the C. officinalis, in gardens at 
Alexandria. 

The coronary EAixrrsn of Alcman, Ibycus, Cratinus, Themistagoras, 
and Athenaeus xv. 27, is usually referred to the Gnaplialium stoechas. — 
This plant was seen by Delile at Alexandria, but apparently indigenous. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 53 

From Dioscorides' account of the " melanthion," the makoniahn 
apton of Alcman and Athenseus iii. 75, would seem to be, bread 
sprinkled with the black seeds of NigelJa saliva; according to the 
custom in Egypt at the present day. This custom is also noticed by 
Pliny and Belon. 

According to Theophrastus and Greek records consulted by Pliny. 
The sia<i>ion was discovered seven years before the founding of Cyrene 
(or about B. C. 638). — The concrete juice of this plant was much used 
in Ancient Greek cookery ; but at the present day, is nearly unknown, 
The plant, however (agreeing with the figures on ancient coins), has 
been re-discovered in the same district of North Africa by P. della 
Cella; and has received the name of Thapsla silphium. 

The name of Neku or Nechoh, the fifth king of the Twenty-Sixth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found at Rosetta; and on various stelse; 
together with the date of the fourth year of his reign. Neku captured 
Jerusalem (2 Kings xxiii., 2 Chronicles xxxv., and Herodotus ii. 159) 
in the course of his great military expedition ; which is described in 
burning words in Jeremiah xlvi. The reign of Neku is also remarkable 
for the first Circumnavigation of Africa (see Herodotus iv. 40). 

The " bryt" of Jeremiah ii. 22, and Malachi iii. 2, may be compared 
with "ryteh," the current Egyptian name of the fruit of Sapindus 
laurifolius. — According to Forskal and Delile, this imported fruit is 
employed in washing the finer kinds of woollens : and according to 
Graham, the tree grows in Hindostan. 

The ©A*n of Sappho, Aristophanes (Vesp. 1404), and Theocritus ii. 
88, is referred by the Scholiast of Theocritus to the " chrysoxylon " of 
the Modern Greeks, Rhus cotinus. — This, shrub, according to Sibthorp 
and others, is indigenous on the mountains of Greece ; and as the 
wood is still used for dyeing at Athens, it cannot be altogether unknown 
in Egypt. 

The annhto of Sappho, Alcseus, Aristophanes, Theophrastus, Dios- 
corides, and Athenaeus xv. 16, is referred by Sibthorp and others to 
the dill (Anethum graveolens). — Forskal, Delile, and Clot-Bey, speak 
of the cultivation of the A. graveolens in Egypt. 

The name of Psamtik II., the sixth king of the Twenty-Sixth 
Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on stones, once part of a propylon 
at Memphis ; on a sarcophagus, at the bottom of the remarkably in- 
sulated pit discovered by Vyse at Gizeh; in tombs at Sakhara ; on 
stones employed in reparations at Thebes ; on the rocks near Philse ; 



54 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

on an obelisk, now at Rome ; and on movable articles, now in the 
museums of Europe ; together with the date of the fourth year of his 
reign. 

In one instance, the oval including the hieroglyphic name of King 
Psamtik II., is accompanied with an inscription in Assyrian, or cunei- 
form writing. 

The name of Hophra, the seventh king of the Twenty-Sixth Egyp- 
tian Dynasty, has been found on the rocks near Philas ; on stones 
employed in building the citadel at Cairo ; on an obelisk, now at 
Rome ; and on movable articles, now in the museums of Europe. 
King Hophra is mentioned in Jeremiah xliv. 30. He is the Apries 
of Herodotus. 

The nAinNiA or tatkysiah, mentioned by Pliny as one of the earliest 
known medicinal plants, and noticed also in the Hippocratic writings 
(De superf. 20, and De mul. morb. 56), and by Theophrastus, Dios- 
corides, and Paulus iEgineta, is admitted to be one or more species 
of -peony (Paeonia). — Alpinus and Forskal (Mat. Med.) speak of the 
medicinal use in Egypt of "paeonia" roots and seeds : and the P. offi- 
cinalis and P. corallina were seen by Sibthorp, indigenous on the 
mountains of Greece. 

The A*iN0in, mentioned by Pliny xxvii. 28, as known to the Ro- 
mans from the earliest times, and noticed also by Euripedes, Theo- 
phrastus, Diphilus, Dioscorides, and Athenseus iv. 9, is admitted to 
be the Artemisia absinthium. — Forskal enumerates "melh afsantin" 
among the articles of the Egyptian materia medica; and according to 
Clot-Bey and Figari, the living plant has been long known in Egypt. 

In " B. C. 569" (Clinton), the accession of Aahmes or Amasis, the 
eighth king of the Twenty-Sixth Egyptian Dynasty, took place. His 
name has been found at Elephantine; on the rocks near Philae; on 
stones employed in building the citadel at Cairo ; and on various mov- 
able articles now in the museums of Europe : among the accompany- 
ing dates, one is in the forty-fourth year of his reign. The first intro- 
duction of Greek architecture into Egypt, is perhaps to be referred to 
the reign of Aahmes : for he permitted the Greeks to build a temple 
at Naucratis, near one of the mouths of the Nile. He also put an 
end to the independence of Cyprus (Herodotus ii. 178 and 182). 

According to Herodotus iii. 47, Aahmes sent to Greece a cuirass 
composed partly of " eirioisi apo xylo," or cotton (Gossypium) . — The 
"krps" of Esther i. 6, may also be compared with "karpas," given 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 55 

by D'Rozario as the Bengali name of cotton : and Herodotus, in an- 
other place (iii. 106), speaks of a "tree growing in India, which in- 
stead of fruit produces wool, out of which the inhabitants make their 
clothes." Some centuries later, as appears from Pliny and others, the 
living plant was introduced into Egypt. 

Jao de Sousa* enumerates the ingredients used by the Arab settlers 
of Spain and Portugal in composing the "bachur" ointment: in the 
name, we recognise the bakxapis of Hipponax, Simonides, iEschylus, 
Ion, Achseus, Epilycus, Cephisodorus, and Atheneeus xv. 40. 

The kokkomhaon of Hipponax, Aristophanes, and Theophrastus, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the garden plum (Prunus domestica). — Theophrastus like- 
wise mentions the plum under the name of " proyne :" at the present 
day, several varieties of the plum are cultivated in Egypt; though 
according to Clot-Bey and Figari, the fruit is of inferior quality. 

The min0h of Hipponax, Theophrastus, and others, according to the 
received opinion and Scarlatus' account of the Greek usage, is one or 
more species oi mint (Mentha). — The M. glabrata and M. saliva, were 
seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

The pa<i>anoz of Hipponax, Ananias, and Epicharmus, is referred by 
Athenaeus and others to the "krambe" of the Batrachomyomachia, 
Timoeus, Apollodorus Carystius, and Nicander; the "koroumb" of 
modern Egypt, or the cabbage (Brassica oleracea). — The "goggylis' 
of Aristophanes and others, may be compared with the turnip-rooted 
variety. At the time of Alpinus' visit, only two varieties of the cab- 
bage were known in Egypt, the " brassica raposa" and the cauliflower. 
In "karnabid," the Egyptian name of the cauliflower, we recognise 
the "karnabadion" of Florentinus and the Geoponica ix. 28, and the 
"koynoypidi" of the modern Greeks. 

In Egypt, the squill (Scilla maritima) is called " askyl ;" in which 
word, we recognise the "skilla" of Pythagoras (as quoted by Pliny 
xix. 30), and of Theognis 537, and other Greek writers. Fresh 
bulbs of the S. maritima, were brought from the Desert to Delile at 
Alexandria. 

According to Pliny xx. 87, Pythagoras commended the penetrating 
power of the "sinapi;" usually referred, together with the "napy" of 
Aristophanes and Theophrastus, to the mustard. — Pliny further alludes 

* Jao de Sousa, Vestig. Arab. Lisbon, 1789. 



56 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

to the presence of the plant in Egypt ; and the Sinapis juncea was 
seen there by Delile in cultivated fields. The S. alba and S. nigra 
were seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; but according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, have been only recently introduced into Egypt. 

In Egypt, the anise (Pimpinella anisum) is called " yansoun ;" in 
which word, we recognise the "anison" of Pythagoras (as quoted by 
Pliny), of some of the writings attributed to Hippocrates, and of Dios- 
corides iii. 58. — Pliny expressly alludes to the presence of the plant 
in Egypt. 

In "B. C. 526" (Clinton i. p. 236), the accession of Psamtik III., 
the ninth king of the Twenty-Sixth Egyptian Dynasty, took place. 
His name has been found on the monuments, although his reign 
lasted only a few months. 

In "B. C. 525" (Clinton), the Persians under Kembath or Cambyses 
obtained possession of Egypt. Kembath thus became the head of a 
new Egyptian Dynasty; and his name has been found in hieroglyphic 
characters on the monuments; together with the date of the sixth year 
of his reign. 

In " B. C. 521,"* the accession of Nteriusch or Darius, the second 
Persian king who ruled Egypt, took place. His name has been found 
in hieroglyphic characters on rocks on the Kosser road ; and on 
temples at the Oasis el Khargeh and the Oasis of Ammon : among the 
accompanjdng dates, one is in the thirty-sixth year of his reign. The 
first coined money used in Egypt, appears to have been, the well-known 
"dariks" issued by Darius. 

The kontzh of Hecatceus and Athenseus x. 67 (the flower of which, 
according to Hora polio, formed one of the hieroglyphic characters), 
may be compared with the Conyza Dioscorldis : — A plant seen by Bau- 
wolf in Palestine ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Bosetta, Damietta, and Cairo. The C. JEgyptiaca was also seen by 
Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The nrAsoN, thgtaaiaas, and ke<daai2ton of Epicharmus, the Ba- 
trachomyomachia, Eubulus, Theophrastus, Diphilus, Polemon, Epae- 
netus, and Athenseus ix. 13, are usually referred to the leek (Allium 
porrum.)f The " krommya karta kaloymena" of Galen (equivalent 

* In the following pages, the dates of the accession of kings, are taken from Clinton 
(unless otherwise specified) as far as the commencement of the Muslim Period; and in 
after-times, from the work entitled, L'Art de Verifier des Dates. 

f There is, however, a closely allied species (Allium ampeloprasum) in the Grecian 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 57 

to the "porrum sectivum" of Pliny), may also be compared with the 
Hebrew verb " krt," and with " kourat," the current Egyptian name 
of the leek. 

The mapaqon of Epicharmus, Archestratus, Demosthenes, and 
Athenseus ii. 47 and 83, according to the received opinion and Sib- 
thorp's account of the Greek usage, is the fennel (Foeniculum vul- 
gare). — Clot-Bey and Figari enumerate the fennel among the plants 
long known in Egypt. 

In Egypt, the garden-basil (Ocymum basilicum) is called " ryhan ;" 
in which word we recognise, the orirANON of Epicharmus, Ion, Aris- 
tophanes, Athenseus ii. 77, and the Modern Greeks. The field culture 
of the garden-basil in Egypt is mentioned by Belon. The genus 
Ocymum appears to be strictly Tropical, and of course, foreign origi- 
nally to the Mediterranean countries. 

The sehaa of Epicharmus (quoted by Athenseus ii. 83), accord- 
ing to the received opinion, is the endive (Cichorium endivia). — This 
plant is well known in Egypt ; as also, the closely allied succory (C. 
intybus): and Pliny's statement (xix. 39), that the "erraticum intu- 
bum " or succory is called " chichorium" in Egypt, is found to be true 
at the present day. 

The kdton (above mentioned) of Epicharmus, Theophrastus vi. 6, 
and Athenseus ii. 83, may also be compared with the a phoy" of Dios- 
corides and Pliny ; referred by Sibthorp to the Valeriana Dioscoridis: 
and the " keltike nardos" of Nicander, Andromachus, Dioscorides, and 
Macer Floridus 75, is considered to be the V. Celtica. It would seem, 
therefore, that valerian roots, procured on the wild mountains of Europe, 
already formed an article of commerce with Egypt. — Where, according 
to Alpinus, they are still used for medicinal purposes. 

The AAnAeoN of Epicharmus, Theophrastus, Diodes, Pliny, and 
Athenseus ii. 57 and 83, according to the received opinion, is the 
Rumex jyatientia. — A plant regularly cultivated in Europe ; and seen 
by Sibthorp in Greece ; and from being apparently noticed by Athe- 
nseus, perhaps once known in Egypt. 

The kissos, or ivy (Hedera), a plant connected with the worship of 
Bacchus, is mentioned by Pratinas, Pindar, Sophocles, Semus Delius, 
and Athenseus xiv. 16. The ivy is generally considered to be indi- 

Archipelago; where, from Sibthorp's account, it would seem to be indigenous; but it has 
not hitherto been observed in Egypt. 

15 



58 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

genous in Europe ; but this is not altogether certain. — Arrian states, 
that Alexander met with priests of Bacchus on the Upper Indus, who 
informed him, That the ivy in that quarter grew only upon Mount 
Meros. Hasselquist found the ivy on Mount Tabor ; and I have been 
informed, of some recent unsuccessful attempts to cultivate the plant 
in Egypt. 

The 4>eaaos of iEschylus and Pindar (Pyth. ii.), is referred by 
Theodorus Gaza and others to the cork-tree (Quercus suber). — This 
species of oak grows in Italy (as remarked by Theophrastus iii. 16); 
and also, in Spain ; but was not seen by Sibthorp in Greece. The 
economical uses of the bark, were doubtless communicated to Egypt 
at an early period. 

The EAATHnoN of iEschylus (Choeph. 962), Hippocrates, Theo- 
phrastus ix. 14, and Dioscorides, is considered to be the drug obtained 
from the Momordica elaterium. — The plant was seen by Sibthorp in 
Greece ; and was received from Egypt by Linnaaus. 

The zeainon KHnAioN of Pindar, Aristophanes, and Dioscorides, 
translated "apium" by Cato, Virgil, and Pliny, seems to correspond 
with the parsley (Petroselinum sativum). — The parsley was seen by 
Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo; but according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, is rare in Egypt. 

The KAAAMiNeH of the Batrachomyomachia, Aristophanes, and Dios- 
corides, according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, would 
seem to be the Mentha syloestris. — This plant was seen by Forskal and 
Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

In " B. C. 485," the accession of Cheschearscha or Xerxes, the third 
Persian king who ruled Egypt, took place. His name has been found 
in hieroglyphic characters on rocks on the Kosser road ; and on 
movable articles, now in the museums of Europe ; together with the 
date of the twelfth year of his reign. 

In " B. C. 480," Xerxes set out from Sardis, in Asia Minor, on his 
memorable invasion of Greece. 

The earliest Greek coins hitherto discovered, are those issued by 
Alexander I., the Macedonian king who accompanied the army of 
Xerxes. The letters on them, are the Greek capital letters used at 
the present day. 

Statues holding the " fruit of the garden-pine," the work of Ptolichus 
and Calamis, were seen by Pausanias. — Pine-nuts are mentioned by 
Mnesitheus, Theophrastus, Diodes, Alexander Myndius, Nicander, 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 59 

Virgil, and Galen (De Aliment. Fac. ii.) ; and their importation into 
Egypt, is noticed by Athenaeus. But the living tree (Pinus pinea), 
appears to have remained unknown in Palestine and Egypt. 

The ErnrAAos of Cratinus, Eubulus, Antiphanes, Theophrastus vi. 1, 
and Athenaeus xv. 32 and xii. 78, is usually referred to the thyme 
(Thymus serpyllum). — This plant readily becomes naturalized in 
foreign countries ; but except in being apparently known to Athenaeus, 
I have met with no evidence of its presence in Egypt. 

The pa<i>aniz of Cratinus, Pherecrates, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Am- 
phis, and Athenaeus, according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, would seem to be the charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum). — 
F. Columna found this plant eaten in Apulia : and an allied species 
occurs in Egypt ; where, too, the leaves of the R. sativus are eaten. 
The " R. sativus, var. oleifer" was seen by Lippi, cultivated in Nubia; 
and by Granger, in Egypt. 

It seems probable, however, that the "Egyptian raphaninum oleum" 
of Pliny was obtained from the coleseed or rape (Brassica napus). 
Galen (De Fac. Alim. ii. p. 622) does not distinguish the " raphani- 
das" from the "boyniadas:" and according to Clot-Bey, the manufac- 
ture of rape-seed oil is at the present day well known in Egypt. 

The hmepokaaaei of Cratinus (as quoted by Athenaeus xv. 28), 
according to the description by Theophrastus vi. 1, and Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, would seem to be one or more species of 
Daphne. — These are low shrubs of the Northern shores of the Medi- 
terranean, which appear to be unknown in Egypt in the living state ; 
but their medicinal uses are mentioned by Arab writers. 

The HMEroKAAAEi as described by Dioscorides and Athenasus, is 
clearly a different plant; and is referred by Sibthorp to the Lilium 
Chalcedonicum. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp, w 7 ild on the moun- 
tains of Greece, and may have been known in Egypt to Athenaeus. 
The L. martagon, also found by Sibthorp wild on the mountains of 
Greece; was seen by Belon at Constantinople; and has been long culti- 
vated in the gardens of Europe ; but I have met with no evidence of 
its being known in Egypt. 

The AsnAPAros. of Cratinus, Pherecrates, Ameipsias, Theopompus, 
Theophrastus, and Athenaeus ii. 62, according to the received opinion 
and Scarlatus' account of the Greek usage, is the garden asparagus 
(A. officinalis). — Cato, as quoted by Pliny, gives directions respecting 
the culture of the "asparagus." — And our garden asparagus is enume- 
rated by Alpinus in his list of the esculent plants of Egypt. 



60 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The anemhnh of Cratinus, and the "phlogion" of Theophrastus and 
Pliny, may be compared with the species of Adonis. — Horapollo states, 
that the flower of the " anemone" forms a hieroglyphic character : and 
the Adonis aestivalis and an indigenous species, were seen by Delile in 
Egypt ; where, on the other hand, the modern genus Anemone appears 
to be unknown. 

The MEAiAaTos of Cratinus, Aristotle, and others, is usually referred 
to the Melilotus officinalis ; and the brief notice by Theophrastus (De 
Caussis Plant, vi. 22) corresponds. — The M. officinalis was seen by 
Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Clot-Bey and Figari, in Egypt : and allied 
species, the M. Messanensis and M. Cretica, were seen by Delile, growing 
spontaneously at Alexandria, Rosetta, Damietta, and Cairo. 

In "B.C. 465," the accession of Artabanus, the fourth Persian king 
who ruled Egypt, took place. In the same year, he was succeeded by 
Artcheschsesch, or Artaxerxes ; whose name in hieroglyphic charac- 
ters has been found on rocks on the Kosser road ; and on other monu- 
ments ; together with the date of the sixteenth year of his reign. 

In Yemen, according to Forskal, the Panicum miliaceum is called 
"mileeh:" the meainh of Sophocles, Herodotus iii. 117, Xenophon 
(Anab. i. 5, 10), and Harpocration, may be compared. — The P. milia- 
ceum is a species of millet, described as having a spreading panicle, 
and said to be sometimes cultivated in Europe. It was seen by Has- 
selquist in Palestine ; and by Forskal, in Egypt. 

The medicinal tpi<i>yaaon of Sophocles, Euryphon (2 De Morbis 25 
and 38), Nicander, Dioscorides. and Pliny xxi. 88, is referred by Sib- 
thorp and others to the Psoralea bituminosa. — This plant has not been 
found in Egypt ; but an allied species, P. Palcestina, was seen by Delile 
in a garden at Cairo. 

The akangh of Sophocles (quoted by Plutarch, Disput. de Epicur. 
19) is clearly a thistle. — Various kinds of thistles have been found in 
Egypt : as the Onopordum Qrcecum, seen by Sibthorp in Greece and 
Cyprus ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

Hellanicus (as quoted by Athenaeus xv. 24) speaks of the akangaj 
aeykai, and meaanai being used for garlands in Egypt. — The Centaurea 
moschata, seen in gardens at Cairo, is enumerated by Forskal among 
the coronary plants. 

The famnos of Sophron, Eupolis, Theophrastus, Euphorion, and 
Macrobius (Saturn, vii. 5), according to the received opinion and Sib- 
thorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Lycium Europoeum. — This 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. Q\ 

plant was seen by Hasselquist at Jerusalem ; and by Forskal, Delile, 
and others, growing spontaneously at Alexandria and Damietta. 

Herodotus iv. 53, speaks of the sturgeon of the large rivers of 
Southern Russia ; and of its flesh being dried or salted. — Fish-glue or 
isinglass, " ichthyocolla," is described by Dioscorides, Pliny xxxii. 24, 
and JElian. 

The drug castor (obtained from the beaver of the North), is men- 
tioned by Herodotus iv. 109 ; and is more particularly noticed by Celsus, 
Dioscorides, and Galen. — Its importation into Egypt is shown, by the 
drug being recommended by Serapion, Rhazes, Avicenna, and other 
Arab medical writers. 

The kannabis, mentioned by Herodotus (iv. 74) as a plant used by 
the Scythians for making cloth, is admitted to be the hemp (Cannabis 
sativa). — This plant is cultivated in Egypt solely for its intoxicating 
properties ; which have been known there (according to Lane) for 
about six centuries. 

Herodotus iii. 98, Megasthenes, and Strabo xv., speak of the bamboo 
(Bambos arundinacea) as a production of India. — The living plant 
appears to have remained unknown in Egypt until within a few 
years ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is now cultivated there 
with success. 

Herodotus describes the edible Nymphvea lotus ; and, as abounding in 
Egypt. — Theophrastus also mentions the "white-flowered Egyptian 
lotus." I did not meet with the N. lotus in Egypt ; but was informed, 
that it makes its appearance after the inundation. 

In Egypt, certain downy-leaved plants, including the Croton tincto- 
rium, are called " ghobbeyreh ;" a word which seems to indicate the 
siAAiKrnrmN of Herodotus. — Clot-Bey and Figari speak of oil made in 
Egypt from seeds of the C. tinctorium. The plant however does not 
appear to be cultivated ; but grows as a weed, as observed by myself 
in the Thebaid. It occurs also on the Northern shores of the Medi- 
terranean, according to Camerarius, Tournefort, and Sibthorp. 

Dioscorides refers the siAAiKrnrinN to the " kroton," and under this 
name distinctly describes the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis) ; 
Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage seems also to correspond. — 
The " kroton" is mentioned in the Hippocratic writings (De Nat. Mul. 
and 2 De Mul. Morb. 79), and by Theophrastus and Nicander (Ther. 
676). Pliny speaks of the presence of the "croton" or "ricinus" in 
Egypt: where at the present day, the R. communis is well known. 



62 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

This plant was doubtless introduced from Hindostan, or perhaps, 
originally from the Malay countries. 

The sxinos of Herodotus, Theophrastus, and others, according to 
the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the 
masticlh-tree (Pistacia lentiscus). — Mastich is mentioned by Dioscorides 
and Pliny, and Paulus JEgineta speaks of an Egyptian kind ; but the 
living tree appears to be unknown in Egypt. 

In Egypt, gum ladanum (the product of one or more indigenous 
species of Cistus) is called " laden ;" in which word we recognise, 
the "ahaanon procured by the Arabians" of Herodotus iii. 107. — 
Pliny states, that "ladanum" is produced in the Nabathgean district, 
and in Cyprus ; but at the present day, according to Forskal (Mat. 
Med.), this gum is imported into Egypt from Crete. 

Gum-arabic, the product of Acacia gummifera, is mentioned by 
Herodotus and Pliny. — A small quantity is known to be procured 
in the Sinai Peninsula ; but the principal source of the gum-arabic 
of commerce, is the Somali country. The living tree was seen by Delile 
in Upper Egypt : I did not meet with it ; nor with any wild Acacia 
in Egypt that exceeded the dimensions of a shrub. 

The aibanhtos tree of Herodotus iii. 107, and the " turea virga" of 
Virgil (Geor. ii. 117), or frankincense-wood, are referred by Sprengel 
to the Amyris kafal. — This tree grows in Yemen ; and according to 
Forskal, its wood is exported in large quantities to Egypt. 

The erMBrA of Euripides (Rhes. 508), Aristophanes, Demochares, 
Theophrastus, and Atheneeus v. 12, according to Tournefort's and 
Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Satureja thymbra. — This 
plant is indigenous in the Grecian Archipelago ; and being noticed by 
Athenseus, was probably once known in Egypt. 

The coronary miaah of Euripides, Pherecrates, Aristophanes, and 
Athenseus, according to the received opinion, is the Smilax aspera: 
which is said to have odorous flowers. — Callixenus speaks of branches, 
used in the festival of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; doubtless imported ; for 
the Smilax being a woodland plant, is of course unknown in Egypt. 

The ENGrrsKON of Pherecrates, Theophrastus, Columella, and Dios- 
corides, is referred by C. Bauhin to the Chmrophyllum sativum. — Pliny 
xxi. 52, enumerates the "anthriscum" among the esculent plants of 
Egypt : and the C. sativum, was seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens 
at Cairo. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 63 

In " B. C. 425," the accession of Xerxes II., the sixth Persian king 
who ruled Egypt, took place. His reign was brief; and in the same 
year, he was succeeded by Sogdianus. 

In " B. C. 424," the accession of Nteriusch II., or Darius II., the 
eighth Persian king who ruled Egypt, took place. His name has been 
found in hieroglyphic characters on the monuments. 

The nisoN of Eupolis, Aristophanes, Antiphanes, Theophrastus, 
Pliny, and Athenaeus ix. 71 and 10, according to the received opinion, 
is the garden-pea (Pisum sativum). — Alpinus enumerates the garden- 
pea in his list of the esculent plants of Egypt. 

The 4>aomoz of Eupolis, Aristotle viii., Dioscorides, and Macrobius, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is one or more species of mullein (Verbascum). — The V. sinua- 
tum was seen in Egypt by Delile, and by Clot-Bey and Figari. 

In "B.C. 414" (Clinton), the Egyptians recovered their indepen- 
dence. Their leader Amyrtaeus, or Meritetnacht, is regarded as the 
sole king of the Twenty-Eighth Dynasty : and his name has been found 
in hieroglyphic characters on the monuments. 

As the reign of Amyrtaeus is said to have lasted only " six years," 
Clinton's computation will give B. C. 408 for the accession of Nepberites, 
the first king of the Twenty-Ninth Egyptian Dynasty. Nepberites is 
also mentioned by Diodorus xiv. 79. 

The icons of Aristophanes (Nub. 630), according to the received 
opinion, is the Oimex lectularius. — The " cimex" of Catullus and Pliny, 
and the " lectuli bestias" of Tertullian (Adv. Marcion i. 14), may also 
be referred to this insect : which, at the present day, is well known in 
Egypt. 

According to Athenaeus ix. 37, the pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) 
is mentioned by Aristophanes, Epeenetus, Mnesimachus, and Agathar- 
chides Cnidius. — Callixenus states, that pheasants were carried at 
Alexandria in the festival of Ptolemy Philadelphus. 

The <MATrA of Aristophanes, Xenarchus, and Athenaaus xii. 76 and 
xv. 24, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the 
Greek usage, is the linden (Tilia Europaea). — Forskal mentions the 
importation of timber of the linden into Egypt. 

The s*enaamnos of Aristophanes (Acharn. 181), Theophrastus, and 
others, according to the received opinion, is one or more species of 
maple (Acer). — The A. campestre, is enumerated by Clot-Bey and 
Figari, among the trees planted in gardens at Cairo. 



(34 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The bahton or baiton of Aristophanes, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 
and Palladius, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, is the Amaranthus blitum. — This plant is still cul- 
tivated in Europe as an esculent ; and, according to Alpinus, also in 
Egypt. 

The rorrrAis (already mentioned) of Aristophanes, Theophrastus 
i. 9, Diodes, Columella, Athengeus, and Aretgeus, and the "rapum" of 
Cato and Pliny, are referred by Beckmann to the turnip (Brassica 
rapa). — The cultivation of the turnip in Syria and Egypt is noticed 
by various modern travellers. 

The kapaamon of Aristophanes, the Hippocratic writings, and Po- 
lysenus, according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the 
Lepidium sativum, or pepper-grass. — The L. sativum is enumerated by 
Forskal, Delile, and others, among the plants cultivated in Egypt. 

In Egypt, the field-pea (Pisum arvense) is called " besilleh ;" in 
which word we recognise, the "piseli" of the modern Greeks ; and ap- 
parently, the <i>azhao2 of Aristophanes, and the "vilem faselum" of 
Virgil. 

The boabos of Aristophanes (Nub. 188), Archestratus, Xenarchus, 
Heraclides Tarentinus, Theophrastus vii. 2, and Athengeus ii. 64, ac- 
cording to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Mtiscari como- 
sum. — This plant was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alex- 
andria. 

The <dykos of Aristophanes (Thesm. 2), Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 
and Pliny, is referred by Tournefort and Dillenius to the argol or 
archil (Lichen rocella) . — Tournefort met with this lichen in the Grecian 
Archipelago, and speaks of its exportation, both to England and Egypt. 

The nHTANON of Aristophanes, Cytherius Philoxenus, Aristophon, 
Dioscorides, and Athengeus ii. 62 and xiv. 50, according to the re- 
ceived opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is one or 
more species of rue (Ruta). — The R. Chalepensis, was seen by Delile 
and others in gardens at Cairo ; and both this and the R. graveolens, 
are enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among the plants long known 
in Egypt. 

The akaah<dh of Aristophanes, Diodes, and Athengeus ii. 57, accord- 
ing to the received opinion, is one or more species of nettle (Urtica) . — 
The U. pilulifera, was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing sponta- 
neously at Cairo; the U. urem was also seen by Delile, growing sponta- 
neously at Cairo ; and the U. dioica was seen in Egypt by Hasselquist. 

The skanaih of Aristophanes (Acharn. 478) and Pliny, according 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 65 

to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is 
one or more species of Scandix. — The S. trichosperma was received 
from Egypt by Linnseus. 

The rxorsA of Aristophanes (Eccles. 929 and Lysistrat. 48), Theo- 
phrastus vii. 9, Nicander (Ther. 838), and Dioscorides, clearly corre- 
sponds with the Echium rubrum of Forskal. — Forskal found this plant 
still used as a cosmetic in Egypt. 

The AMorriAos of Aristophanes (Lysistrat. 735), according to Sib- 
thorp's and Scarlatus' account of the Greek usage, would seem to be 
the Scorpiurus sulcata. — This plant was found by Delile along the 
borders of the cultivated fields of Lower Egypt ; and the S. villosa 
was seen by Forskal growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The gtmon of Aristophanes, Theophrastus, Ariston, Hegesander, 
and Athengeus ii. 60, according to Tournefort's and Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, is the Satureja ? capitata. — This plant abounds in 
the Grecian Archipelago ; and was seen by Delile, indigenous near 
Alexandria. 

The EAAEBoros of Aristophanes, Euryphon, Demosthenes, Theo- 
phrastus, Dioscorides, and Oribasius, is considered to be the Helleborus 
Orientalis ; an. indigenous plant of Greece. — Two kinds, however, are 
mentioned by ancient writers ; and Forskal (Mat. Med.) notices the 
importation and medical use in Egypt of roots of the " h. niger and 
h. albus." 

The icatta noNTiKA of Ctesias, Dioscorides, and Athengeus, according 
to Forskal's account of the usage at Constantinople, is the filbert 
(Corylus avellana). — Virgil enumerates the filbert among cultivated 
plants; and Pliny states (xv. 24), that it was brought into Greece 
and Asia Minor from Pontus. The living plant appears to be un- 
known in Egypt. 

Ctesias speaks of a bird in India that " could talk like man, and 
even speak Greek, if it had learned the language ;" and in this descrip- 
tion, we readily recognise the parrot (Psittacus). At this time, there- 
fore, the parrot was unknown in Greece; but the bird must have been 
introduced shortly afterwards, for it is mentioned by Aristotle, Ovid, 
and Pliny. 

As the above-described parrot was partly "of the colour of ki n- 
nabap," it would seem, that Ctesias referred to our modern cinnabar, 
or vermilion (the sulphuret of quicksilver). — Crude quicksilver, 



66 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

" ydrargyros." is mentioned by Aristotle, Vitruvius, Dioscorides, Pliny, 
and Galen ; and also by the Arab medical writers. 

Pliny xxxiii. 38, remarks, that kinnabap is an Indian word, and is 
applied to " saniem draconis," or dragons blood (said to be the product 
of Draccena draco) : and he further speaks of serious mistakes in the 
practice of medicine, arising from this confusion of names. — The medi- 
cinal use of dragon's blood, is also mentioned by Paulus iEgineta, 
Constantinus, and the Arab writers. 

The MANArAroror of the treatise "2 De Morbis" (quoted by Galen 
as a work of Euryphon), and of Demosthenes 133, 1, Theophrastus, 
and Dioscorides, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's ac- 
count of the Greek usage, is the Atropa mandragora. — This is an in- 
digenous plant of Greece and other parts of Europe; and Forskal (Mat. 
Med.) notices the medicinal use in Egypt of the imported roots. 

The AiNoznsTis of Euryphon (2 De Morbis 12 and 77), Dioscorides, 
and Pliny, and the "herba mercurialis" mentioned by Cato as both 
esculent and medicinal, are usually referred to one or more species of 
Mercurialis. — The M. annua was seen by Sibthorp in Greece; by 
Hasselquist in Palestine ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Alexandria, 

The rnEriKON of Euryphon (2 De Morb. 52 and 62), Nicander (Alex. 
616), and Dioscorides, according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, would seem to be the Hypericum crispum.. — Plants of this genus 
have not been found growing in Egypt ; but a species is imported for 
medicinal use, as appears from Alpinus and the Materia Medica of 
Forskal. 

In Egypt, the Erythrma centaurium is called " kantarian ;" in which 
word we recognise, the kentaypion of Euryphon (2 De Morb. 52), 
Theophrastus, Lucretius ii. 401, and Celsus. — Forskal speaks of the 
medicinal use in Egypt of the E. centaurium ; seen by him growing 
spontaneously at Cairo. 

The nENTA^rAAor pizhn of Euryphon (2 De Morb. 38), Theophras- 
tus, Celsus vi. 18, and Dioscorides, according to the received opinion 
and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Potentilla reptans. — 
Alpinus and Forskal (Mat. Med.) speak of the medicinal use in Egypt 
of "pentaphyllum" root. An allied species, P. supina, was seen by 
Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo ; doubtless by 
some means introduced. 

The akth of Euryphon (2 De Morb. 19), Theophrastus, and Dios- 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 67 

corides, is referred by Sibthorp and others to the Sambucus nigra. — 
This plant is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among those long- 
known in Egypt. 

The poys of Euryphon (2 De Morb. 28), Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 
and Pliny, is referred by Sibthorp and others to the Rhus coriaria. — 
This shrub was seen in Palestine by Pococke and Rabbi Schwarz ; 
and Delile mentions the medicinal use of the imported berries in 
Egypt. 

In Egypt, the Origanum JEgyptiacum is called " mardakusj ;" in 
which word we recognise, the amatakoz of Chasremon, Eubulus, Dio- 
des, and Athenaeus xiii. 87 and xii. 78. — The 0. iEgyptiacum was 
seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo ; and the 0. majorana, was seen in 
Egypt by Hasselquist. 

According to Gesenius and Gliddon (Otia iEgyp., p. 106), no Phoe- 
nician or Panic inscription hitherto discovered, has proved to be earlier 
than B. C. 394. — The Samaritan letters, and those on the Maccabee 
coins, are regarded as directly descended from the Phoenician. 

The name of Hakor, or Acoris, the second king of the Twenty- 
Ninth Egyptian Dynasty, has been found on repaired portions of the 
temples at Medinet-Habu and El Kab ; in the quarries at Tura, acr 
companied by the date of the second year of his reign ; and on a 
sphinx now in the museum at Paris. King Acoris is mentioned by 
Theopompus and Diodorus. 

The rozKTAMos of Xenophon (CEcon. i. 13), Dioscorides, and Paulus 
iEgineta, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of 
the Greek usage, is one or more species of Hyoscyamus. — The H. albus 
was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria ; and in the 
Desert, I repeatedly met with the indigenous H. datura. 

The iris, entering into the composition of the ifinon mti>on of Cephi- 
sodorus, Didymus, and Athenasus xii. 78 and xv. 39, and stated by 
Theophrastus to be " the only spice which Europe produces," is ad- 
mitted to be orris-root (Iris Florentina). — This plant was seen by 
Hawkins and Sibthorp in Greece ; and the imported roots are doubt- 
less known in Egypt. 

The nKiMnN of Strattis, Theophrastus, Cato, and Athenaeus ii. 79, 
according to Sibthorp's and Scarlatus' account of the Greek usage, 
would seem to be the Reseda phyteuma. — Sibthorp found the leaves of 
this plant cooked and eaten in Greece. Forskal names the plant, as 



gg CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

seen by him in the Desert near Cairo ; but some doubt in regard to the 
species, is expressed by Delile. 

According to Theopompus (fr. Ill) and C. Muller, The accession of 
Nechtneb or Nectanebus, the first king of the Thirtieth Egyptian Dy- 
nasty, took place prior to B. C. 376. His name has been found by 
Champollion, on small temples at Medinet-Habu and Philae ; on stones 
employed in building the citadel at Cairo, and the Coptic church at 
Keft ; and on movable articles, now in the museums of Europe. 

According to Birch, The earliest Zodiacal -projection observed on a 
sarcophagus, is of the time of King Nectanebus. 

Athenaeus ii. 73 (after noticing the silence of Ctesias on the subject), 
refers to Eubulus and Antiphanes as the earliest writers who speak 
of the nEnEH, or black pepper. — The nEnEn, is mentioned in the trea- 
tise " De Vict. Acut." (considered as a genuine work of Hippocrates) ; 
and was of course imported from India ; or, perhaps, through India 
from the Malay countries. I saw in the Thebaid, a quantity of black 
pepper that had been imported by the way of Mecca. 

The etangemon of Hippocrates, Asclepiades, and Pliny, referred by 
Galen to the "chamaimelon," appears to be the true chamomile (An- 
themis nobilis). — Macer Floridus mentions chamomile flowers ; and 
Alpinus speaks of their medicinal use in Egypt ; where the living 
plant, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently in- 
troduced. 

The ammi of Hippocrates (as quoted by Pliny), and of Dioscorides 
and Paul us iEgineta, is referred by Sprengel to the Ptychotis ajowan ; 
so abundantly cultivated, for the sake of its seeds, in Hindostan. — 
Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the importation of" ammi" seeds from 
India ; and also states, that some are produced in Egypt. 

The nEnAioN of Hippocrates (referred by Dioscorides iv. 150 to the 
nEnAis, and mentioned under the latter name by Rufus Ephesius and 
Galen), according to the received opinion, is the Euphorbia peplis. — 
This plant Avas seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The ErreroAANON of Hippocrates (De Vict. Acut.), Theophrastus, 
and Dioscorides, according to the received opinion, is the madder; 
mentioned also by Philon Judseus (Quis rer. Divin. Heres) under its 
well-known Egyptian name, " phoya." Some of the mummy cloths 
are said to be dyed with madder ; imported, perhaps, as in modern 
times, from the island of Cyprus. — The madder plant (Rubia tincto- 
rum) was seen by Delile in gardens at Damietta ; but according to 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 69 

Clot-Bey and Figari, its field culture has been only recently practised 
in Egypt. 

The seseai of Hippocrates (De Vict. Acut, 12), may be compared 
with the " pimpinella," enumerated by Forskal (Mat. Med.) as im- 
ported and used medicinally in Egypt.* 

In Egypt, according to Forskal, the Vicia lutea is called " bachra ;" 
in which word we recognise, the nxros of Anaxandrides, Alexis, Pha- 
nias, Theophrastus, and Athenaeus ii. 44 and iv. 7. 

The AAerros of Anaxandrides, Alexis, Theophrastus, and Athenceus 
ii. 44 and iv. 7, may be compared with the Lathyrus sativus. — This 
plant was seen in Upper Egypt by Delile ; and Clot-Bey and Figari 
state, that it is " cultivated there, and the seeds given to cattle." 

The aoaixos of Anaxandrides, Athenasus iv. 7, and others, accord- 
ing to Aretoeus, is "by some called aoboz;" and in the latter word, 
we recognise the "loubieh" of Egypt, Doliclios lubia. 

The kojpiannon of Anaxandrides, Antiphanes, Zeno, Xenocrates, 
Athenaaus ii. 77 and iv. 47, and Macer Floridus 29, according to the 
received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the 
coriander (Coriandrum sativum). — Pliny states, that "the best corian- 
drum comes from Egypt ;" where, at the present day, the C. sativum 
is abundantly cultivated. 

The sorxos of Antiphanes, Matron, Hegesander, and Athenaeus ii. 
56 and vi. 57, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, is the Sonclws oleraceus. — Forskal, Delile, and 
others, enumerate the S. oleraceus among the weeds of Egypt. 

The KimoN of Antiphanes, Eriphus, Phanias of Eresus, Juba, and 
Athenasus hi. 26, may be compared with the sweet lemon, or true 
citron (Citrus Medica). — Theoprfrastus describes the "melon medikon 
and persikon" as "having thorns, and bearing at all seasons a fruit 
which is not eaten;" and Dioscorides adds, that " the fruit is oblong;" 
particulars, agreeing with the sweet lemon. That the sweet lemon 
preceded the other species of Citrus in the Mediterranean countries, 
may also be inferred, from its being almost the only kind cultivated 
along the Persian Gulf. 

* The KOAOKTN0H ArTIH of Hippocrates (as quoted by Galen), and of the treatise 
" 2 De Mill. Morb. 108," according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, would 
seem to be the Bryonia dioica and B. Cretica. — These are indigenous plants of Greece 
and other parts of Europe ; but I have met with no evidence of their being known in 
Egypt. 



70 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In " B. C. 361" (Clinton ii. pp. 264 and 383), the accession of Nec- 
tanebus II., of the Thirtieth Egyptian Dynasty, took place. He was 
the last of the native Egyptian kings. 

The kastaneia of Mnesitheus, Heracleon Ephesius, and Athenaeus 
ii. 43, according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the 
Greek usage, is the chestnut (Castanea vulgaris). — A tree originally 
foreign to Europe (as appears from the testimony of Pliny and others), 
and expressly enumerated among objects of cultivation by Virgil. 
The nuts, being mentioned by Athenseus, were of course imported 
into Egypt ; but the living tree appears to be unknown there; though 
according to Rabbi Schwarz, it grows in Palestine. 

In "B. C. 350" (Clinton ii. p. 383), the Persians under Artaxerxes 
Ochus, aided by Greek mercenaries, regained possession of Egypt. 

The 2<dakon of Alexis, Aristophon, and Athenseus iv. 69, according 
to the received opinion, is the garden sage (Salvia officinalis). — This 
plant was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

The oroBos of Demosthenes 598, 4, Theophrastus, and others, ac- 
cording to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Ervum ervilia. — Alpinus speaks of the cultivation of this 
plant in Egypt. 

The akoniton of Theopompus, Theophrastus, Antigonus Carystius, 
Euphorion, and Aelius Promotus, according to the received opinion 
and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Aconitum napellus. — 
Belon speaks of an acrid root imported into Egypt, which is called 
" bisch," and is by him referred to the " napellus." 

The zTroYeior pizhs of the treatise "De Nat. Mul." in the Hippo- 
cratic collection, and of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Lucian, and Galen, 
according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, would seem to be 
the Silene behen. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the importation into 
Egypt of " struthium" root from Greece.* 

The batpaxion of the treatises " De Nat. Mul." 29 and " 1 De Mul. 
Morb.," and the " batrachion triton" of Dioscorides, may be compared 
with the Ranunculus sceleratus. — This plant is noticed by Gerarde ; 
was seen by Sibthorp at Constantinople and Smyrna ; and by Forskal 

* The GAASni of the treatise " De Nat. Mul." 29, and of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and 
Paulus iEgineta, is referred by Sibthorp and others to the Thlaspi bursa-pastoris — The 
"bursam pastoris" of the Liber Saladini, may also be compared. The T. bursa-pastoris 
was seen by Hasselquist at Jerusalem ; but I have met with no evidence of its being 
known in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 71 

and Delile in Egypt ; where, moreover, it is used medicinally, as ap- 
pears from Forskal, p. lv. 

The aptemisia of the treatises " De Nat. Mul." 29, " De Superfcet." 
19, and " 1 De Mul. Morb." 31, and of Dioscorides and Galen, is 
referred by Sibthorp to the Artemisia arhoresce) is. — This plant is in- 
digenous in the Grecian Archipelago ; and was seen by Delile, culti- 
vated in gardens at Cairo. 

The EniGTMON of the treatises "De Intern. Affect." 10, and " 2 De 
Morb. Mulier." 9, and of Dioscorides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta, is 
usually referred to the dodder (Cuscuta). — This plant, according to F. 
Adams, is distinctly described by Serapion. Forskal (Mat. Med.) found 
"cuscuta" seeds used medicinally by the Egyptians; and the C. 
Europea and C. monogyna, are enumerated by Delile among the weeds 
of Egypt. 

The medicinal apakontion of the treatises " De Int. Affect." 1, and 
" De Steril." 17, of Theophrastus vii. 11, and the " dracunculus having 
a convoluted root" of Pliny xxiv. 91, may be compared with the 
Polygonum bistorta ; an indigenous plant of Greece and other parts of 
Europe. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) mentions the medicinal use in Egypt 
of imported "bistorta" root; and Clot-Bey and Figari speak of the 
recent introduction there of the living plant. 

The ahztoaoxia of the treatises "De Int. Affect." 25, " 3 De Morbis" 
23, and "2 De Mul. Morb." 79, and of Theophrastus, Nicander, Diosco- 
rides, Pliny, and Paulus ^Egineta, is admitted to be one or more of 
the European species of Aristolochia. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) mentions 
the importation and medicinal use of " aristolochia" root in Egypt. 

The bpomoz, mentioned as an article of food in the treatise " 2 De 
Diseta" 12, and noticed by Theophrastus, Polemon, and Athengeus xi. 
56, according to Zalikoglous' account of the Greek usage, is the culti- 
vated oat (Avena sativa); a grain mentioned also by Pliny xviii. 44, 
as used for food by the Germans. — The A. sativa was seen by Bory 
de St. Vincent, cultivated and naturalized in Greece ; and according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, has a native name, and is now cultivated for 
feeding cattle in Egypt. 

The stptxnos of the treatises " 2 De Diasta" 25, and " De Int. 
Aff." 30, appears to be the "strychnos ypnodes" of Theophrastus 
and Dioscorides, referred by Sibthorp and others to the Physalis somni- 
fera. — This plant was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing spontane- 
ously at Alexandria and Cairo. 



72 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In "B. C. 338," the accession of Arses, the second Persian king who 
ruled reconquered Egypt, took place. 

In " B. C. 336," the accession of Darius III., the third Persian king 
who ruled reconquered Egypt, took place. 

The mnosEAiNON of Aristotle (Probl. xx. 7), and Theophrastus vii. 
6, identified by Columella and Pliny with the " atrum olus" of Plautus 
(Pseudol. iii. 2) and others, is usually referred to the Smyrnium olusa- 
trum. — Apuleius Barbarus speaks of the plant being known in Egypt ; 
but the S. olusatrum has not been found there by modern travellers. 

The XOAOKYNG12 of Aristotle (Probl. xx. 14) and others, called also 
(according to Dioscorides) " kolokyntha alexandrine," is clearly the fruit 
of the colocynih (Cucumis colocynthis). — This plant does not grow as far 
north as Greece ; but is known to be indigenous in the Desert, from 
Eg}'pt to the Euphrates and Hindostan. 

The aiktamnos of Aristotle viii. 6, Theophrastus, Antigonus Ca- 
rystius, and Andromachus, according to the received opinion, is the 
Origanum dictamnus. — Alpinus speaks of the "dictamnus cretensis" 
being used medicinally in Egypt. 

In Egypt, the dried fruit of the Uvaria aromatica is called "amama;" 
in which word we recognise, the amhmon of Aristotle and Athengeus 
xi. 11 : and the descriptions by Dioscorides, Pliny, and Isidorus, are 
found to correspond. According to Matthioli, Lobel, and Delile, the 
fruit of the Uvaria is brought down the Nile from Interior Africa. 

The meaeatpis of Aristotle, Clytus Milesius, Menodotus, Pliny, and 
Athengeus, according to the received opinion, is the Guinea-foirt (Nu- 
mida meleagris). — Callixenus states, that " meleagrides" were carried at 
Alexandria in the festival of Ptolemy Philadelphus : and according to 
Browne, Guinea-fowl are still imported into Egypt by the Darfour 
caravans. 



In " B. C. 332," Greek rule was established in Egypt by Alexander. 
In the following year, Alexander proceeded on his Eastern Expedition ; 
which, among other results, contributed essentially to render India 
better known to the Mediterranean nations. 

About this time, Greek inscriptions make their appearance in Egypt. 
Among the earliest, perhaps, is the papyrus containing a large portion 
of a lost oration of Hyperides, recently discovered in Egypt by 
Mr. A. C. Harris. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 73 

According to a statement preserved in Quintus Curtius ix. 25, 
" The Indians brought dorsa testudinum to Alexander." It seems 
probable, however, that the traffic in tortoise-shell by the route of the 
Red Sea, was at this time in existence. — Carvilius Pollio, according to 
Pliny ix. 13, first taught the art of splitting tortoise-shell. 

Nearchus in his account of India (quoted by Strabo xv.) speaks of 
2HPIKA ; usually considered to be silk stuffs, a Chinese manufacture. — 
The importation of silk stuffs into the Mediterranean countries, took 
place subsequently ; but they continued to be so rare and costly, that 
the Emperor Elagabalus was charged with being the first Roman who 
wore a dress of silk. 

Nearchus (as quoted by Arrian), and Onesicritus (as quoted by 
Strabo xv.), speak of "the Kathaians tinging the beard of different 
colours ;" and this was probably accomplished, in part, by the use of 
henna (Lawsonia). — The introduction of henna into Egypt, appears 
to have been much later ; Lucan iii. 238, refers the above custom to 
India; but the "Egyptian kypros" of Dioscorides and Pliny, "the 
bruised leaves of which redden the hair," corresponds with the henna; 
and the remarks of Tertullian (De Cult. Fcem. ii. 6), imply a novel 
practice. Mummies have been discovered, having their nails stained 
with henna. 

Nearchus (as quoted by Strabo xv.) speaks of an Indian " reed that 
yields honey without the aid of bees ;" and in this description, we 
readily recognise the sugar-cane (Saccharum officinale). — Pliny and 
Galen speak of manufactured sugar, as " a production of Arabia and 
India ;" and the living plant does not appear to have been introduced 
into the Mediterranean countries until a much more recent period. 

Aristobulus (as quoted by Arrian) speaks of a species of 2ia<i>ion, 
growing on the Caucasus and used for feeding cattle. The plant cor- 
responds to the Prangos pabularia of the Northern declivity of the 
Himalaya mountains. 

The product attributed to this zia<j>ion, was doubtless the "opos Medi- 
kos" of Strabo xi., Dioscorides, and Pliny, or assafcetida; supposed to be 
obtained from more than one species of Ferula, growing on the moun- 
tains of Persia and Cabul. — The assafcetida of commerce is at least 
derived from that quarter, for according to Forskal (Mat. Med.), the 
drug is imported into Egypt from India. 

Aristobulus (as quoted by Strabo xv.), and Megasthenes (as quoted 
by AthenaBus iv. 39), speak of the Indians eating optza, or rice. The 



74 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Greek word seems to have been derived from the Malay " bras ;" and 
forms perhaps the earliest instance of the introduction of a Malay term 
into the Mediterranean languages. — Some centuries later, as appears 
from Horace, Strabo, Dioscorides, and the Jewish Mishna, the culture 
of rice was introduced into Babylonia, Syria, and Egypt. 

On the death of Alexander, "B. C. 323," Ptolemy obtained the 
government of -Egypt : but the earliest buildings erected by him, bear 
the names in hieroglyphic characters of Philippus Aridaeus and Alex- 
ander IV., the nominal successors to the whole Empire. Ptolemy 
removed from Heliopolis to Alexandria the two well-known obelisks; 
and at the mouth of the harbour, he commenced an immense pharos, 
or light-house (the ruins of which were " one hundred and fifty cubits 
high" so late as the twelfth century); he also founded the celebrated 
Alexandrian Library. 

Monuments of the reign of Ptolemy and his Greek successors, are 
numerous in Egypt; but are comparatively uninteresting. Yet the 
temples are not devoid of architectural taste ; and their walls, though 
chiefly devoted to Mythology and ostentatious enumerations of con- 
quests, present dates, genealogies, and Astronomical records, that the 
historian might consult with advantage. 

Theophrastus iv. 9, has distinctly described the Pistia stratiotes, as 
a plant growing in Egypt ; and his account of its medicinal use is 
confirmed by Alpinus. — The Pistia, being an aquatic plant, may have 
floated down the Nile without human intervention. It was seen in 
Sennaar by Cailliaud ; but nevertheless may not be truly indigenous 
in Equatorial Africa. 

Theophrastus v. 6, mentions a kind of wood, used at Tylos (in the 
Persian Gulf) for building ships that have been known to keep sound 
for more than two hundred years : a description corresponding with 
the tealc (Tectona grandis). — Forskal found the keel of the Egyptian 
vessels made of a wood imported from India, and called " sadj :" on 
referring to Graham, this is found to be the Bombay name of the teak. 

The KAPAAM^MON of Theophrastus, of the treatise " 1 De Mul. 
Morb." 52 (in the Hippocratic Collection), and of Dioscorides and 
Pliny, is admitted to be cardamoms (the seeds of Elettaria cardamo- 
mum) . — Edrisi states, that this spice is brought by the way of Aden 
" from China ;" but according to Bontius, the plant grows in Java. I 
found cardamom seeds in common use throughout the Arab countries ; 
and I met with a quantity, that had been imported by the route of 
Mecca and the Thebaid. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 75 

The kaaamos EriiAHs of Theophrastus iv. 9, or the " calamus alex- 
andrinus" of Celsus and Dionysius Periegetes, is referred by Royle to 
the Andropogon calamus-aromaticus ; Dioscorides states, that the plant 
grows in India. 

The sxoinos of Theophrastus ix. 7, Columella, and Damogeron, and 
the "gramen Arabum" of Propertius xxix. 17, may be compared with 
the Andropogon schcenanihus ; more generally known under the name 
of "juncus odoratus." — Alpinus speaks of the importation of juncus 
odoratus from Arabia into Egypt ; and Hasselquist states, that it is 
" brought from Limbo in Arabia Petrgea." Accordiug to Bontius, the 
grass grows wild and is likewise cultivated, in Java. 

The kostos imported from India, of Theophrastus ix. 7, Ovid, 
Celsus, and Lucan, is considered to be the dried root of AuckJandia 
costus. — Bontius states, that this root is brought to Java from Cambodia. 

The baaanos mtpe^-ikh of Theophrastus iv. 2, notwithstanding some 
discrepancies in the description, is usually referred to the Moringa 
oleifera. — Belon and Hasselquist met with the living tree in the Sinai 
Peninsula ; and pods and seeds, were seen by Delile -in the drug shops 
of Cairo. 

The "spiny and feather-leaved" sensitive plant growing at Memphis, 
of Theophrastus iv. 3, and the " aischynomene " of Apollodorus and 
Pliny xxiv. 17, may be compared with the Mimosa liabbas. — This 
shrub was seen by Delile in the Thebaid ; and is indigenous in Abys- 
sinia. 

The " Bactrian tree bearing a nut and resembling the terebinth," 
mentioned by Theophrastus iv. 5, may be compared with the pistachio 
(Pistacia vera). — In Egypt, the pistachio is called "festok;" in which 
word, we recognise the "pistaki" of Nicander and Posidonius. Pliny 
states, that the "pistacia" tree was brought from Syria into Italy a 
little before the death of Tiberius. Delile speaks of the importation 
of pistachio-nuts from Syria into Egypt ; where, according to Clot-Bey 
and Figari, the tree is now commonly cultivated. 

The ANArAXNH of Theophrastus vii. 1, according to Sibthorp's ac- 
count of the Greek usage, is possibly the Peplis portula; a European 
herb, sometimes used for economical purposes at Athens, but which 
appears to be unknown in Egypt. 

Sibthorp, however, refers the anapaxnh of the Ancients to the 
purslain, Portulaca oleracea. — In Egypt, the purslain is called "rigleh" 
(a word, according to Schwarz, occurring in the Rabbinical writings), 



76 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

and also "bakla" (a word used by Rhazes) ; but both these terms are 
sometimes extended to other plants. The purslain is figured by Lobel; 
but the genus has appeared to me, to be properly Tropical, and not 
well according with the natural vegetation of the Mediterranean 
countries. 

The " black-fruited stptxnos " of Theophrastus, is by some writers 
referred to the Solanum nigrum. — This plant is noticed by Came- 
rarius ; was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal, Delile, and 
others, in Egypt ; but it may have once been a strictly Tropical weed. 

The Arrnx-m of Theophrastus, Theocritus xiii. 42, Polybius, Dios- 
corides, and Athenseus viii. 4, is referred by Sibthorp and others to 
the Cynodon dactylon. — This grass was probably derived from India ; 
where it is highly esteemed for feeding cattle. It is figured by Dale- 
champ and Lobel ; was seen by Forskal and Delile in Egypt ; and is 
expressly enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among the plants em- 
ployed there for feeding cattle. 

The AAnnEKorros of Theophrastus vii. 10, is by some writers re- 
ferred to the Lagurus ovatus ; and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, corresponds. — This grass was seen by Forskal, growing spon- 
taneously at Alexandria ; and Delile considers it indigenous. 

The etzhmon of Theophrastus and Dioscorides, or the "eraca" of 
Ovid, Columella, and Pliny, according to the received opinion and 
Greek usage, is the rocket (Brassica eruca). — This plant was seen by 
Alpinus, Forskal, and others, in the gardens of Egypt. 

In Egypt, according to Forskal, the Hesperis acris is called " sphseri ;" 
in which word, we recognise the EsnEPis of Theophrastus (De Causs. 
vi. 28). — The H. acris, however, is said to be indigenous in Egypt; 
and the same species has not been found in Greece. 

The aetkoion of Theophrastus vii. 9, Theocritus, Nicander, Hice- 
sius, and Philonides, mentioned by Athenseus (v. 25 and xv. 17) as a 
common garden flower in Egypt, is usually referred to one or more 
species of Cheiranthus. — According to Callixenus, "leykoion" flowers 
were used in the festival of Ptolemy Philadelphus : Forskal enume- 
rates a Cheiranthus among the coronary plants of Egypt ; and the 
C. incanus was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

In Egypt, the Trifolium Alexandrinum is called " bersym ;" in which 
word, we recognise the eptsimon of Theophrastus. — The T. Alex- 
andrinum is abundantly cultivated in Egypt ; and was seen in Greece 
by Bory de St. Vincent. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 77 

The a*akh of Theophrastus, Phanias of Eresus, Dioscorides, and 
Athenaeus ix. 7, is by some writers referred to the Lathyrus apliaca. 
— This plant was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously around Cairo. 

The sKreiKH risA of Theophrastus xiii., or the " glykyrriza" of 
Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Avicenna, according to the received 
opinion and Greek usage, is the liquorice (Glycyrrhiza). — The G. glabra 
was seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; and by Forskal 
and others, in gardens at Cairo. 

The TPArAKAN©A of Theophrastus ix. 1, Celsus, Dioscorides, and 
Galen, according to the received opinion and Greek usage, is gum traga- 
canth ; procured, according to Hawkins and Sibthorp, partly from the 
Astragalus aristatus. Confirmation of this account, was also obtained 
in Greece by Bory de St. Vincent. — Gum tragacanth, under its Arabic 
name " katira," is mentioned by Rhazes and Ibn Baitar ; but according 
to Forskal (Mat. Med.), is imported into Egypt from Persia. 

The thboaos of Theophrastus, according to Forskal's and Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, would seem to be the Tribulus terrestris. — 
This plant was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously in 
Egypt and Nubia. 

Sibthorp, however, found the Onobrychis crista-galli equally called 
"triboyli" in Cyprus. This plant also was seen by Delile, growing 
spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The nErAiKioN of Theophrastus and others, referred by Celsus to 
the "parthenion and herba muralis," may be compared with the Pari- 
etaria officinalis. — This plant was seen by Delile and others in 
Egypt ; where it is perhaps indigenous. 

In Egypt, the indigenous Marrubium cdyssum is called " frasyoun ;" 
in which word we recognise the nPASiox of Theophrastus vi. 1, and 
others, admitted to be one or more of the corresponding species of 
Marrubium found in Greece. 

The meais2o<j>taaon of Theophrastus, or the "meliteia" of Theocri- 
tus, according to the received opinion, is the Melissa officinalis. — Has- 
selquist met with this plant in Palestine, and also at Damietta. 

The xAMAiArrs of Theophrastus ix. 10, and Dioscorides, according 
to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is 
the Teucrium chamcedrys. — The dried plant, as appears from Alpinus, 
is imported and used medicinally in Egypt. 

The nANAE htakaeion of Theophrastus and others, according to 



78 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Dioscorides, is the plant which yields opopanax. — This gum is known 
to be the product of the Opopanax chironium ; and, as appears from 
Rhazes, Avicenna, Alpinus, and Forskal, is imported and used medi- 
cinally in Egypt. 

The ZTAtfTMNoz Arnos of Theophrastus ix. 15, is referred by 
Sprengel to the Am/mi visnaga. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in 
the Grecian Archipelago ; by Hasselquist, on Lebanon ; and by Delile 
and others, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. According to Al- 
pinus, the seeds are used medicinally in Egypt. 

The aatkos kphtikos of Theophrastus, Celsus, Petronius Diodotus, 
Dioscorides, and Pliny, according to the received opinion, is the Atha- 
mantha Oretensis. — Alpinus iv. 7, speaks of the medicinal use in Egypt 
of "daucum" seeds imported from Crete. 

The ©hat<donon called also sKormoN, of Theophrastus ix. 19, accord- 
ing to the description of the root, would seem to be the Arnica 
scorpioides ; an indigenous plant of Parnassus and other mountain dis- 
tricts of Europe. Greek usage, however, points to the Doronicum 
pardalianches, an allied plant, also indigenous on the mountains of 
Greece. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the medicinal use in Egypt 
of imported " doronicum " root. 

The ABroTONON of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Pliny, is usually 
referred to the southern-wood, Artemisia abrotanum. — This plant was 
seen by Delile in gardens at Alexandria. 

The nANAE xeiphneion of Theophrastus, is referred by Apuleius Barr 
barus to the elecampane (Inula helenium). — Horace is said to have 
first taught the art of cooking this plant ; and roots prepared for the 
table, were seen by Belon at Constantinople. The Arab writers speak 
of the medicinal uses j but the living plant appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 

The AKoros of Theophrastus, Celsus, Dioscorides, and Galen, accord- 
ing to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, 
is the Acorus calamus. — The living plant is unknown in Egypt ; but 
the imported root, according to Alpinus, forms one of the ingredients 
of the Egyptian theriac. 

The E<i>HMEroN of Theophrastus and others, referred by Dioscorides 
to the " kolchikon," according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, is the Colchicum autumnale. — Clot-Bey 
and Figari, enumerate the C. autumnale among the plants, indigenous 
or at least long known in Egypt. 

In Egypt, the Glaucium violaceum is called " rigl el-ghorab," or 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 79 

crow's-foot ; which being translated into Greek, becomes the KornNo- 
noTs of Theophrastus. — The "kyaneon chelidonion" of Theocritus 
xiii., may also be compared. The G. violaceum was seen by Sib- 
thorp in Greece and Cyprus ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spon- 
taneously at Alexandria. 

In Egypt, according to Forskal, the Erodium malacoides is called 
"garna" or "djarna;" in which word we recognise the tepanion of 
Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Athenams, and Paulus ^Egineta. The 
" habhasis " of Leo Africanus v., may also be compared with "kabsjie," 
the Egyptian name (according to Forskal) of the E. crassifolmm. These 
two plants are considered indigenous by Forskal ; and in addition, the 
E. reflexum and E. glabellum were seen by Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Alexandria, 

The HAioTromoN of Theophrastus, Nicander, Varro, and Dioscorides, 
is referred by Sibthorp and others to the Heliotropium Europceum. — 
This plant was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Alexandria. The H. supinum was also seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian 
Archipelago ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Alexandria and Cairo. 

In Egypt, the Plantago major is called " lissan el-hamal " or lamb's- 
tongue ; which being translated into Greek, becomes the ATNorAnssoN 
of Theophrastus vii. 9 and 10, Dioscorides, and Macer Floridus. 

The AAnAGON ArrioN of Theophrastus vii. 2, perhaps includes more 
than one species of dock (Rumex). — The Rumex obtusifolius was 
seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal, both at Constantinople, 
and growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The ANArA<j>Asis of Theophrastus, Diodes, Dioscorides, and Athe- 
naeus ii. 57, is usually referred to the garden orache (Atriplex horten- 
sis). — This plant was seen by Sibthorp at Constantinople ; and by 
Hasselquist, " in gardens at Damietta." Alpinus enumerates the 
"atriplex" among the esculent plants of Egypt. 

The aa©aia of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Paulus ^Egineta, is 
usually referred to the Althcea officinalis. — The A. officinalis was seen 
by Sibthorp in Greece ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been 
only recently introduced into Egypt. The A. Ludwigii, was seen by 
Delile in fields near the ancient Bubastis ; and the A. cannabina, was 
seen in Egypt by Forskal. 

The OHTAKAN0A of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Galen, according 
to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is 
the barberry (Berberis vulgaris). — This is a Northern plant ; but the 



8Q CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

imported fruit is used medicinally in Egypt, as appears from Rhazes 
and Alpinus. 

The <t>rAiKH of Theophrastus iii. 4, according to Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, would seem to be the Phillyrea latifolia. — This 
shrub was seen by Clot-Bey and Figari in the gardens of Lower Egypt. 

The kikix, enumerated among Leguminous trees by Theophrastus 
i. 18, may be compared with the Gercis siliquastrum. — This tree was 
seen by Sibthorp and others in Greece ; by Hasselquist, on Lebanon ; 
and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is cultivated in gardens at 
Cairo. 

The kepasos of Theophrastus, Diphilus Siphnius, and Atheneeus ii., 
according to the received opinion and Greek usage, is the cherry (Pru- 
nus cerasus). — Pliny states, that this tree " was first brought from 
Pontus into Italy in the six hundred and eightieth year of Rome ;" 
and alludes also to the fact (confirmed at the present day), that the 
culture of the cherry does not succeed in Egypt. 

A portion of Theophrastus' description of the aatos tree, is referred 
by Anguillara to the Celtis australis. — The current Greek name of 
the Celtis suggests also, a possible connexion with the "keratia" of 
Luke xv. 16, and of Dioscorides. The C. Australis was seen by Belon 
in Syria ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently 
introduced into Egypt. 

The 2hmyaa of Theophrastus (De Causs. plant.) is referred by Scar- 
latus and others to the birch (Betula alba). — The birch has not been 
seen in Greece by modern travellers ; but according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, the tree is planted in the gardens of Egypt. 

The ohta of Theophrastus, Strabo, and others, according to the re- 
ceived opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the beech 
(Fagus sylvatica) . — Forskal mentions the importation of beech timber 
into Egypt.* 

* The AsnAAAH of Theophrastus i. 11, according to Sihthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, would seem to he the Rhagadiolus edulis. — This plant was seen hy Sibthorp in 
Southern Greece and in Cyprus ; but it has not hitherto been found in Egypt. 

The PA or PHON, mentioned by Theophrastus as brought from beyond the Bosphorus, 
and noticed also by Celsus, Scribonius Largus, Dioscorides, and Galen, is usually referred 
to the garden rhubarb (Rheum Rhaponticuin). — This plant is described by Alpinus and 
Parkinson ; but I have met with no evidence of its being known in Egypt. 

The TTAronnrnN of Theophrastus and Dioscorides, according to the received opinion, 
is the salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius). — This plant was seen by Sestini at Constantino- 
ple ; and by Bory de St. Vincent, in Greece ; but it appears to have remained unknown 
in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 81 

The aaikakabos of Diodes, Evenor, Timaristus, Celsus, and Dios- 
corides, mentioned by Pliny as occurring in Egypt, is referred by Sib- 
thorp and others to the Physalis alkekengi. — This plant is noticed by 
Avicenna, Mesue (De simplic), and Matthioli ; but according to Clot- 
Bey and Figari, has been only recently introduced into Egypt. 

Menecrates Elaita and the Pseudo-Xanthus (as quoted by Strabo 
xii.) speak of " the Mysians being named after a tree :" the reverse 
of such derivations is not uncommon ; but leaving fact out of view, 
the tree alluded to by these writers was perhaps the apricot (Prunus 
Armeniaca), called "mish" in Egypt. — The apricot is distinctly men- 
tioned by Columella, Pliny, and Galen ; and at the present day, is a 
favourite object of cultivation in the Arab countries, both within and 
without the Tropics. 

The hefsika of Diphilus Siphnius, Philotimus, and Athenaeus iii. 
24, appears to be the peach (Amygdalus Persica). — This fruit is not 
mentioned by Virgil ; but a century later, we find it figured in the 
Herculaneum paintings and well known in Italy. Pliny alludes to 
its presence in Egypt ; where, at the present day, it is commonly cul- 
tivated. 

In " B. C. 285," Ptolemy abdicated in favour of his son : and " in 
the ensuing winter, or at the commencement of B. C. 284 " (Chaui- 
pollion-Figeac), a noted festival was held at Alexandria ; coincident 
apparently with the commencement of the Dionysian Era (see the 
detailed description by Callixenus). Ptolemy II., or Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, was at this time the acknowledged king. His name in hiero- 
glyphic characters has been found on various monuments. He built 
the temple at Philae ; completed the pharos or light-house at Alexan- 
dria : and his memory has been always cherished, from the patronage 
he extended to Literature, and the large additions he made to the 
Alexandrian Library. 

The komapos of Theocritus v. 129, according to Sibthorp's account 
of the Greek usage, would seem to be the European strawberry (Fra- 
garia vesca). — The strawberry is also mentioned by Virgil, Ovid, and 
Nicolaus Myrepsus : its introduction into Egypt, will be noticed here- 
after. 

The akangos of Theocritus i. 55, Virgil, Vitruvius, and Ovid, seems 
to correspond with the Acanthus mollis. — This species, distinguished 
by Pliny xxii. 34, was seen by Sibthorp only in Sicily ; and is enume- 
rated by Clot-Bey and Figari among the plants recently introduced 



82 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

into Egypt. On the other hand, the A. spinosus was seen by Sibthorp 
and Bory de St. Vincent, growing abundantly in the Grecian Archi- 
pelago ; but it appears to be unknown in Egypt. 

The XAMAiniTTS of Apollodorus, Nicander, Celsus, Dioscorides, and 
Athenaeus xv., is usually referred to one or more species of Ajuga. — 
The " chamaipitys" entered into the composition of the theriac of 
Andromachus : and the Ajuga iva is enumerated by Alpinus among 
the ingredients of the Egyptian theriac ; and was seen by Delile, 
growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The BornAErroN of the treatise " De mul. morb." (in the Hippo- 
cratic collection) , and of Glaucon, Epoanetus, Nicander, Pliny, and the 
Scholiast of Pliny, is referred by Dodonaeus to one or more species of 
Bupleurum. — The B. rotundifolium and B. semicompositum were 
seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Alexandria. 

The SArAnENor of the treatise " 1 De mul. morb." 108, and of 
Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny, Marcellus, and Galen, is admitted to be 
sagapen (a gum imported from Persia, and supposed to be the product 
of Ferula Persica). — According to Greenhill and F. Adams, gum 
sagapen is also mentioned by Rhazes, Avicenna, Ibn Baitar, and other 
Arab writers. 

The ASAroN of the treatise "1 De mul. morb." 45, and of Diosco- 
rides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta, according to the received opinion 
and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Asarum Europoeum. — 
Forskal (Mat. Med.) notices the medicinal use in Egypt, and the im- 
portation of "asarum" root from Greece.* 

In " B. C. 247," the accession of Ptolemy III., or Ptolemy Euer- 
getes, took place. His name occurs in hieroglyphic characters on 
temples, at Dakkeh, Philae, Esneh, and Thebes : and a Greek inscrip- 
tion relating to his reign, was discovered by Cosmas Indicopleustes at 
Adule on the Abyssinian coast. Ptolemy III. conducted a military 
expedition as far as Bactria ; and brought back to Egypt the sacred 
objects that had been carried away by the Persians. He was suc- 

* The noATKAPnoN of the treatise " 1 De mul. morb." 90, according to Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, would seem to be, either the Opopanax Chironium (already 
noticed) or one or more species of Thapsia. — The species of Thapsia are indigenous 
plants of Greece and other parts of Europe, and have been sometimes used medicinally ; 
but I have met with no evidence of their being known in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 83 

cessful also in his naval enterprises ; but amid warlike operations, he 
continued to bestow great attention on the encouragement of Litera- 
ture and on the increase of the Alexandrian Library. 



The commencement of Roman Literature is referred, by general con- 
sent, to the first dramatic exhibition of Livius Andronicus, in " B. C. 
240." This writer was however by birth a Greek : but twenty-two 
years later, both he and the four native Roman writers, Ncevius, 
Plautus, Ennius, and Cato, were all living. 

In " B. C. 222," the accession of Ptolemy IV., or Ptolemy Philo- 
pator, took place. He built the temple at Akhmin ; continued that 
at Dakkeh in Nubia ; and founded the great temple at Edfu : his 
name in hieroglyphic characters occurs also on buildings at Esneh and 
Karnac ; on some restorations at Luxor ; and on the small temple of 
Athyr, situated upon the western declivity of the river valley at 
Thebes. 

The petalion of Plautus (Curcul.), is referred by Stapel to the "ma- 
labrathrum" of Horace, Ovid, Andromachus, and Claudius Ptolemaeus; 
an article of importation from India. — Identified by Ainslie and 
Royle, and described by them as consisting of the dried leaves of 
Laurus cassia, mixed sometimes with those of L. cinnamomum.* 

In " B. C. 205," the accession of Ptolemy V., or Ptolemy Epiphanes, 
took place. During his reign, a large amount of building was accom- 
plished; especially at Philce, Edfu, Esneh, and Thebes. He founded 
the temple at Ombos : and his name occurs in the Greek inscription 
dedicating the small temple at Philse to Aesculapius. 

The Eosetta Stone is dated in the " ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy 
Epiphanes." It is inscribed with a decree in hieroglyphic and also in 
demotic writing, with a Greek translation ; and has proved the means 
of recovering the art of reading hieroglyphic characters. 

In " B. C. 181," the accession of Ptolemy VI., or Ptolemy Philo- 
metor, took place. During his reign, temples were erected or con- 
tinued at Paremboleh in Nubia, at Philee, Ombos, Edfu, Koos, and 

* The verbena of Plautus, Terentius, Livius, Propertius, and Pliny, has been iden~ 
tified with the " peristereona " of Cratevas and Dioscorides; a word having a like 
signification with the " phassochorton " of the modern Greeks, Prasium majus. This 
plant, moreover, has been found growing at Rome, as appears from Persoon. — I have 
met with no evidence, that it is known in Egypt. 



84 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Antaeopolis : his name occurs on these temples both in hieroglyphic 
and in Greek inscriptions ; and according to Champollion-Figeac, he 
dedicated some Egyptian temples to the gods of Greece. 

Some applications of steam as a mechanical agent, are described in 
the writings of Heron of Alexandria. 

The gentiana, discovered (according to Pliny xxv. 34) by Gentius 
the king of the Illyrians, is admitted to be the officinal gentian (Gen- 
tiana lutea) . — This plant has not been seen within the proper limits of 
Greece ; but it grows on the neighbouring Alps. The imported root, 
according to Alpinus, is one of the ingredients of the Egyptian theriac. 

The nrPE©roN of Nicander (Ther. 938), Celsus, Dioscorides, and 
Serenus Sammonicus, is referred by Tragus and J. E. Smith to the 
Anthemis 'pyrethrum. — Macer Floridus enumerates the "pyrethrum" 
among exotics ; and the dried roots of the A. pyrethrum, are known to 
be imported from Spain into the rest of Europe, and from Barbary into 
Egypt. Alpinus and Forskal (Mat. Med.) speak of the medicinal use 
of "pyrethrum" root in Egypt. 

The ohaais of Nicander (Ther. 840) and Dioscorides, according to 
the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is one 
or more species of sorrel (Rumex). — The R. acetosella was seen by Has- 
selquist at Damietta ; but the cultivated sorrel, R. acetosa, according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently introduced into Egypt. 

The KTNorAftzsos of Nicander (Geor.), Celsus v. 27, Dioscorides, and 
Athenasus, is referred by Sibthorp and others to the Cynoglossum offici- 
nale. — This plant was seen by Hasselquist in Palestine ; but according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently introduced into Egypt. 

The noArroNON of Nicander (Ther. 901) and Dioscorides, is usually 
referred to the Polygonum aviculare. — This plant is noticed by Lobel 
and by TabernaBmontanus : and was seen by Hasselquist in Palestine ; 
and by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The boyo>©aamon of Nicander (Georg.) and Dioscorides, is referred 
by Sibthorp to the Chrysanthemum segetum. — This plant, though 
common in Greece, has not been seen in Egypt ; for Forskal's notice, 
is referred by Delile to the closely allied Chrysanthemum coronarium; 
observed growing in the assigned locality, near Alexandria.* 

* The nxroN ION of Nicander (quoted by Athenaeus xv.), and the "leykoion meli- 
non" of Dioscorides and Oribasius, are referred by Stapel, Sibthorp, and others, to the 
gilly-flower, Cheiranthus cheiri. — This plant appears to be common in Greece; but I 
have met with no evidence, that it is known in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 85 

Towards the close of the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, the Jews 
under Onias, sought and obtained a grant of the temple of Bubastis for 
a place of religious worship. 

In " B. C. 146," the accession of Ptolemy VII., or Ptolemy Physcon, 
took place. During his reign, additions were made to the temples 
at Dakkeh in Nubia, at Philae, Ombos, and Edfu ; he built the small 
temple of Thoth at Medinet-Habu ; and his name in hieroglyphic 
characters has also been found on restorations in the Asasif, and on 
the temple of Athyr at Thebes. A petition addressed to him in Greek 
by the priests at Philae, has afforded the means of verifying hierogly- 
phic interpretations derived from the Rosetta Stone. One of his pro- 
vincial governors was a Roman. 

The AAYS20N of Antonius and others, according to the description 
by Dioscorides, would seem to be a species of Biscutella. — The B. apula 
was seen in Greece by Sibthorp, and was received from Egypt by 
Jussieu. The B. depressa was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Alexandria. 

In Egypt, the taro (Colocasia esculenta) is called " kolgas ;" in 
which word we recognise the koaokazia of Glaucias, Virgil, Columella, 
Claudius Iolaus, and Pliny xxi. 102. 

Certain Indian weeds appear to have accompanied the culture of 
taro and rice into Egypt ; and being inconspicuous objects, may have 
been overlooked by the ancient writers : as, the Sphenoclea ; the 
Splicer anthus ; a species of Grangea ; the Eclipta erecta ; the Eihulia 
conyzoldes ; the Jussicea diffusa; the Ottelia alismoides ; the Elatine 
verticillata ; the Ammania auriculata and A. JEgyptiaca ; the Cyperus 
alopecurus and C. dives ; and the Panicum colonum ; all seen by Delile 
in the rice-grounds of Egypt. 

In " B. C. 117," the accession of Ptolemy VIII., or Ptolemy Lathy- 
rus, took place. His name in hieroglyphic characters has been found on 
a propylon at Koos ; on the temples at Ombos and Edfu ; and on that 
of Athyr at Thebes : he made some extensive restorations at Medinet- 
Habu, with materials derived from Pharaonic ruins. 

The CHiENOPADAS of Lucilius, Pliny, and Macrobius, may be com- 
pared with the species of Clienopodium. — The C. rubrum was seen 
by Sibthorp at Constantinople ; and by Forskal, growing spontaneously 
at Cairo. The C. album was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by 
Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. The C. rnurale 
was seen by Sibthorp at Constantinople ; and by Delile, growing spon- 
taneously at Cairo. 



gg CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

A deed for the sale of a piece of land, executed in B. C. 105, has 
been discovered; and is translated by Champollion-Figeac, p. 439. 
It is accompanied with evidence, that the system of Public Registry 
was in force. 

When Ptolemy Lathyrus was recalled to Egypt, the city of Thebes 
refused to acknowledge his authority, and held out for nearly three 
years ; but was finally captured in " B. C. 87 ;" and on this occasion, 
the monuments are said to have sustained much injury. 

The name of Ptolemy IX., or Ptolemy Alexander I., has been found 
in hieroglyphic characters on the monuments ; but his reign is in- 
cluded in that of his brother, Ptolemy Lathyrus, already mentioned. 
The accession of Ptolemy X., or Ptolemy Alexander II., took place 
" in B. C. 81 ;" but his reign appears to have lasted only a few months ; 
and his name has not been found on the monuments, nor even upon 
coins. 

In " B. C. 80," the accession of Ptolemy XI., or Ptolemy Auletes, 
took place. His name (according to Champollion-Figeac) has not been 
found in hieroglyphic characters ; but occurs on coins, and in Greek 
inscriptions in red ink at Philae. 

Iambulus, who appears to have visited some of the East African 
islands, met with persons " who wrote in vertical columns " (see Dio- 
dorus Siculus ii. 55). This, it will be observed, is the Chinese method 
of writing : though something of the same sort, is found on the eye- 
paint bottles manufactured on the Persian Gulf. — The eye-paint bot- 
tles discovered in Egyptian tombs, together with real Chinese manufac- 
tures, were evidently deposited at a comparatively recent period. 

The skopaion of Mithridates, Lenaeus, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Teucrium scordium. — Alpinus met with the pulverised 
leaves of T. scordium among the ingredients of the Egyptian theriac ; 
but the living plant, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only 
recently introduced into Egypt. 

Diodorus Siculus (i. 46 and 47) visited Thebes in the "one hundred 
and eightieth Olympiad" (B. C. 60); at which time, the great syenite 
colossus of Ramses II. was still entire. 

The nasturtium of Varro and Columella, is usually referred to the 
water-cress (Nasturtium officinale). — This plant was seen by Sibthorp 
in Greece ; and by Hasselquist in Palestine ; but according to Clot-Bey 
and Figari, has been only recently introduced into Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 87 

According to Caesar, the people of Britain painted themselves with 
GLASTUM; usually considered to be wood (Isatis tinctoria). — Dios- 
corides and Paulus iEgineta speak of the "isatis" used by dyers: the 
I. tinctoria was seen in Greece by Bory de St. Vincent and Gittard ; 
but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

In " B. C. 51," the accession of Cleopatra took place. Her name 
occurs in hieroglyphic characters on various Egyptian monuments : 
she built the small temple at Erment, or Hermonthis ; and founded the 
temple at Dendera. 

The coins issued by Anthony and Cleopatra, bear perhaps the 
earliest Latin inscriptions hitherto discovered in Egypt. 

With the death of Cleopatra, " B. C. 30," the independence of Egypt 
ceased; and Augustus became the sole ruler of the Roman World. 
From this time, also, gold disappears from the Egyptian coinage. 
Augustus first carried obelisks away from Egypt ; but he continued the 
temple at Dendera ; and his name in hieroglyphic characters has been 
found on buildings at Talmis, Kalabsheh, Debot, Dendur, Phila3, and 
on the temple of Isis at Thebes. His first prefect, Cornelius Gallus, is 
accused of permitting statues of himself to be erected, and of having 
pillaged the city of Thebes. 

The lutum of Virgil, Vitruvius, and Pliny, is referred by Fee to the 
Reseda luteola. — This plant was seen by Forskal and Delile in culti- 
vated ground at Cairo ; and is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari 
among the plants used for dyeing in Egypt. 

The rododaphne of the Culex, and of Dioscorides, Pliny, and Apu- 
leius, is clearly the Nerium oleander. — The oleander is enumerated by 
Delile and others among the garden plants of Egypt ; and is said to 
abound in Syria in a seemingly wild state ; but it does not harmonize 
with the vegetation of the Mediterranean countries : I met with it truly 
indigenous on the banks of the Godaveri in the Dekkan. 

The herba vettonica of Antonius Musa, Celsus v. 27, and Pliny, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Betonica alopecuros. — The dried plant, as appears from 
Alpinus, is imported and used medicinally in Egypt. 

Strabo, during his visit to Egypt, heard that sounds were uttered 
by one of the colossi on the plain at Thebes. — But this deception of 
the Vocal Memnon, did not become an object of pilgrimage until some 
eighty years later. At the present day, the base of the colossus in 
question, is found to be covered with Greek and Roman inscriptions ; 
the certificates of visitors who had "heard Memnon." 



88 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

According to Beckmann, the nigrum indicum of Vitruvius, Pliny, 
and Paulus iEgineta, is India i?ik ; and indeed, Pliny xxxv. 25, dis- 
tinctly speaks of a kind of ink imported from India. Notwithstanding 
the name, India ink is properly a Chinese manufacture. 

In Egypt, according to Forskal, the Gomphrcena globosa is called 
" ambar ;" a word not unlike the amaranthus of Tibullus iii. 4, and 
Philostratus ; and indeed, the description of the " amaranto" by Pliny 
xxi. 23, seems to correspond. The plant, as appears from Rumphius 
and Rheede, was derived from India. 

The ErGorBioN discovered by Juba on Mount Atlas (mentioned by 
Pliny xxv. 38), according to the received opinion and the description 
by Leo African us, is a species of cacti-form Euphorbia which seems 
to be peculiar to Western Barbary. Corresponding species, however, 
are found in Southern Africa and in Hindostan. The drug obtained 
from this plant, is noticed by Dioscorides, Galen, Aetius, Paulus 
JEgineta, and the Arab medical writers. 

The "succinum indicum containing lizards" of Archelaus and Pliny 
xxxvii. 11, is clearly gum copal ; derived of course originally from 
Equatorial Africa. 

In " A. D. 14," the accession of Tiberius, the second Roman Empe- 
ror, took place. His name in hieroglyphic characters has been found 
at Philse, Esneh, Karnak, and Dendera : he continued the temple at 
Debot in Nubia. 

The zingiber of Celsus, Dioscorides, and Pliny, is clearly ginger 
(Amomum zingiber) ; and it will be observed, that the Latin name 
indicates the commercial source. — Cailliaud found "ginger rare at 
Quamamil (on the Bahr el Abiad), brought principally from Abys- 
sinia, and called by the negroes ' zymbane :' " at Zanzibar, however, 
the roots are imported from the Comoro Islands; and they may 
have first reached Egypt from this ultimate source, and by the inland 
route. 

The aloe of Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Plutarch, is admitted 
to be the drug aloes; mentioned as "imported from India," though 
of course, derived originally from Socotra and the Somali country. — 
Living plants of the A. vulgaris, were seen by Sibthorp in Cyprus ; 
and by Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

The ltcium of Celsus iv. 4 and 3, Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen. Oriba- 
sius, and Paulus iEgineta, may be compared with " myilkynia," the 
modern Greek name of Berberis Creiica. Alpinus (Exot. i. 2) inclines 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 89 

to refer the atkion to this plant ; but we are uninformed in regard to 
any medicinal juice procured from the root. 

The argemonia of Celsus v. 27, is by some writers referred to the 
Agrimonia. — This plant was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; and Alpinus 
and Forskal (Mat. Med.), speak of the importation and medicinal use 
of "agrimonia" in Egypt. 

The petroselinum of Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Paulus 
iEgineta, is referred by F. Adams to the stone parsley (Bubon Mace- 
donicum). — This plant was seen by Belon in the market at Constan- 
tinople ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The pstllion of Celsus v. 2, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen, is usually 
referred to the Plantago psyllium; and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage corresponds. — The imported seeds were seen by Delile in the 
drug shops at Cairo. 

In " A. D. 37," the accession of Caius Caligula, the third Roman 
Emperor, took place. — His name in hieroglyphic characters has been 
found on temples at Talmis in Nubia, at Philge, and at Dendera : and 
at the last-mentioned place, a Greek inscription contains the name of 
his prefect, Publius Avilius Flaccus. One of the obelisks at Rome, 
was brought from Egypt by Caius Caligula (see Pliny xvi. 76, 2). 

In " A. D. 41," the accession of Claudius, the fourth Roman Empe- 
ror, took place. His name in hieroglyphic characters has been found 
on temples at Philae, Edfu, Esneh, and Dendera. A Greek inscription, 
dated in the ninth year of his reign, was discovered by Hoskins in the 
Great Oasis. 

■ With the reign of Claudius commences that celebrated Series of 
Egyptian coins, which has rendered so much service to the historian 
and chronologer : each coin specifying the year of the reigning 
emperor ; a variety of coins, being often issued within a single year ; 
while nearly every year is accounted for. 

The zizyphus of Columella and Pliny, according to the received 
opinion, and the account of the usage in Greece by Sibthorp, and in 
Lebanon by Rauwolf, is the jujube (Zizyphus vulgaris). — This tree, 
according to Forskal, Clot-Bey, and others, is often planted around 
the Egyptian villages. 

In " A. D. 54," the accession of Nero, the fifth Roman Emperor, 
took place. His name occurs in hieroglyphic characters on the temple 
at Dendera : and an inscription relating to his prefect Balbillus, has 
been found near the Great Sphinx at Gizeh. 



90 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The KAnNoc of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Paulus iEgineta, ac- 
cording to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is one or more species of Fumaria. — The Fumaria officinalis, 
has a native name, and is enumerated by Forskal and Delile among 
the weeds of Egypt. The F. cdpreolata and F. parviflora, were also 
seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria and Cairo. 

The aakea of Dioscorides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta, is usually re- 
ferred to the Malva alcea. — This plant was seen in Greece by Gittard 
and Bory de St. Vincent ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has 
been long known in Egypt. 

The easinh KiccAMnEAoc of Dioscorides and Paulus iEgineta, is 
referred by Sibthorp to the Antirrhinum JEgyptiacum. — This plant 
was seen by Sibthorp in cultivated ground in the Grecian Archi- 
pelago ; and by Forskal and Delile, in the Egyptian Desert. The 
A. elatine was also seen by Sibthorp in the cultivated fields of Greece 
and Cyprus ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The nEnAoc of Dioscorides, is usually referred to the Euphorbia 
peplus. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and is enume- 
rated by Forskal, Delile, and others, among the weeds of Egypt. 

The ti©ymaaoc HAiocKonioc of Dioscorides, Rufus Ephesius, and 
Paulus iEgineta, is referred by Sibthorp to the Euphorbia helioscopia. — 
This plant was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously around Cairo, 
and also in Upper Egypt. 

The AEiznN mikpon of Dioscorides, according to the received opinion, 
is one or more species of Sedum. — The Sedum confertum was seen by 
Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

In Egypt, the Lemna polyrhiza is called " ads el-ma," or water lentil ; 
which being translated into Greek, becomes the "aquatic *akoc" of 
Dioscorides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta. The L. polyrhiza and L. 
gibbub, were seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta; but 
they may have been originally Northern plants. 

The aaicma of Dioscorides and Pliny, is referred by Sibthorp and 
others to the Alisma plantago. — This is a semi-aquatic Northern plant; 
seen however by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

The <t>AAAVic of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Paulus iEgineta, is 
referred by Sibthorp and others to the Phalaris Canariensis. — The 
" anemochorton " of Nicolaus Myrepsus, according to Forskal's account 
of the Greek usage, is the same plant. This grass was seen by Hassel- 
quist, Forskal, and Delile, growing spontaneously in Lower Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 91 

The *oinih herb of Dioscorides iv. 43, and Paulus JEgineta, identi- 
fied by Pliny (xxii. 65) with the " hordeum murinum," may be com- 
pared with our modern Hordeum murinum. — This grass was seen by 
Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; by Hasselquist, at Damietta ; 
and by Forskal, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The xamaimhaon of Dioscorides and Pliny, according to Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, would seem to be the Matricaria cliamo- 
milla. — This plant was seen by Hasselquist in Palestine; and by 
Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

The ciatbon of Dioscorides iv. 156, and Pliny, is referred by Lobel to 
the Garduus marianus. — This plant appears to be the " herbe sancte 
marie" of Nicolaus Propositus (125), Franciscus Pedemontium, and 
Joannes de Sancto Amando. It was seen by Belon at Constantinople; 
by Sibthorp, in Greece and Cyprus; and by Forskal and Delile, grow- 
ing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The ean0ion of Dioscorides, Galen, and Paulus iEgineta, is usually 
referred to the Xantldum slrumarium. — This plant is figured by Lobel : 
was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; and by Delile, in Egypt ; where I 
frequently met with it, growing along the river-bank. 

The ambpocia, or botptc aptemicia, of Dioscorides and Pliny, is re- 
ferred by Lobel and Dodonaeus to the Ambrosia maritima. — This plant 
was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo and 
Alexandria. 

The AEniAioN of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Paulus iEgineta, 
according to the received opinion and Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Lepidium latifolium. — This plant was seen by Delile, 
growing spontaneously at Cairo ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, 
has been long known in Egypt. 

The batpaxion and afpioceainon of Dioscorides, according to Sib- 
thorp's account of the Greek usage, would seem to be the Ranunculus 
Asiaticus. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp, growing wild in Asia 
Minor and Cyprus ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is culti- 
vated in the gardens of Egypt. 

The ktminon ArrioN etepon of Dioscorides iii. 62, is referred by 
Valerius Cordus to the Nigella arvensis. — This plant was seen by 
Forskal and Sibthorp in Greece and Cyprus ; and by Delile, growing 
spontaneously at Alexandria. The N. damascena, also seen by Sib- 
thorp in Greece, is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among the 
plants long known in Egypt. 



92 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The eaaia AieioniKH of Dioscorides i. 136, is referred by Sprengel to 
the Elaeagnus Orientalis. — This shrub was seen by Delile and others 
in gardens at Cairo. 

The j>iaatpea of Dioscorides and Paulus iEgineta, according to 
Hawkins' and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, would seem to 
be the Rhamnus infectorius. — The berries of this shrub form an article 
of commerce ; and under the name of " Turkey berries," are exported 
from the Eastern portion of the Mediterranean. 

In Egypt, the borage (Borago officinalis) is called "lesan el-tour," 
or ox-tongue ; which being translated into Greek, becomes the 
BorrAnccoN of Dioscorides, Pliny, Plutarch (Sympos. Qusest. i.), and 
Galen. The B. officinalis, seen by Forskal and others in gardens in 
Egypt, is used there medicinally, as appears from Alpinus : an indi- 
genous species, B. Africana, is called "horreyg" or "horrsejg;" in 
which word we recognise the " corrago" of Apuleius Barbarus. 

The mapon of Dioscorides, is referred by Matthioli and others to 
the Teucrium marum. — This plant in its wild state, was long supposed 
to be peculiar to Spain, where it was discovered by Clusius : but it 
has recently been found on the mountains of Greece, by Bory de 
St. Vincent and Gittard. It is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, 
among the plants introduced from the French gardens into Egypt. 

The katon of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Oribasius, according 
to the received opinion, is the caraway (Carum carvi). — Pliny states, 
that the Greek name is derived from Caria, in Asia Minor. However 
this may be, the plant is called " karawih" in Egypt ; and Delile found 
the seeds sold in the shops at Cairo. 

The AirrcriKON of Dioscorides, Pliny, and Apicius, is usually re- 
ferred to the lovage (Levisticum). — This plant was seen by Pococke 
in Palestine ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The akakaaic of Dioscorides and Paulus ^Egineta, so far as regards 
the origin of the word, may be compared with " kolkol," the current 
name in Yemen of one or more species of Cassia : the medicinal use of 
the akakaaic, was found by Royle to correspond with that of the 
Cassia absus. — This plant was seen by Alpinus, Hasselquist, and Delile, 
in the gardens of Egypt; and according to Royle, is indigenous in 
Hindostan. 

The ammaniakon of Dioscorides, Galen, and Paulus iEgineta, accord- 
ing to the received opinion, is gum ammoniac ; said to be the product 
of the Dorema ammoniacum. — The drug is used medicinally in Egypt, 
as appears from Rhazes, Avicenna, and Alpinus. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 93 

The ma kef of Dioscorides, Pliny, and Paulus iEgineta, according to 
Alpinus, is a bark brought from Barbary to Egypt ; where it is called 
"selica seuda," and is confounded with the spice, cassia. I can find 
no account of a Laurus growing on Mount Atlas ; but several species 
occur in Madeira and the Canary Islands. 

The capkokoaaa of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, and Paulus JEgineta, 
is admitted to be sarcocol. — This gum, according to the Greek Version, 
is mentioned by Rhazes : its medicinal uses are likewise noticed by 
other Arab writers. 

The atkion inaikon of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, Aretaeus, and Paulus 
iEgineta, is referred by Royle to the concrete juice of Berberis lycium ; 
a plant growing on the mountains of Northern India. 

The ArAAAOxoN of Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, Paulus ^Egineta, and 
Isidorus, is usually referred to the Ugn-dloes (the wood of Aloexylon 
agallochin). — This tree, as appears from Bontius and Loureiro, grows 
in Sumatra and Cochin China : Alpinus speaks of the medicinal use 
of the wood in Egypt.* 

In "A. D. 64" (Clinton), the First persecution of the Christians 
took place : mentioned by Tacitus xv. 44, Suetonius (Ner. c. 16), and 
Tertullian (Apologet.) 

About "A. D. 65," according to the traditions of the church, Chris- 
tianity was introduced into Egypt by the Evangelist Mark : who left 
Annianus, or Annaniah, to watch over the new converts. — The names 
of the successors of Annianus, are given in an uninterrupted series by 
Eusebius. 

In " A. D. 68," the accession of Galba, the sixth Roman Emperor, 
took place. His name occurs on coins issued in Egypt ; and a Greek 
inscription, dated in his brief reign, has been found at the Great Oasis. 

In "A. D. 69," the accession of Otho, the seventh Roman Emperor, 
took place. His name occurs on coins issued in Egypt, and has been 
found in hieroglyphic characters on a propylon at Thebes. He was 
succeeded by Vitellius; whose name has also been found on coins 
issued in Egypt. 

* The EAA4>OBOCKON of Dioscorides, Pliny, Aetius, and Paulus iEgineta, is referred 
by Sibthorp to the parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). — The parsnip is figured by Matthioli, and 
by Lobel ; but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Al+AKOC of Dioscorides and Pliny, is usually referred to one or more species of 
Dipsacus : and the " carduus nondum fullonibus aptus " of Serenus Sammonicus, implies 
a knowledge of the cultivated teazle (D. fullonum). — This plant appears to be unknown 
in Egypt. 



94 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In the same year, the accession of Vespasian, the ninth Roman Em- 
peror, took place. His name has been found in hieroglyphic characters 
on the temple at Esneh ; on a building at Thebes ; and on an obelisk 
at Rome. 

The ANArAAAic entapoc of the synonyms added to the work of 
Dioscorides ii. 153, is referred by Fuchsius and others to the Veronica 
anagallis. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian Archi- 
pelago ; by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta ; and by Forskal, 
in the mountain region of Yemen. The closely allied V. beccabunga 
was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and is enumerated by Clot-Bey and 
Figari among the plants long known in Egypt. 

Pliny xii. 15, had heard of an article used in India, resembling 
pepper, and called garyophyllon ; and under this name, Paulus iEgi- 
neta distinctly describes cloves (Caryophyllus aromaticus) ; a produc- 
tion of the Molucca Islands. — Rhazes, Avicenna, and Symeon Sethus, 
likewise speak of cloves : I saw in Egypt a quantity that had been 
imported by the route of Mecca and the Thebaid. 

The cyanus, supposed by Pliny (xxi. 24) to have recently come into 
notice, according to Scarlatus' account of the Greek usage, is the Cen- 
taurea cyanus. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece; but 
according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been only recently introduced 
into Egypt. 

The herb a impia of Pliny xxiv. 113, is referred by Tournefort and 
others to the Gnaplialium Germanicum. — This weed was seen by 
Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; and by Delile, growing around 
Alexandria and Cairo. 

The amomon herb of Pliny xxvi. 19, seems to correspond with the 
" ammonos, astrion, and sagginariam" of Actuarius, referred by Stapel 
to the Plantago coronopus. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in the 
Grecian Archipelago ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontane- 
ously at Cairo and Alexandria. The P. lagopus, was also seen by 
Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; and by Delile, growing sponta- 
neously at Alexandria. 

The chortinon of Pliny xv. 7, may be compared with the " kurth " 
of Abu Hanifa, Ibn Redwhan, and Ibn Baitar; which, according to 
Egyptian usage, would seem to be the Trifolium resupinatum. — This 
plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, at 
Rosetta, Damietta, and Cairo. 

Pliny xxv. 6, distinctly describes the scurvy, as a disease of the 
region beyond the mouths of the Rhine ; and mentions the herba bri- 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 95 

tannica, shown to the Romans as a remedy. The Cochlearia officinalis 
may be compared. — This is a Northern plant, not found in Greece ; 
and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, only recently introduced into 
Egypt. 

The Acer gallicum of Pliny xvi. 26, seems to correspond with the 
Acer pseudo-platanus. — This is a Northern tree, seen by Forskal 
at Constantinople ; but not found in Greece by Sibthorp. According 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, both this and the A. platanoides (another 
North European tree) have been recently introduced into Egypt, 
where they are now planted in gardens.* 

In " A. D. 79," the accession of Titus, the tenth Roman Emperor, 
took place. 

The Eruption of Vesuvius on the " 24th of August" in the same 
year, overwhelming the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, forms a 
striking chronological landmark. The brevity of the reign of Titus, 
leaves but slight room for error in the date ; the event being attended 
by the death of Pliny, limits his Encyclopedic summary of the state 
of human knowledge ; while coeval testimony, amply illustrating the 
whole condition of society, is found in the vast variety of objects dis- 
interred.f 



VII. THE EARLY CHRISTIAN, OR THE COPTIC PERIOD. 



In this extraordinary manner, two Heathen cities, all but their inha- 
bitants, have been preserved ; and from about the latest possible mo- 
ment : Josephus was even then announcing the continued existence of 
a new religious sect : but in no instance, have the walls of the buried 
cities been found to include a Christian relic. 

* The convolvulus of Pliny xxi. 11, may be compared with the Convolvulus 
septum. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; but appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 

The GROMPH^NA of Pliny xxvi. 23, may be compared with the Amaranthus tri- 
color. — The "gelisia" of Hildegard ii. 153, is referred by Sprengel to the same plant. 
The A. tricolor is figured by Lobel ; and according to Graham, is cultivated in the gar- 
dens of Hindostan : but it appears to be unknown in Egypt. 

f Among these objects, are seeds and fruits ; which have been carefully collected, and 
are now deposited in the museum at Naples ; but I am not aware, that any account of 
them has been published. 



96 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Coins have been discovered, that were issued in Egypt during each 
year of the reign of Titus; and his name in hieroglyphic characters 
has been found on temples at Esneh, and at the Oasis of Dakkeh. 

In " A. D. 81," the accession of Domitian, the eleventh Roman Em- 
peror, took place. His name occurs in hieroglyphic characters on 
temples at Philse, Esneh, and Dendera ; on a propylon at Thebes ; and 
on obelisks at Rome and at Benevento, in Italy : coins have been dis- 
covered, that were issued in Egypt during each year of his reign. 

The First Epistle of Clemens Romanus, one of the earliest Christian 
writings apart from the New Testament, is usually referred to the 
reign of Domitian. 

In "A. D. 96," the accession of Nerva, the twelfth Roman Emperor, 
took place. His name has been found in hieroglyphic characters, only 
on a small temple at Assuan or Syene. 

In "A. D. 98," the accession of Trajan, the thirteenth Roman Em- 
peror, took place. His name in hieroglyphic characters has been 
found on temples at Philae, Ombos, and Dendera. 

In "A. D. 104" (Clinton), Plinius Secundus wrote from his pro- 
vince in Asia Minor respecting the Christians; and his letter, together 
with the reply of Trajan, is still extant. 

The APNABft of Posidonius, Aetius, and Paulus iEgineta, is referred 
by Haller to the " zarnab " of Avicenna ; usually considered to be the 
zeduary (Curcuma zerumbet). — This imported root is mentioned by 
Macer Floridus and Alpinus : according to Graham, the plant grows 
in the environs of Bombay. 

In "A. D. 115" (according to Clinton), the Martyrdom of Ignatius 
took place. 

In "A. D. 117," the accession of Hadrian, the fourteenth Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name in hieroglyphic characters has been 
found on temples at Esneh, Thebes, and Dendera ; and on an obelisk 
at Rome. 

In " A. D. 130" (according to coins and an inscription on the Vocal 
Memnon), Hadrian visited Egypt. At this time, the Christians had 
become numerous, as appears from one of his letters. During his 
voyage on the Nile, he founded the Greek city of Antinoe ; on a site, 
which is still marked by ruins in the Roman style of art. 

In " A. D. 136," at the close of the Jewish war, Hadrian prohibited 
the Jews from residing at Jerusalem or in the vicinity ; a measure 
which is supposed to have had some influence on their subsequent 
destiny. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 97 

In "A. D. 138," the accession of Antoninus Pius, the fifteenth Ro- 
man Emperor, took place. His name has been found in hieroglyphic 
characters on temples at Philae, Esneh, Thebes, Dendera, and the 
Oasis El Kargeh ; and in Greek inscriptions, in various parts of Egypt. 

In "A. D. 152," the first Ecclesiastical Council was held. The 
meeting took place at Pergamus in Asia Minor ; and the opinions of 
Colarbas were condemned. 

In " A. D. 161," the accession of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the 
sixteenth Roman Emperor, took place. His name has been found in 
hieroglyphic characters at Philae ; together with that of his colleague, 
Lucius Verus. 

The meat fly (Musca vomitoria) is distinctly described by Pausanias 
x. 28. — The insect has become widely distributed over the globe; 
and in all probability, is known in Egypt. 

The xrrcoBAAANoc of Galen and the "xanthobalanos" of Actuarius 
and Myrepsus, are referred by F. Adams to the marking-nut, Seme- 
carpus anacardium. — I found this tree abundant in the Central 
portion of the Dekkan. 

The ArKonErcioN brought from Egypt to Galen (De Fac. Simpl. iv.), 
may be compared with the Solatium JEthiopicum. — This plant was 
seen in Egypt by Delile. 

According to Clinton, Christianity was preached in Britain in 
A. D. 178: the missionaries came from the East; as appears, from 
their having taught the original mode of observing Easter. 

In " A. D. 180," the accession of Commodus, the seventeenth Ro- 
man Emperor, took place. His name has been found in hieroglyphic 
characters at Esneh, and on a small temple at Contra-Latopolis. 

In "A. D. 193," the accession of Pertinax, the eighteenth Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins, issued in 
Egypt during his three months' reign. The name of his successor, 
Didius Julianus (whose reign was equally brief), has not been found 
on the Egyptian monuments : but that of Pescennius Niger, an un- 
successful aspirant in Egypt, has been discovered in hieroglyphic cha- 
racters by Lepsius. 

In the same year, the accession of Septimius Severus, the twentieth 
Roman Emperor, took place. His name is said to occur in hierogly- 
phic characters at Esneh. During his reign, the colossus of the Vocal 
Memnon was repaired ; and ever afterwards, has remained silent. 



98 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Iii "A. D. 197" (Clinton), an Ecclesiastical Council was held by 
Victor at Rome ; and the celebration of Easter was, to some extent, 
disconnected from the Jewish Passover : the innovation was not 
adopted by the Asiatic churches. 

In " A. D. 211," the accession of Caracalla, the twenty-first Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name, and that of his brother Geta, have 
been found in hieroglyphic characters at Esneh. The name of Cara- 
calla occurs also in a Greek inscription in the quarries at Philae. 

In "A. D. 217," the accession of Macrinus, the twenty-second Ro- 
man Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued 
in Egypt. 

In " A. D. 218," the accession of Elagabalus, the twenty-third Ro- 
man Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued 
in Egypt. 

Philostratus iii. 5, states, that Apollonius Tyanaeus " saw in India 
some of those nuts which in Greece are kept in the temples as curio- 
sities." The cocoa-nut (Cocos nucifera) appears to be also mentioned 
by Cosmas Indicopleustes ; and is clearly the " karyon megiston ton 
indikon" of the Pseudo-Callisthenes iii. 8, and Julius Valerius. — 
Cocoa-nuts are said to be noticed in the Itinerary of Abuzeid and 
Wahab, and by Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Mesue, and Avicenna ; I saw in 
Egypt a quantity that had been imported by the route of Mecca and 
the Thebaid. 

According to Beckmann, Philostratus alludes to the dourra (Sorghum 
vulgare) as seen in India by Apollonius Tyanaeus : and Heliodorus 
is considered (by Delile) to refer to its growing at Meroe. I have 
not found the dourra figured on the Egyptian monuments ; but stems 
intermingled with those of the papyrus, were shown me in a parcel 
exhumed at Saccara, possibly as ancient as the Coptic Period. — The 
dourra is mentioned by Ibn Masah, Abu Hanifa, Rhazes, and Ibn 
Baitar, under its Indian name "jawars :" its cultivation in Egypt is 
noticed by Alpinus, and by all subsequent travellers. 

In u A. D. 222," the accession of Alexander Severus, the twenty- 
fourth Roman Emperor, took place. His name has been found in a 
Greek inscription at Antinoe. 

In " A. D. 235," the accession of Maximinus, the twenty-fifth Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued in 
Egypt. 

In " A. D. 238," the accession of Pupienus Maximus, the twenty- 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 99 

sixth Roman Emperor, took place. His reign lasted only a few 
months ; but his name has been found on coins issued in Egypt. 

In the same year, the accession of Gordianus Pius, the twenty- 
seventh Roman Emperor, took place. His name has been found on 
coins issued in Egypt. Inscriptions dated in his reign, commemo- 
rating acts of adoration by Egyptian families towards the ancient 
deities, are mentioned by Champollion-Figeac. 

The KAAAKANeor of Democritus, Paxamus, Anatolius Berytius, and 
the Geoponica xiii., according to Sibthorp's account of the Greek 
usage, is the Cnicus benedictm. — This plant was seen by Hasselquist 
at Damietta. 

In "A. D. 244," the accession of Philippus, the twenty-eighth Ro- 
man Emperor, took place. He was by birth an Arab, and nominally 
a Christian. His name has been found on coins issued in Egypt : 
and (according to Champollion-Figeac) some inscriptions in the above 
series, dedicated to the ancient deities of Egypt, are dated in his 
reign. 

The Celebration of the Thousandth anniversary of the building of 
Rome, took place " in the third consulship of Philippus, that is, in 
A. D. 248," as determined by coins ; but the exact month has not 
been ascertained (Ramsay, in Smith's Biog. Diet.). It appears, how- 
ever, that Varro's Computation was the one followed. 

In " A. D. 249," the accession of Decius, took place. He is the 
last Roman Emperor whose name has been found in hieroglyphic 
characters. 

In "A. D. 251," the accession of Trebonianus Gallus, the thirtieth 
Roman Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued 
in Egypt. 

In "A. D. 253-4" (Ramsay, in Smith's Biog. Diet.), the accession 
of Aemilianus, the thirty-first Roman Emperor, took place. His reign 
lasted a few months only ; but his name has been found on coins issued 
in Egypt. He was succeeded by Valerianus ; whose name has also 
been found on coins issued in Egypt. 

On the capture of Valerianus by the Persians, "A. D. 260," his son 
and colleague, Gallienus, became the sole Roman Emperor. The name 
of Gallienus has also been found on coins issued in Egypt. 

The medicinal kokaaot seeds of Aretaeus, may be compared with 
cocculus Indicus (Menispermum cocculus). — In Egypt an indigenous 
species of Menispermum is called " lebakh el-gebel ;" and the drug 



100 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

" lehibach," as described by Rhazes and Avicenna, seems to correspond 
in its properties with cocculus Indicus. The M. cocculus, according to 
Graham, grows in the environs of Bombay. 

About this time, according to Gesenius and others, the Hebrew letters 
now in use, first make their appearance : the earliest inscriptions 
hitherto discovered, being those at Palmyra. — The "vowel-points" 
were introduced more than two centuries later ; and after the time of 
Jerome. 

About the same time, according to Zoega and others, the Greek 
letters with some additions, were first employed in writing the Coptic 
language. — With one exception, all the so-called Coptic inscriptions 
and manuscripts hitherto discovered, have proved to be Christian : 
few of them (according to Champollion-Figeac, p. 228) are older than 
the Seventh century ; and they continue down to the final extinction 
of the language and literature, in the Sixteenth century. 

In "A. D. 268," the accession of Aurelius Claudius, the thirty- 
fourth Roman Emperor, took place. His name has been found on 
coins issued in Egypt. 

In "A. D. 269" (Clinton), Queen Zenobia of Palmyra invaded Egypt; 
and for some months, retained possession of the country. 

In " A. D. 270," the accession of Aurelianus, the thirty-fifth Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued in 
Egypt : as also, the name of Domitianus, an unsuccessful aspirant. 
From this time (according to Zoega, Tochon, and Sharpe), all traces 
of the precious metals disappear from the Egyptian coinage. With the 
exception, that in one or more instances, the Roman Legion in Egypt 
coined silver into money for their own pay. 

According to Sharpe, the Church of St. Mary was built at Alex- 
andria during the reign of Aurelianus ; and the first public service of 
Christianity in Egypt, was probably held within its walls. 

In " A. D. 275," the accession of Tacitus, the thirty-sixth Roman 
Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued in 
Egypt. He was succeeded by Florianus ; whose authority was not 
acknowledged in the East, and whose name has not been found on the 
Egyptian monuments. 

In "A. D. 276," the accession of Probus, the thirty-eighth Roman 
Emperor, took place. 

In "A. D. 282," the accession of Carus, the thirty-ninth Roman 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 101 

Emperor, took place. His name has been found on coins issued in 
Egypt. 

In " A. D. 283," the accession of Carinus, the fortieth Roman Em- 
peror, took place. His name has been found on coins issued in Egypt : 
as also the name of his colleague, Numerianus. 

In " A. D. 284," the accession of Diocletian, the forty-first Roman 
Emperor, took place. The great syenite column, so conspicuous at 
Alexandria, according to a Greek inscription on its base, was erected 
during the reign of Diocletian. 

In "A. D. 299" (Clinton), the separate Egyptian coinage ceased: 
from this time, the coins issued at Alexandria bear Latin inscriptions, 
and are similar in every respect to those of the rest of the Empire. 

In " A. D. 303," Diocletian issued his celebrated edict against the 
Christians : supposed, to have been in part extorted from him through 
the intrigues of Galerius. 

In " A. D. 305," the abdication of Diocletian and the accession of 
Constantius, took place. 

In "A. D. 306," the accession of Constantine, the forty -third Roman 
Emperor, took place. During his reign, all religions were tolerated, 
and the persecutions of the Christians finally ceased. The founding 
of the oldest existing monasteries of Egypt, is attributed by the Coptic 
monks to the Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine. 

The progress of Christianity appears to have been more rapid in 
Egypt than in any other country : and after the Conversion, the 
rearing of temples by princes ceased. In the Thebaid, however, are 
remains of churches, abundantly proving that architectural taste was 
not extinct; evidence also, that the Early Christians did not destroy 
antiquities ; and abandoned Christian villages, which show more re- 
finement in the style of living than prevails in the same district at the 
present day. 

In "A. D. 325" (Alsted), the first General Ecclesiastical Council 
was held. The meeting was convened at Nice, in Asia Minor : and 
nearly one hundred Egyptian and Lybian bishops are said to have 
been present. 

In "A. D. 330" (Idatius, quoted by Plate, in Smith's Biog. Diet.), 
Constantine removed the seat of government from Rome to Byzantium 
or Constantinople. To which city, he also transported an obelisk from 
Egypt. 



102 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Birch speaks of mummies " as late as the time of Constantine, if not 
indeed a century later." 

In " A. D. 337," Constantine, in the daily expectation of death, de- 
clared his intention of becoming a Christian, and received baptism. 
In the same year, he was succeeded by Constantius II. 



In " A. D. 341" (Clinton), a law was promulgated against the an- 
cient religious rite of sacrifices. 

The cultivated koctoc of Damogeron, of the Capitularia of Charle- 
magne, and the Geoponica vii. 13 and xi. 27, according to Forskal's 
account of the Greek usage, is the Bcdsamita vulgaris. — This plant was 
seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo. 

In " A. D. 357," Constantius II. visited Rome : and by his direc- 
tion, an obelisk (the same now called the " Lateran obelisk") was 
brought to that city from Egypt. 

In " A. D. 361," the accession of Julian, the forty-fifth Roman Em- 
peror, took place : and ancient Heathenism once more, and for the last 
time, became the religion of the State. Julian, however, permitted 
the Jews to make an attempt to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem ; 
and in fact tolerated all religions. 

In " A. D. 363," the accession of Jovian, the forty-sixth Roman Em- 
peror, took place. He declared himself a Christian ; and issued an 
edict, placing Christianity upon a legal basis : at the same time, he 
equally protected the followers of the ancient religion. 

In " A. D. 364," the accession of Valentinian, the forty-seventh 
Roman Emperor, took place. He took up his residence in Italy, and 
gave the Eastern portion of the Empire to his brother Valens. 

The taypeae<dac, an Indian animal mentioned in the Pseudo-Cal- 
listhenes iii. 17, may be compared with the buffalo (Bos bubalus). — 
This important domestic animal was introduced into the Mediterra- 
nean countries some centuries later. It is mentioned by Eltamini and 
Allatafet ; and is now extremely common in Egypt. 

In " A. D. 375," the accession of Gratian, the forty-eighth Roman 
Emperor, took place. From this time, religious liberty was no longer 
permitted ; but the Christians, gaining the ascendency, began to exer- 
cise persecutions towards the followers of the ancient religion, and 
towards certain sects of their own body. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 103 

In " A. D. 379," after the death of Valens, Gratian appointed Theo- 
dosius to rule over the Eastern portion of the Empire. 

In " A. D. 383," the death of Gratian took place ; and Valenti- 
nian II., being supported by Theodosius, became the acknowledged 
Roman Emperor. 

The formal Destruction of the temples, had not commenced in 
"A. D. 384" (as appears from Libanius) : soon, however, orders of 
Theodosius were directed against particular temples ; and these were 
demolished by soldiers, aided by bands of fanatics. 

In "A. D. 390," the great temple of Serapis at Alexandria was 
demolished. This building contained the Alexandrian Library (see 
Tertullian Apolog. 18, and Orosius vi. 15). 

. On the death of Valentinian II., " A. D. 392," the Empire became 
united under Theodosius ; now in the regular series, the fiftieth Roman 
Emperor. 

In "A. D. 395," Theodosius, shortly before his death, divided the 
Empire between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius. This par- 
tition proved to be final ; for the community of interest hitherto felt 
in regard to foreign invasions, was at this time greatly weakened. 
Arcadius thus became the head of the Byzantine branch of the Roman 
Empire. 

According to Rhazes, The "khiar janbar," or Cassia fistula, is men- 
tioned by Priscianus. — The medicinal use of the pods, is noticed by 
Maserjawia, Ibn Masawia, Ibn Gnefith, Haly Abbas, Actuarius, and 
Nicolaus Myrepsus : A. A. Elnabati, Ibn Baitar, and Belon, allude to 
the presence of the tree in Egypt : where it is still common in gar- 
dens; and where, nevertheless, there is a large importation of the 
pods by the way of Yemen. 

In " A. D. 408," the accession of Theodosius II., the second Byzan- 
tine emperor, took place. He zealously prosecuted the work of de- 
molishing the temples of the ancient religion : a disastrous measure, 
in respect to Monumental History. 

The "naphri" of the Coptic Version of Matthew xiii. 31, may be 
compared with " el-nefyr," the current Egyptian name of the Datura 
metel. — This plant was seen in Crete by Belon ; is figured by Matthioli ; 
and was doubtless originally derived from India. The D. fastuosa, by 
some writers considered as only a variety, was seen in Egypt by Delile. 

In "A. D. 450," the accession of Marcian, the third Byzantine em- 
peror, took place. . . 



104 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In " A. D. 451," the fourth General Ecclesiastical Council was 
held, at Chalcedon ; and the opinions of Eutyches were condemned. 
This was equivalent to an excommunication of Egypt; where these 
opinions were general, and where they prevail to the present day. — 
About a century after the condemnation, the proscribed sect received 
the name of " Jacobites," from Jacobus of Edessa (pronounced Yaco- 
bus) ; and hence apparently, the origin of the term " Copts," applied 
by Europeans to the Christian portion of the population of Egypt. 

In " A. D. 457," the accession of Leo, the fourth Byzantine emperor, 
took place. He was crowned by a priest ; an innovation afterwards 
adopted by all Christian sovereigns. 

In "A. D. 474," the accession of Leo II., the fifth Byzantine empe- 
ror, took place : his reign lasted a few months only ; and before the 
close of the year, he was succeeded by Zeno. 

In " A. D. 482," Zeno issued an edict, called the Henoticon or Union ; 
in effect, allowing the Egyptians some liberty in choosing their own 
creed. 

The cantaaon of Aetius, is doubtless sandal-wood (Santalum al- 
bum). — This odoriferous wood is mentioned by Rhazes and Avicenna; 
and Serapion states, that it is brought from China. The living plant, 
according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been recently introduced into 
Egypt. 

According to Greenhill, mocxoc or mush, is mentioned by Aetius; 
and the deer-like animal from which it is obtained (Moschus moschi- 
ferus), by Cosmas Indicopleustes. — The musk animal, known to in- 
habit Thibet, is distinctly described by Abu Hanifa (as quoted by 
Serapion). Ibn Masawia, Honain, and Symeon Sethus, speak of the 
imported perfume ; and its sale in Egypt is noticed by Leo Africanus. 

In "A. D. 491," the accession of Anastasius, the seventh Byzan- 
tine emperor, took place. He adhered to the policy of his predecessor, 
in refusing to enforce the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon ; and 
the Western Empire having ceased to exist, he was anathematized by 
Pope Symmachus. This is perhaps the earliest instance of the papal 
influence being directed against a king. 

In "A. D. 518," the accession of Justin, the eighth Byzantine em- 
peror, took place. He adopted energetic measures against the Euty- 
chians, in conformity with the decree of the Council of Chalcedon. — 
And this became the settled policy of his successors. 

In "A. D. 525" (Alsted), Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk, 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 105 

first suggested the use of the Christian Era, and set the example in 
his writings. The practice was gradually adopted by European 
nations ; but the ancient computation has remained uninterrupted in 
Egypt. 

In "A. D. 527," the accession of Justinian, the ninth Byzantine em- 
peror, took place. He built the fortified monastery on Mount Sinai ; 
and established intercourse with Abyssinia. At this time, corn was 
carried in Alexandrian ships to Cornwall in Britain, and exchanged 
for tin (Leontius, Acta Sanct. Jan. xxiii.) 

According to Sharpe, Under Justinian, some traces of a separate 
Egyptian coinage again make their appearance. The inscriptions are 
still in Latin ; but the abbreviated name of Alexandria is in Greek 
letters, and the system of weights is different from that of Constan- 
tinople. 

The aptttikh of Alexander Trallianus, according to Sibthorp's 
account of the Greek usage, would seem to be one or more species of 
Scabiosa. — The Scabiosa prolifera, was seen by Sibthorp in the culti- 
vated fields of Cyprus ; and was received from Egypt by Willdenow. 

The manufacture of silk was unknown in the Mediterranean coun- 
tries prior to " A. D. 551 ;" when living silk-worms were brought 
from Eastern Asia (see Theophanes Byzantius, quoted by Photius, 
Bibl. cod. 64). 

The silk-worms were of course accompanied by the white mulberry 
(Morus alba) : a species evidently unknown to Pliny, who enumerates 
the mulberry among " the berries that in the end turn black." — The 
white mulberry, has long been an object of cultivation in Egypt. 

An opinion prevailed in ancient times, that Lower Egypt is exempt 
from earthquakes: but the Earthquake of "August, A. D. 554," is de- 
scribed by Agathias, as felt by him at Alexandria. — Modern travellers 
also speak of experiencing earthquakes in Egypt. 

In " A. D. 565," the accession of Justin II., the tenth Byzantine 
emperor, took place. Among the events of his reign, he entered into 
an alliance with the " Toyrkoi" or Turks ; now for the first time men- 
tioned (see Menander Protector, Theophanes Byzantius, and Joannes 
Epiphaniensis). 

In " A. D. 578," the accession of Tiberius Constantinus, the eleventh 
Byzantine emperor, took place. 

In "A. D. 582," the accession of Mauricius, the twelfth Byzantine 



106 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

emperor, took place. He protected and encouraged learning and 
the arts. 

In reference to the condition of Northern Europe it may be ob- 
served, that Clovis, the first Christian king of France, began to reign 
in the same year (see Clinton). 

In " A. D. 602," the accession of Phocas, the thirteenth Byzantine 
emperor, took place. 

In " A. D. 610," the accession of Heraclius, the fourteenth Byzan- 
tine emperor, took place. 

In Egypt, according to Forskal, the Coix Jachryma is called " dima 
Ayoub." This being a Coptic name, with a Scriptural allusion, 
seems to indicate, that the plant was known to the Early Christians. 
The C. lachryma is figured by Dodonaeus : it is a Tropical pro- 
duction, derived from India, or perhaps originally from the Malay 
countries. 

In " A. D. 616," the Persians once more invaded Egypt ; captured 
Alexandria, where they established themselves ; and retained posses- 
sion of the country for ten years. 

According to Sharpe, About this time, Thomas, a Syrian bishop, 
came to Alexandria, to correct the Syriac Version of the New Testa- 
ment, made about a century before by Philoxenus. He compared the 
gospels with three Greek manuscripts in the monastery of St. Anthony : 
and his corrected Edition, is the last effort in sacred criticism attempted 
at Alexandria, or in any part of the East. 

The rheum barbarum of Isidorus Hispalensis, is referred by Sprengel 
to the medicinal rhubarb. — This drug is also mentioned by Rhazes, 
Mesue, Averrhoes, and Ibn Baitar : it is brought by the caravans 
from Interior Asia ; and Barthema (or Vertoman) speaks of the sale 
of rhubarb in Korasan. 

According to Kasimirski's Version, the banana (Musa sapientum) 
is mentioned by Mohammed, in the Koran. — The plant is noticed by 
Avicenna, Serapion, and Leo Africanus; and was seen by the early 
Portuguese Pilot, both at St. Thomas in the Gulf of Guinea, and at 
Alexandria. I found the banana growing in the open air at Madeira 
and Malta, and ripening its fruit at Alexandria ; and am informed by 
Mr. Nuttall, that it does so in certain situations even at the Azores. 

According to Kasimirski's Version, the tamarind (Tamarindus In- 
dica) is mentioned in the Koran xxxiv. 15. — Cailliaud states, that 
tamarind pods are imported in quantities by the Darfour caravans : 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 107 

the living tree, as appears from Belon, Alpinus, Delile, and others, has 
been repeatedly introduced into Egypt. 

The " zakkoum oil" of the Koran xxxvii. 60, and of Modern Pales- 
tine, may be compared with the oil obtained from the fruit of the 
Elceodendron argan. — This is an indigenous tree of Morocco; but 
there are reasons for supposing, it may also grow in Palestine. 

According to F. Adams, The nutmeg (Myristica moschata), a produc- 
tion of the Molucca Islands, is mentioned by Ahrun, Isaac Ibn Amran, 
Ibn Masawia, Miseaben, Albasari, Rhazes, Avicenna, and Serapion. 

Among the articles found in ancient Egyptian tombs, some may 
have been deposited as far back as the Coptic Period. According to 
Wilkinson, seeds of the Cyperus esculentus, have been discovered in 
these tombs. — The plant was seen by Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Rosetta. 

According to Wilkinson, leaves and fragments of senna, have been 
found in ancient Egyptian tombs. The species is not given ; but all 
the senna seen by myself in the warehouses of Mocha and Muscat, 
belonged to Cassia lanceolata.— The drug senna, is said to be men- 
tioned by Isaac Ibn Amran, Abix, Serapion Senior, Rhazes, Haly 
Abbas, and Mesue. The C. lanceolata was seen by Delile, growing on 
the borders of Nubia. 

According to Champollion-Figeac (Egypte Anc. p. 175), pods of 
the Acacia heterocarpa have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. — 
Delile met with pods in the drug shops of Cairo ; and with the living 
tree, near Kosser in Upper Egypt. 

According to Champollion-Figeac, fruit of the Mimusops elengi has 
been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. — The tree, according to Graham, 
is a favourite with the Muslims of India. 



VIII. THE EARLY MUSLIM PERIOD. 

In "A. D. 640" (Marcel), shortly before the death of Heraclius, 
the Muslims under Amru (the general of Khalif Omar) invaded 
Egypt and obtained possession of Alexandria. They appear to have 
been hailed as deliverers of the country from a foreign yoke. 

I have hitherto deferred speaking of a subject, which will be found 
to throw light on many historical events : viz., the disposal of the 
collective agricultural produce of Egypt. To go no further back than 



108 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

the time of Xerxes, the corn of Egypt was indispensable to his designs 
against Greece (Herodotus vii. 25). It fed armies; and in the days 
of Josephus (Bell. Jud. iv. 10, 5), formed an element in making and 
unmaking Roman emperors. The circumstance is therefore worthy 
of note, that after the Muslims entered Alexandria, European rulers 
no longer had control over the corn of Egypt. 

From this time, also, Egypt appears as if withdrawn from the know- 
ledge of Europeans for nearly a thousand years. But during the 
greater part of this interval, Europe supplies very little information re- 
specting her own condition. The Greeks and Romans being excepted, 
the remaining European nations hardly possess records of their own 
as ancient as the origin of the Muslim religion ; and the popular mind 
rarely goes beyond the limits of the National Literature. 

The Pilgrimage to Mecca obviously tended to increase the commer- 
cial intercourse between India and Europe ; and this intercourse, it 
should be observed, everywhere remained in the hands of the Muslims. 
There was indeed some choice of routes for the general objects of 
traffic ; but the living Tropical plants, perhaps without exception, 
reached the Mediterranean by the way of Egypt. 

In "A. D. 643" (Clot-Bey), the mosque of Amru was built at 
Fostat, near Cairo ; but " having undergone frequent repairs, a very 
small portion of the original edifice remains." This and another 
mosque built by Amru at Assuan, present the usual round arches then 
in vogue in Greece and Italy (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, pp. 310 
and 455). In other respects, a striking change is manifest in the 
monumental history of Egypt : representations or images of external 
objects,* whether living or inanimate, are from this time carefully 
avoided ; a circumstance, which on many accounts has proved fortu- 
nate for Antiquarian research. 

In " A. D. 644," the accession of Khalif Othman, the second Muslim 
ruler of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 651" (Plate, in Smith's Biog. Diet.), the Muslims fitted 
out a naval expedition against Sicily ; and also captured Rhodes ; on 
which occasion, the celebrated colossus was sold and broken up. 

In "A. D. 655" (Plate, in Smith's Biog. Diet.), the Greeks were 
defeated in a naval combat by the Muslims. 

In " A. D. 656," the accession of Khalif Ali, the third Muslim ruler 

* A remarkable exception is made in favour of the heavenly bodies, the moon and 
the stars. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 109 

of Egypt, took place. Copper coins, supposed to have been issued 
under the legitimate khalifs, are figured by Marcel, p. 26. 

On the death of Khalif Ali, " A. D. 661," Mu'awiyah, of the family 
of Ommiah, became ruler of the Muslim Empire. He removed the seat 
of government from Medina to Damascus. 

In "A. D. 672" (Plate, in Smith's Biog. Diet.), the Muslim fleet, 
after capturing Smyrna and most of the Greek islands, began the 
blockade of Constantinople: and on this occasion, Greek fire, just in- 
vented by Callinicus, was successfully employed in the defence. 

In "A. D. 680," the accession of Yezid, the second Ommiad khalif, 
took place. 

In "A. D. 683," the accession of Mu'awiyah II., the third Ommiad 
khalif, took place. His reign was brief; and in the following year, he 
was succeeded by Merwan. 

In " A. D. 685," the accession of Abd-el-Melek, the fifth Ommiad 
khalif, took place. During his reign, a Nilometer was constructed at 
Helwan, near Cairo (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, p. 541). 

The "fawfal" of Maserjawia, Ibn Amran, Abu Hanifaj Mesue, Avi- 
cenna, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar, is admitted to be the nut of the betel 
palm (Areca catechu). — This palm is extensively cultivated through- 
out Hindostan and the Malay countries : Wilkinson speaks of " areca" 
nuts being found in ancient Egyptian tombs. 

The "tamul" or "tanbul" of Maserjawia, Abu Hanifa, Masudi, 
Haly Abbas, Avicenna, and Ibn Baitar, is admitted to be the betel 
pepper (Piper betel). — The use of betel has never been extended to 
Egypt ; where, indeed, the Piper betel could hardly be cultivated with 
success. 

The " turbud" of Maserjawia, Ibn Masawia, Hobaisch, Rhazes, Haly 
Abbas, Mesue, Avicenna, and Serapion, is considered to be turpeth ; the 
imported root of Convolvulus turpethum. — The plant, according to 
Graham, is common in the environs of Bombay. 

The " kilkil" (already mentioned) of Maserjawia, Ibn Masawia, Abu 
Hanifa, Rhazes, Avicenna, and Ibn Baitar, according to the received 
opinion and Forskal's account of the usage in Yemen, is the Cassia 
tora. — This plant has become a very general weed in Tropical coun- 
tries ; and the seeds (which according to Ainslie are used medicinally 
in India) have doubtless been sometimes imported into Egypt. 

The "cafur" of Maserjawia, Meseab, Mesarguil, Ibn Masawia, Ibn 
Amran, Rhazes, and Serapion, is clearly camphor; imported from 



HO CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

China, and the product of Laurus camphora. — Symeon Sethus, accord- 
ing to Alpinus (De bals. 5), speaks of the oil of camphor: the living 
tree, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been recently introduced 
into Egypt. 

According to Marcel, copper money only had been coined by the 
Muslims before the reign of Abd-el-Melek ; who first coined silver, to 
the exclusion of Greek and Persian coins. Marcel, p. 34, figures one 
of the coins issued by Abd-el-Melek, bearing the date of the 79th 
year of the Hejra (A. D. 698) : by some writers, this is considered the 
earliest Muslim coin hitherto discovered. 

In " A. D. 705," the accession of Walid, the sixth Ommiad khalif, 
took place. During his reign, the mosque El-Djame el-Atyk was 
commenced near Cairo : he also issued coins (see Marcel, p. 34). 

The BEAiAEr of Zosimus Panopolitanus, Mesue, and Chariton, is 
admitted to be belleric myrobalans ; the fruit, according to Royle, of 
Terminalia belerica. — This tree was seen by Graham, growing in the 
environs of Bombay. 

The AMBAEr of Zosimus Panopolitanus, Rhazes, Mesue, Chariton, 
and Nicolaus Myrepsus, is admitted to be emblic myrobalans (the fruit 
of Emblica officinalis). — Edrisi speaks of the importation of myro- 
balans by the way of Aden ; and the medicinal use of emblic myro- 
balans by the Egyptians, is mentioned by Alpinus. According to 
Bontius, the E. officinalis grows wild in Java ; and Graham met with 
it, also wild in Hindostan. 

In " A. D. 710," by the permission of Khalif Walid, the Muslims 
entered Spain. About the same time, their armies in the East entered 
Hindostan, and the country of Kaschgar in Central Asia. 

In " A. D. 715," the accession of Soliman, the seventh Ommiad 
khalif, took place. The Nilometer at Rhoda, near Cairo, was built 
during his reign ; it affords evidence, that round arches were still in 
vogue. 

In "A. D. 717," the accession of Omar II., the eighth Ommiad 
khalif, took place. 

In " A. D. 720," the accession of Yezid II., the ninth Ommiad 
khalif, took place. 

In "A. D. 724," the accession of Hescham, the tenth Ommiad 
khalif, took place. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by 
Marcel, p. 38. 

In " A. D. 732," the Muslims, after having overrun a large portion 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. m 

of France and advancing as far as the Loire, were defeated by Charles 
Martel : shortly afterwards, they were obliged to retire into Spain. 

In "A. D. 743," the accession of Walid II., the eleventh Ommiad 
khalif, took place. 

In " A. D. 744," the accession of Yezid III., the twelfth Ommiad 
khalif, took place. He was succeeded by Ibrahim ; and before the 
close of the year, by Merwan II., the fourteenth and last Ommiad 
khalif. 

In " A. D. 750," Abu'l Abbas, of the family of Abbas, became ruler 
of the Muslim Empire : and the seat of government was removed 
from Damascus to a town on the Euphrates. The change was accom- 
panied with the loss of Spain ; which became an independent Muslim 
kingdom. 

In " A. D. 754," the accession of El-Mansur, the second Abbassid 
khalif, took place. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by 
Marcel, p. 44. 

According to Beckmann, the hop (Humulus lupulus) is mentioned in 
a letter of dotation of Pepin, king of France; and also by Adelard. — 
The plant was seen by Belon at Constantinople ; and according to Clot- 
Bey and Figari, was introduced into Egypt by Delile. 

In "A. D. 762" (Marcel), Khalif El-Mansur founded the city of 
Bagdad, near ancient Babylon, for the new seat of government. 

In " A. D. 775," the accession of El-Mahadi, the third Abbassid 
khalif, took place. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by 
Marcel, p. 45. 

According to F. Adams, Kehulic myrobalans (the fruit of Terminalia 
Chebula) are mentioned by Sarac the Indian, Honain, Rhazes, Mesue, 
Avicenna, Serapion, Actuarius, and Nicolaus Myrepsus. — Alpinus 
speaks of the medicinal use of these nuts in Egypt : according to 
Graham, the tree grows wild in the environs of Bombay. 

In " A. D. 784," the accession of El-Hadi, the fourth Abbassid khalif, 
took place. 

In " A. D. 786," the accession of Harun-el-Rashid, the fifth Abbas- 
sid khalif, took place. He protected and encouraged literature and 
science ; and his memory has also been cherished for his benevolent 
acts. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 48. 

The radix of the Capitularia of Charlemagne, would seem to be the 
radish (Raphanus sativus). — The "fujl" of Ibn Masawia, Elthabari, 
Costus, Rhazes, and Ibn Baitar, according to Egyptian usage, is the 



112 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

radish : at the present day, the plant is abundantly cultivated through- 
out the Arab countries, to the Dekkan inclusive. 

The ameum of the Capitularia of Charlemagne, has been referred to 
the Ammi majus. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece; by 
Hasselquist in Palestine ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Alexandria. 

The dragontea of the Capitularia of Charlemagne, and the " thar- 
khun" of Ibn Masawia, Abu Hanifa, Ehazes, Avicenna, Symeon 
Sethus, and Ibn Baitar, are admitted to be the tarragon (Artemisia 
dracunculus). — This plant was seen in Egypt by Hasselquist. 

The tanarita of the Capitularia of Charlemagne, is considered to be 
the tansy (Tanacetum vulgare). — This plant is figured by Dalechamp; 
and is mentioned by Lobel, as cultivated in the English gardens. It 
was not seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; and according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, has been only recently introduced into Egypt.* 

The millefolium of a medical formula of the time of Charlemagne, 
and of Macer Floridus 58, is probably the yarrow (Achillea millefo- 
lium) . — This is a Northern plant ; noticed by Lobel ; not seen in 
Greece by Sibthorp ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, only re- 
cently introduced into Egypt. 

In " A. D. 809," the accession of El-Amin, the sixth Abbassid khalif, 
took place. 

In "A. D. 813," the accession of El-Mamun, the seventh Abbassid 
khalif, took place. He protected and encouraged literature and science; 
was himself an astronomer ; and by his direction, a degree of Latitude 
was measured. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by Marcel, 
p. 51. 

The " khawlanjan" of Ibn Masawia, Ibn Amran, Rhazes, Avicenna, 
and Serapion, and the "galanga" of Macer Floridus 70, and Nicolaus 
Myrepsus, are admitted to be galanga; the aromatic root of Alpinia 
galanga. — The plant grows wild in Hindostan ; and Alpinus speaks 
of the medicinal use in Egypt of the imported root. 

The "badinjan" of Ibn Masawia, Rhazes, Avicenna, Serapion, Ibn 
Baitar, and Makrisi, according to Egyptian usage, is the egg-plant 
(Solanum melongena). — At the present day, the egg-plant is abun- 
dantly cultivated in Egypt. 

* The nepeta of the Capitularia of Charlemagne, and of Walafridus Strabus, is con- 
sidered to he the Nepeta cataria. — This plant, according to Sprengel, is figured by 
Brunfels. It was seen by Sibthorp at Constantinople ; but appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. H3 

The "kababat" of Ibn Masawia (as quoted by Haller), Honain, 
Rhazes, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar, is considered to be cubebs (Piper 
cubeba) . — This kind of pepper is said to grow wild in Java. 

The "lebleb" of Ibn Masawia, Ibn Amran, Alkanzi, Haly Abbas, 
and Serapion, according to Egyptian usage, would seem to be the 
Doliclws lablab. — Alpinus, Forskal, and Delile, found this plant culti- 
vated for ornament in Egypt and Nubia. 

In "A. D. 832" (Marcel), Khalif El-Mamun visited Egypt: he 
caused the Nilometer at Rhoda to be repaired; and Kufic inscriptions 
sculptured on the building by his orders, are mentioned by Marcel. 
According to Wilkinson, some of the Kufic inscriptions at Assuan are 
very nearly as ancient (Thebes and Egypt, p. 455). 

In " A. D. 833," the accession of Motassem, the eighth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by 
Marcel, p. 53. About this time, the Muslims obtained possession of 
Sicily ; where they maintained themselves for more than two cen- 
turies. 

The "sibistan" of Honain, Rhazes, Avicenna, Serapion, and Ibn 
Baitar, is admitted to be one or both species of Cordia. The C. myxa 
has been already noticed. The Cordia crenata is likewise a Tropical 
tree, introduced into and successfully Cultivated in Egypt. — Where it 
was seen by Alpinus and Delile. 

The "dend" of Honain, Hobaisch, Rhazes, Serapion, and Ibn Bai- 
tar, is referred by Royle to the Croton iiglium. — This plant grows in 
Hindostan ; but according to Alpinus and Delile, the imported seeds 
are sold in the drug shops of Cairo. 

The "thalisfar" of Honain, Ibn Amran, Avicenna, Elhuri, and Ibn 
Baitar, is referred by Royle to " the highly aromatic leaves of Rhodo- 
dendron lepidotum." — This is an indigenous plant of the Himalaya 
mountains. 

In "A. D. 842," the accession of Wathek, the ninth Abbassid khalif, 
took place. 

According to F. Adams, mix vomica (considered to be the seeds of 
Strychnos nux-vomica) is mentioned by Abram, Haly Abbas, Sera- 
pion, and Ibn Baitar. — Nicolaus Propositus (122), speaks of "nucis 
vomice." The imported seeds were seen by Forskal and Delile in the 
drug shops of Cairo ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, the living 
plant (a native of Hindostan) has been recently introduced into 
Egypt. 



114 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In " A. D. 847," the accession of Motawakkel, the tenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. Some accident having befallen the Nilometer at 
Rhoda, he caused it to be rebuilt (Marcel, and Wilkinson, Thebes and 
Egypt, p. 312). Coins, issued during his reign, are figured by Marcel, 
p. 56. 

The "sah" of the Itinerary of Wahab and Abuzeid (who visited 
China in "A. D. 851"), and of " Mehemet Arabs" and Ramusio, is 
admitted to be tea (Thea). — This beverage has never been much used 
among the Arab tribes ; a circumstance, that partly accounts for its 
having so long remained unknown to Europeans. 

From Sprengel's remarks, the precious camphor (Dryobalanops) of 
Sumatra and Borneo would seem to be mentioned in the Itinerary of 
Wahab and Abuzeid ; also, by Ibn Amran, Edrisi, Abulfeda, Bakui, 
and other Arab writers. 

In "A. D. 861," the accession of Montaser, the eleventh Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

In " A. D. 862," the accession of Mostain, the twelfth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

The "athl" of Isaac Ibn Amran, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar, accord- 
ing to Egyptian usage, is Callitris quadrivalvis. — This is a tree re- 
sembling the Casuarina, often planted around the Egyptian villages; 
and according to my Nubian attendant, also found in Dongola. 

According to F. Adams, borax (borate of soda) is mentioned by Ibn 
Amran, Serapion, Ibn Baitar, and in the Susruta. — Saunders and 
Turner ascertained, that this salt is procured from a lake in Thibet. 

In " A. D. 866," the accession of Motaz, the thirteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

The "yasmin" of I. Ben Masah, Rhazes, Mosih Ben Elhakam, and 
Ibn Baitar, according to Delile's account of the Egyptian usage, is the 
Jasminum grandiflorum. — This plant is by some writers considered 
only a variety of/, officinale: also seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo; 
and by Forskal, both at Cairo and on the mountains of Yemen. 

The "khiar" of I. Ben Masah, Hobaisch, Rhazes, Avicenna, Elga- 
faki, and Ibn Baitar, according to Egyptian usage, is our common 
cucumber (Cucumis sativus). — The Bengalee name "keera" is nearly 
identical ; a circumstance confirming the received opinion, That the 
plant was derived from Hindostan. 

In " A. D. 869," the accession of Mohtadi, the fourteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. H5 

In "A. D. 870," the accession of Motamed, the fifteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. His authority was acknowledged by Tooloon ; 
who, having received the appointment of governor of Egypt, had ren- 
dered himself really independent. Coins issued in Egypt, bearing the 
name of Tooloon, are figured by Marcel, p. 66. 

The subterranean aqueducts which supply the city of Alexandria 
with water, were constructed during the administration of Tooloon : 
but Coptic tradition ascribes the Avork to Sanutious, or Shenouda, who 
was at this time Coptic patriarch (Marcel, pp. 61 and 68). 

Tooloon built a mosque, on the site selected a century later for the 
city of Cairo. This mosque, according to two Kufic inscriptions on 
the walls, was completed in "A. D. 879." It presents the earliest 
example of the pointed arch, so far as at present ascertained (Wilkin- 
son, Thebes and Egypt, pp. 302 and 457, and Marcel, p. 75). — From 
this time, very little change has taken place in Muslim architecture. 
In Egypt, the style became universal ; and in all Eastern countries, 
Muslim constructions are readily distinguished by the dome and the 
pointed arch. The origin and extension in Europe of the so-called 
" Gothic Architecture," is connected with the Muslim occupancy of 
Sicily and Spain. 

The "hamdhidh" of Abu Hanifa and Ibn Baitar, according to 
Delile's account of the Egyptian usage, would seem to be the Oxalis 
corniculata ; though there is some ambiguity in the name. — The plant 
is figured by Matthioli and by Lobel; was seen by Forskal, both in 
Egypt and in the mountain region of Yemen ; and by Graham, 
growing as a weed in the environs of Bombay. 

The "lebakh" of Abu Hanifa, Avicenna, Soyouty, Ibn Baitar, Ab- 
dallatif, and Makrisi, appears to have been seen in Yemen by Forskal 
(p. 196) ; but the tree being without fruit or flowers, the species could 
not be ascertained. 

The "abitheran" of Abu Hanifa, Avicenna, A. H. Ellahabali, and 
Ibn Baitar, according to Delile's account of the Egyptian usage, is the 
Santolina fragrantissima. — This is an indigenous plant of the Egyptian 
Desert ; but according to Forskal, is dried and sold in the drug shops 
of Cairo. 

In "A. D. 892," the accession of Motadhed, the sixteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

The "bamiat" of A. A. Elnabati and Ibn Baitar, according to 
Egyptian usage, is the ochra (Hibiscus esculentus). — This plant is 



116 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

figured by Matthioli, Lobel, and Alpinus; and was seen by Forskal, 
cultivated both in Yemen and Egypt. 

In "A. D. 902," the accession of Moktafi, the seventeenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

In "A. D. 904" (Marcel), Moktafi sent an army, and recovered 
Egypt from the descendants of Tooloon. 

The "ball" of Rhazes, Ibn Samhun, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar, may 
be compared with " bale," the Bombay name (according to Graham) 
of JEgle marmelos. — The fruit of this tree is used medicinally in 
Hindostan; and Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the importation of 
"bel Hendi" fruit into Egypt. 

The "fel" of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Serapion, according to the 
usage in Yemen and Egypt (as given by Forskal and Delile), would 
seem to be the Mogorium sambac. — This plant is figured by Parkin- 
son ; and has become common in the green-houses of Europe and 
America. 

The yellow and the red " vars," described by Rhazes as " brought 
from Yemen and collected upon trees like pounded saffron," may be 
compared with the "hares" of Forskal, Mimosa tortilis. — Forskal 
is silent respecting any use made of this indigenous plant of Yemen. 

The " isfanaj" of Rhazes, Avicenna, Serapion, Edrisi, and Ibn 
Baitar, is admitted to be the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) . — This plant 
is figured by Matthioli ; and its cultivation in Egypt is noticed by 
Alpinus, Forskal, and others. 

The "ribas" of Rhazes, Mesue (De electuar.), Avicenna, Serapion, 
Edrisi, and Ibn Baitar, is referred by Royle and others to the Rheum 
ribes. This is an indigenous plant of the mountains of Syria and 
Persia. 

The " bahman " of Rhazes, Avicenna, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar, is 
referred by Sontheimer and others, to the imported roots of Centaurea 
beheu. — The living plant was seen by Rauwolf in Syria ; and by Sib- 
thorp in Cyprus : Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the importation into 
Egypt of " bahman " roots from Greece. 

The "lak" of Rhazes, Mesue (Canon univers.), Avicenna, Ibn El- 
hozar, and Ibn Baitar, is referred by Greenhill and others to lac (Coc- 
cus lacca). — This is an insect production, imported from Pegu; and 
according to Bontius, also found in Java. 

The "mulukhia" of Rhazes, Avicenna, Serapion, Ibn Baitar, and 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. H7 

Allatafet, according to Egyptian usage, is the Corchorus olitorius, or 
Jews' mallow. — This plant is mentioned by Forskal, Delile, and Clot- 
Bey and Figari, as a favourite esculent in Egypt. 

According to F. Adams, bezoars are mentioned by Rhazes, Haly 
Abbas, Avicenna, Serapion, and Ibn Baitar. — Bontius describes be- 
zoars as alvine concretions formed in various quadrupeds, among 
others, in goats, gazelles, and monkeys. 

In " A. D. 908," the accession of Moktader, the eighteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. A coin issued during his reign, is figured by Mar- 
cel, p. 90. 

According to Abdallatif, " Seeds of the lemon were brought from 
India in the three hundredth year of the Hejra (A. D. 912), and 
were sown in Oman." — The lemon (Citrus acida), according to F. 
Adams, is mentioned by Dhanvantare, and by the Persian medical 
writers : and a plant discovered in Hindostan, may prove to be the 
lemon in its wild state. The cultivated lemon was seen by Vertoman 
in Yemen ; by Alvarez in Abyssinia ; and by Forskal, Delile, and 
others, in Egypt. 

The plant referred to by Abdallatif is possibly the lime (Citrus 
limonum) ; which, according to Delile's account of the Egyptian usage, 
would seem to be the "limun" of Ibn Jamia and Ibn Baitar. — The 
Citrus limonum was seen by Belon at Cairo ; and is figured by Par- 
kinson. 

According to Abdallatif, " Seeds of the orange were brought in the 
same year from India, and were likewise sown in Oman." — The 
" naranj " of Edrisi and Ibn Baitar, according to Egyptian usage, 
is the orange (Citrus aurantium). Dhanvantare (as quoted by F. 
Adams), enumerates the orange among "acid fruits;" and seems 
therefore to speak of the true Citrus aurantium ; which is not culti- 
vated in Western Hindostan. Cademosto found the C. aurantium 
cultivated in Madeira ; and Vertoman met with it in Yemen. 

In "A. D. 929" (Munk), the Pilgrimage to Mecca was interrupted 
by the sect of the Karmatians. At this time, lines of partition were 
becoming more and more obvious in the Khalifate or Muslim Empire. 

In "A. D. 932," the accession of Kaher, the nineteenth Abbassid 
khalif, took place. 

In "A. D. 934," Kaher was deposed; and Radi became the twen- 
tieth Abbassid khalif. A coin issued during his reign, is figured by 
Marcel, p. 93. 



118 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Sprengel states, That Abulfadli, Edrisi, Marco Polo, Abulfeda, and 
Bakui, speak of the importation from the East India Islands and from 
Zingitana of the wood of Ccesalpinia sappan (used in dyeing red) ; and 
also, That this wood is called "presillum"* by the Rabbinical writers, 
and by Matthgeus Sylvaticus. — I met with the living plant in gardens 
at Bombay, and naturalized on the Island of Zanzibar. 

In "A. D. 940," the accession of Motaki, the twenty-first Abbassid 
khalif, took place. His authority was acknowledged by Ikhschid ; who, 
having received the appointment of governor of Egypt, had rendered 
himself really independent, and had besides extended his authority 
over Palestine and Syria. Coins issued by Ikhschid, are figured by 
Marcel, p. 95. 

The "ambar" of Haly Abbas, Eltamini, Avicenna, Serapion, Sy- 
meon Sethus, Edrisi, and Ibn Baitar, is referred by F. Adams to 
ambergris. — This perfume is noticed by Paludanus; is brought from 
the shores of the Indian Ocean ; and according to Beale and others, is 
derived from the sperm whale (Physeter). 

The " teii" grass of Haly Abbas, Stephanus, and Michael de Capella, 
may be compared with the " deyl el-far " of Modern Egypt, Polypogon 
Monspellense. — The P. Monspeliense was seen by Forskal and Delile, 
growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

In "A. D. 944," Motaki was deposed; and Mostakfi became the 
twenty-second Abbassid khalif. 

Champollion-Figeac (Eg. Anc. p. 228) speaks of a Coptic inscription, 
dated in the six hundred and sixty-second year of the Diocletian Era, 
and in the three hundred and thirty-fourth of the Hejra; both equiva- 
lent to A. D. 945. 

In " A. D. 946," Mostakfi was deposed ; and Mothi became the 
twenty-third Abbassid khalif. His authority was aknowledged by the 
eunuch Kafur, who governed Egypt in the name of the children of 
Ikhschid (Marcel, p. 97). A coin issued by Khalif Mothi, is figured 
by Marcel, p. 94. 

According to Wilkinson, The earliest inscription hitherto discovered 
in the present Arabic letters, occurs at the gold mines of Gebel Ellaka in 
the Ababdeh Desert ; and bears the date of the " fifth year of Khalif 
Mostakfi" (Thebes and Egypt, pp. 416 and 545). 

* On the discovery of America, the name of this wood was transferred to the country 
now called Brazil. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. H9 

In "A. D. 950" (Munk), the Pilgrimage to Mecca was again 
opened. 

The hyssopum of Macer Floridus 45, is referred by Baudet to the 
Hyssopus officinalis. — This is a Northern plant (figured by Tragus 
and by Stapel, p. 727), which appears to be unknown in Greece and 
Syria; according to Clot-Bey and Figari, it has only recently been 
introduced into Egypt. 

The buglossa of Macer Floridus 34, is referred by Baudet to the 
Anchusa officinalis. — This is a Northern plant, noticed by Lobel (Nova 
stirp. adv.) ; not found in Greece ; and according to Clot-Bey and Fi- 
gari, only recently introduced into Egypt. Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks 
of the medicinal use in Egypt of "anchusa" root, procured through 
Alexandria.* 

On the death of the eunuch Kafur, in " A. D. 968," Abul-Fawaris, 
the grandson of Ikhschid, a lad of " the age of eleven years," became 
governor of Egypt (Marcel, p. 97). 



At this time, the Khalifate or United Muslim Empire was virtually 
at an end. But the spiritual authority of Mothi and his Abbassid 
successors, continued to be very extensively recognised. 

In " A. D. 969," Moez, hereditary ruler of Barbary and claiming to 
be the true khalif (by descent from Fatimah), sent an army from the 
West and obtained the government of Egypt : soon afterwards, his 
authority was acknowledged in Palestine, Syria, and even in Arabia. 
A coin issued by him, is figured by Marcel, p. 102. 

In "A. D. 970" (Marcel), the city of El-Kahira or Cairo, was 
founded by Djauhar Kaid, the general of Moez, for the new seat of 
government. 

In " A. D. 972" (Munk and Marcel), Moez took up his residence in 
Egypt. In- the same year, Djauhar Kaid commenced the great mosque 
and college of El-Azhar, in the northeast quarter of Cairo. — This is 
still the principal Arab University ; and Marcel found there, students 
from Morocco, Astrakan, and Hindostan (Egypte Mod. p. 102). 

* The cicuTjE of Macer Floridus 65, is perhaps the Coniurn maculatum. — This 
plant was seen in Greece by Sibthorp and Bory de St. Vincent ; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Egypt. 



120 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In "A. D. 975," the accession of Aziz, of the Fatimite Dynasty, the 
second sultan of Egypt, took place. A coin issued in Egypt during 
his reign, is figured by Marcel, p. 103. His name has also been found 
in an Arabic inscription, at the gold mines of Gebel Ellaka in the Abab- 
deh Desert ; accompanied with the date of the fourteenth year of his 
reign (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, p. 416). 

The "kurras" and "anjurat" of Ibn Joljol, and Ibn Baitar, maybe 
compared with the Senecio squalidus. — This plant was seen by Forskal 
and Delile, growing in the environs of Cairo and Alexandria. 

In "A. D. 996," the accession of Hakem, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the third sultan of Egypt, took place. He attempted to found a new 
religion ; and partially succeeded ; for he is the prophet of the Druses 
of Lebanon. According to Wilkinson, he is treated as a prophet in 
a Kufic inscription over the door of the mosque built by him at Cairo 
(Thebes and Egypt, pp. 299 and 547). A gold coin issued by him, is 
figured by Marcel, p. 104. 

The "setargi indi" of Mesue (De electuar.), may be compared with 
" zatar hendi," the Egyptian name of Plectranthus crassifolius. — This 
plant was seen in Egypt by Alpinus ; by Delile, in a greenhouse at 
Cairo ; and Forskal found it cultivated in Yemen. 

The "cimini carmeni" of Mesue (De electuar.), according to Egyp- 
tian usage, is the Zygophyllum coccineum. — This is an indigenous 
plant of the Egyptian Desert: according to Forskal (Mat. Med.), the 
seeds are sold in the drug shops of Cairo. 

In "A. D. 1021," the accession of Daher, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the fourth sultan of Egypt, took place. A gold coin issued by him 
at Cairo, is figured by Marcel, p. 105. 

Avicenna speaks of the medicinal use of the "diwdar," obtained 
from the Himalaya pine, Pinus deodara. — The drug in question, has 
doubtless been sometime imported into Egypt. 

The "yellow-flowered jasmine" of Avicenna and Serapion, may be 
compared with the Jasminum odoratissimum. — This plant appears to 
be unknown in Egypt ; and is supposed to be a native of Madeira : 
but we should hardly look for Tropical forms in the Madeira vegeta- 
tion.* 

The "blue jasmine" of Serapion, is referred by Parkinson to the 

* According to Sprengel, Avicenna speaks of bread made from the Canarium commune 
at Macassar (in the Island of Celebes) ; and Rumphius' account corresponds. — I have 
met with no notice of the importation of a product of this plant into Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 121 

lilac (Syringa vulgaris.) — Parkinson quotes Alpinus ; but otherwise, 
I do not find the lilac mentioned as existing in Egypt : indeed, it is 
not successfully cultivated as far South in the United States. Accord- 
ing to Matthioli, the plant was brought into Italy from Constantinople. 

In " A. D. 1036," the accession of Mostanser, of the Fatimite Dy- 
nasty, the fifth sultan of Egypt, took place. Gold coins issued by him, 
are figured by Marcel, p. 118. 

In " A. D. 1046" (Marcel, p. 106), the mosque of Amru, at Fostat 
near Cairo, was repaired by the orders of Mostanser. 

In "A. D. 1065" (Marcel), Count Roger of Normandy, engaged 
in expelling the Muslims from Southern Italy, took advantage of 
a civil war in Sicily among the Muslim population, and obtained the 
rule of the island. — Coins issued by the Norman kings of Sicily, 
bearing bi-lingual inscriptions, Latin and Arabic, are figured by Mar- 
cel, p. 120. 

The " arjan" of Ibn Redwhan and Ibn Baitar, may be compared 
with the "arjuna" of Hindostan, Pentaptera arjuna. — This is an indi- 
genous tree ; but according to Gibson and Graham, the bark is used 
medicinally, and is sold in the drug shops of India.* 

In "A. D. 1092," the Nilometer at Rhodawas repaired; as appears 
from Karmatic inscriptions on the building, copied and published 
by Marcel, p. 116. 

In " A. D. 1094," the accession of Mostaali, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the sixth sultan of Egypt, took place. 

The "aatharilal" of Elzaharawi, Edrisi, and Ibn Baitar, maybe 
compared with the Torilis anthriscus. — This plant was seen by Sib- 
thorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Rosetta and Cairo. 

In "A. D. 1099" (Marcel), the Crusaders entered Palestine, and 
obtained possession of Jerusalem ; where they established themselves. 

In "A. D. 1101," the accession of El-Amr, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the seventh sultan of Egypt, took place. A coin issued by him at 
Alexandria, is figured by Marcel, p. 126. 

According to Klaproth, the mariners compass was brought by the 
Arabs from China, "about A. D. 1117." 

* According, to Pereira, the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is mentioned in a Saxon 
Glossary of iElfric, and in a Greek Translation of Apuleius. — This species of Digitalis 
was not seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and I have met with no evidence that it is 
known in Egypt. 

31 



122 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

About " A. D. 1124" (Marcel), the fanatical sect of the Bathenians 
or Hassassins was formed : their leader, Ismael, established himself 
in the new Christian kingdom, in the mountains near Damascus, and 
rendered himself formidable to all around, by means of his secret 
emissaries. 

In "A. D. 1130," El-Amr was assassinated by emissaries of Ismael. 
He was succeeded by El-Hafez, of the Fatimite Dynasty, the eighth 
sultan of Egypt. A coin issued at Alexandria during the reign of El- 
Hafez, is figured by Marcel, p. 127. 

The "zubbad" of Edrisi and Ibn Baitar, is admitted to be civet; a 
perfume obtained from a weasel-like animal (Viverra zibetha). — The 
"galia muscata" (from the Greek yaXm) of Nicolaus Propositus and 
Franciscus Pedemontium, may also be compared. Cadamosto met with 
civet on the Gambia ; Alpinus iii. 15, mentions its medicinal use in 
Egypt ; and I found it a well-known article of commerce at Mocha. 
According to Browne, the civet animal is kept in cages in Darfour, and 
occurs wild further South. 

In " A. D. 1149-50," the accession of Dhafer, of the Fatimite Dy- 
nasty, the ninth sultan of Egypt, took place. A coin issued at Alex- 
andria during his reign, is figured by Marcel, p. 128. 

About this time, the manufacture of ardent spirits, or alcoholic dis- 
tillation, is said to have been first practised in Europe. 

In "A. D. 1155," the accession of Fayez, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the tenth sultan of Egypt, took place. 

The cmcuarbt of Nicolaus Propositus, and Christophorus de Hones- 
tis, may be compared with the seeds of Cardiospermum helicacabum. 
— This plant is noticed by Valerius Cordus, Tragus, Fuchsius, and 
Matthioli ; was seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo ; and according to 
Cailliaud, has a native name in Dongola. 

In "A. D. 1160," the accession of Adhed, of the Fatimite Dynasty, 
the eleventh sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1168" (Munk and Marcel), an army of Crusaders from 
Palestine, employed in Egypt to repel a Syrian invasion, captured 
Bilbeis or Bubastis, and advanced as far as Cairo ; but were finally 
compelled to retire. 

On the death of Adhed, "A. D. 1171," the Fatimite Dynasty 
became extinct : the succeeding Egyptia% sultans made no claim to 
spiritual authority, but acknowledged that of the Abbassid khalifs. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 123 

Saladdin was at the time the real ruler of Egypt ; though acting, 
to some extent, under the orders of Nooreddin of Damascus. 

On the death of Nooreddin, " A. D. 1173," Saladdin became the ac- 
knowledged sultan both of Egypt and Syria. He coined gold and 
silver, to redeem the glass money then in circulation (Marcel, pp. 
139 and 144). He surrounded Cairo with a wall of stone; built the 
citadel ; and within it, cleared the ancient well, now called Joseph's 
well (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, p. 305). To his reign also is 
attributed, the removal of the outer coating of the Great Pyramid 
(Marcel, p. 141). 

The tjcnicl) of Hildegard, is referred by Sprengel to the Digitaria 
sanguinale. — This grass, according to Beckmann, was once regularly 
cultivated in Europe. It is figured by Lobel and by Camerarius ; was 
seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; and by Hasselquist, 
Forskal, and Delile, growing spontaneously in Egypt. The D. fili- 
formis was also seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

The ljunesbnrm of Hildegard ii. 173, is referred by Fuchsius and 
Sprengel to the duckweed (Stellaria media). — This plant was seen by 
Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Hasselquist, Forskal, and Delile, growing 
as a weed in Egypt. 

The rc^ela of Hildegard ii. 174, is referred by Sprengel to the Poly- 
gonum per sicaria. — This plant is noticed by Ruellius, Fuchsius, Dodo- 
naeus, Lobel, and Gerarde : and was seen by Sibthorp in Crete ; and by 
Forskal and Delile, growing as a weed at Alexandria and Rosetta. The 
P. salicifolium was also seen by Delile, growing spontaneously at Rosetta. 

In "A. D. 1187" (Munk and Marcel), the Crusaders were driven 
out of Jerusalem and Palestine ; with the exception of a few fortified 
posts on the coast, which remained in their possession for many years. 

In " A. D. 1193," the accession of Melek-Aziz Othman, the second 
Ayoubite sultan of Egypt, took place. A copper coin issued by him, 
is figured by Marcel, p. 146. 

In "A. D. 1198," the accession of Melek-el-Mansur, the third 
Ayoubite sultan of Egypt, took place. A copper coin issued by him, 
is figured by Marcel, p. 147. 

In " A. D. 1200," the accession of Melek-Adel Seif-Eddin, the fourth 
Ayoubite sultan of Egypt, took place. Silver and copper coins issued 
by him, are figured by Marcel, p. 149. 

The " sisaban" of Madschhul and Ibn Baitar, according to Egyptian 
usage, is the JEsdiynomene sesban : a plant clearly derived from some 



124 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Tropical country. — The JE. sesban was seen under cultivation by Al- 
pinus, Forskal, and Delile ; and I found it common in the gardens of 
Lower Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1218" (Munk), the accession of Melek-Kamel, the fifth 
Ayoubite sultan of Egypt, took place. A gold coin issued at Cairo 
during his reign, is figured by Marcel, p. 151. 

The Sixth Crusade was directed against Egypt: and in "A. D. 
1219" (Munk and Marcel), the Crusaders arriving by sea, captured 
Damietta. Two years later, they advanced as far as the head of 
the Delta ; but were finally obliged to capitulate, and leave the country. 

The Arab settlers in Spain and Portugal appear to have been ac- 
quainted with benzoin ; as it is enumerated by Jao de Sousa among 
the ingredients of the "bachur" ointment. — Amatus Lusitanus speaks 
of benzoin : Bontius states, that the best is obtained from an arbo- 
rescent vine growing in Java ; and Forskal (Mat. Med.) mentions the 
importation into Egypt of gum " benzol" from India. 

In "A. D. 1227" (Desvergers), the death of Djenghiz-Khan took 
place. The wars of this Tartar chief and his immediate successors, 
though directed in part against the Arabs, contributed to the extension 
of Muslim power in the East, especially in Central Asia and towards 
the borders of China. 

According to F. Adams, grains of paradise (Amomum grana-para- 
disi), are mentioned by Ibn Baitar. — Franciscus Pedemontium also 
speaks of "grana paradisi." This spice is a production of Equatorial 
Africa; and according to Delile, is sold in the drug shops of Cairo. 

The "luffah" of Ibn Baitar, according to Egyptian usage, is the 
Luffa. The TfTpayytvpev of the Greek version of Rhazes, may also be 
compared. — The Luffa is a Cucurbitaceous plant, figured by Vesling, 
and according to Forskal, Delile, and Clot-Bey, cultivated in Egypt 
for ornament, and for the sponge-like tissue obtained from the fruit. 

The "najm" of Ibn Baitar, according to Forskal's account of the 
Egyptian usage, is the Agrostis alba. This grass was seen by Sibthorp 
in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Ro- 
setta and Cairo. 

The "khafur" of Ibn Baitar, according to Forskal's account of the 
Egyptian usage, is a species of wild oat, Avena fatua. — This grass was 
seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spon- 
taneously at Cairo. The A. sterilis was also seen by Sibthorp in 
Greece ; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 125 

The "tumluk" of Ibn Baitar, maybe compared with "tamalak," 
the Dongola name (according to Cailliaud) of Gleome pentaphylla. — This 
plant is cultivated as an esculent in Dongola; and according to 
Alpinus, Delile, and Clot-Bey, is used in Egypt for feeding cattle. 
It grows as a weed in Hindostan and the East India Islands, as 
appears from Rheede, Rumphius, and Graham.* 

In " A. D. 1238," the accession of Melek-Adel II., the sixth Ayou- 
bite sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1240," the accession of Melek-Saleh, the seventh Ayou- 
bite sultan of Egypt, took place. His name has been found in an in- 
scription over the door of his tomb at Cairo (Wilkinson, Thebes and 
Egypt, pp. 297 and 551). 

The sultan of Damascus having made a treaty with the Crusaders, 
by which the latter were again admitted into Jerusalem, Melek-Saleh 
invited the Kharesmians, who had already entered Syria. In " A. D. 
1244" (Munk), the Kharesmians invaded Palestine and captured 
Jerusalem : three years afterwards, they were expelled by the com- 
bined forces of the Syrians and Egyptians. 

Melek-Saleh increased the number of Memluks beyond precedent ; 
by the purchase of some thousands of young Turks, to whom he gave 
a military education, and thus obtained a formidable body of soldiers 
exclusively devoted to his interests. 

The Seventh Crusade was directed against Egypt: the Crusaders 
landed and captured Damietta, in " A. D. 1247" (Marcel); three 
years afterwards, they advanced to the head of the Delta, but were 
again obliged to capitulate and leave the country. 

Immediately after the defeat of the Crusaders, "April, A. D. 
1250" (Marcel), the death of Melek-Saleh (kept secret for several 
months) was declared ; and his son, Turan Schah, was acknowledged 
as the eighth Ayoubite sultan of Egypt. 

Two months afterwards, the Memluks, or military slaves, perceiving 
that they held in their hands the power of their master, put him 
to death ; one of their own number was declared sultan, and the Insti- 
tution was rendered permanent, by means of fresh purchases from 
abroad (Clot-Bey and Marcel). Ibek thus became the head of the 

* According to Sprengel, the skirret (Sium sisarum), was brought from Northern 
China into Europe during the Thirteenth Century. — The plant is now abundantly culti- 
vated in Europe ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 



126 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Bahrite Dynasty, and the first Memluk sultan of Egypt. A copper 
coin issued during his reign, is figured by Marcel, p. 158. 

In " A. D. 1257," the accession of Nooreddin Ali, the second Mem- 
luk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In " A. D. 1258" (Desvergers and Marcel), the Tartars under Hu- 
lagu-Khan captured Bagdad, and the hereditary spiritual khalifate was 
abolished. Three years later (Marcel), some members of the Abbas- 
sid family took refuge in Egypt ; where one of them was proclaimed 
khalif ; and where the highest religious office of the Muslims was 
continued. 

In " A. D. 1259," the accession of Kotoz, the third Memluk sultan 
of Egypt, took place. In the course of the year, he defeated the Tar- 
tar army of Hulagu-Khan in Palestine (Marcel, p. 162). 

In " A. D. 1260," the accession of Beybars, the fourth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. He exterminated the remnant of the 
fanatical sect of the Bathenians or Hassassins (Marcel) ; constructed at 
Cairo the mosque which bears his name ; also, various works of 
public utility both here and at Alexandria, Damietta, and Rosetta. 
His coins and constructions are remarkable for the presence of the 
figure of the lion ; contrary to the precepts of the Muslim religion. 

The "ukhowan" of the Thousand and One Nights, may be com- 
pared with the "achaouan" of Alpinus (PI. 39); which seems to be 
the Pyrethrum parthenium. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in 
Greece ; and Forskal enumerates it, doubtfully, among the plants of 
the mountain region of Yemen. 

There is however another "achaouan" used medicinally in Egypt, 
the Cineraria maritima (Alpinus PI. 26). — I found this plant fre- 
quent in the environs of Cairo ; but apparently indigenous. Sib- 
thorp met with it in Rhodes. 

In " A. D. 1277," the accession of Barakah-Khan, the fifth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place.* 

The composition of gunpowder, long known in China, may have 
been brought from that country by Marco Polo ; but its application 
in warfare in casting projectiles, appears to have been chiefly prac- 
tised in Europe. Gunpowder is mentioned by Roger Bacon in a 
tract published in "A. D. 1278." 

* The x<xp(J*io/3oTavov of Nicolaus Myrepsus iii. 60, may be compared with the Lecmurus 
cardiaca. — This plant is figured by Brunfels and by Fuchsius, 395; was seen in Greece 
by Sibthorp and Bory de St. Vincent, but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 127 

In " A. D. 1279," the accession of Salamesch, the sixth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. His reign lasted a few months only. 

In " the same year," the accession of Kalaoon, the seventh Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. He built the mosque which bears his 
name ; and commenced the celebrated moristan or hospital at Cairo. 
During his reign, a great impulse was given to the erection of build- 
ings of every description in Cairo (Clot-Bey xv. 30) . A coin issued 
by him at Aleppo, is figured by Marcel, p. 168. 

The bernice arbor of Vincentius Bellovacensis, is referred by Sprengel 
to Terminalia? vernix; the varnish tree of China and the Molucca 
Islands. — This tree is figured by Rumphius, PL 86. 

In "A. D. 1290," the accession of Khalyl, the eighth Memluk sultan 
of Egypt, took place. 

The flos siricicus i flos maloce of Symon Januensis (Sinonim.),may be 
compared with the Hibiscus Syriacus. — This plant is noticed by Ca- 
merarius and Gerarde ; and according to Forskal, Delile, and Clot-Bey, 
is common in the gardens of Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1293," Beydarah became sultan of Egypt for a single 
day. He was succeeded by Naser : who built at Cairo the mosque 
which bears his name; also, various bridges, fountains, academies, 
and other works of public utility. A copper coin issued by Sultan 
Naser, is figured by Marcel, p. 172. 

The trirga ruirca of Arnaldus, is referred by Dalechamp and others to 
the Solidago virgaurea. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; 
and by Hasselquist, at Damietta. 

About " A. D. 1297" (Alsted), Osman or Othman, having defeated 
the Greek armies in Asia Minor, laid the foundation of the Turkish 
Empire : a new phase of the progress of the Muslims. 

In "A. D. 1341," the accession of Abubekr, the eleventh Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. After a reign of " forty days," he was 
succeeded by Koutchouk. 

In "A. D. 1342," the accession of Schahabeddin, the thirteenth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. In the same year, he was sue- 
ceeded by Emadeddin. 

In "A. D. 1344," the accession of Schaban-Kamel, the fifteenth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1346," the accession of Zeyneddin, the sixteenth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1347," the accession of Hassan, the seventeenth Memluk 



128 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

sultan of Egypt, took place. He built at Cairo the great mosque 
which bears his name. A gold coin issued by him, is figured by 
Marcel, p. 174. 

The irspurXoxa^a of the Scholiast of Theocritus v. 128, according to 
Forskal's and Sibthorp's account of the Greek usage, is the Convolvulus 
arvensis. — This plant is figured by Plukenet and Boccone; was seen 
in Egypt by Forskal and Delile; and I met with it, growing as a weed 
in the Dekkan. 

In "A. D. 1361," the accession of Mohammed El-Mansur, the 
eighteenth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. A gold coin issued 
at Cairo during his reign, is figured by Marcel, p. 174. 

In "A. D. 1363," the accession of Schaban-Aschraf, the nineteenth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. A coin issued by him, is figured 
by Marcel, p. 175. 

In " A. D. 1377," the accession of Ali El-Mansur, the twentieth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In " A. D. 1381," the accession of Hadgi Saleh, the twenty-first 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. In the following year, he was 
deposed ; but some years later, he was recalled to the throne, and 
was shortly afterwards put to death. In him, the Bahrite Dynasty 
became extinct. 

In "A. D. 1382," the accession of Barkook, the head of the Borgite 
Dynasty and the twenty-second Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 
He built at Cairo the mosque which bears his name ; also, a col- 
lege ; and he introduced some changes in the administration of the 
government. The buildings so conspicuous in the Desert, to the east- 
ward of Cairo, are the tombs of the Borgite Memluk kings (Wilkinson, 
Thebes and Egypt, p. 307). 

In " A. D. 1399," the accession of Faradj, the twenty-third Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In the same year (Desvergers and Marcel), the Tartars under 
Timur or Tamerlane, threatened Egypt ; overran Syria and Asia 
Minor, and defeated the Turks; and thus indirectly, saved for a time 
the Greek or Byzantine Empire. 

In "A. D. 1412," Shekh Mahmoudi, partly through the interference 
of Mostain, the spiritual khalif, became the twenty-fourth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt. He built one of the most remarkable mosques at 
Cairo : and according to Wilkinson, coined the moaiudee as a substi- 
tute for the para (Thebes and Egypt, p. 555). 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 129 

In " A. D. 1421," the accession of Ahmed El-Mozzaffer, the twenty- 
fifth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. After some months, he 
was succeeded by Seifeddin Tattar ; and before the close of the year, 
by Mohammed Saleh. 

In " A. D. 1422," the accession of Barsebay El-Aschraf, the twenty- 
eighth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. He built at Cairo the 
mosque which bears his name ; and carried on war in the Mediterra- 
nean against the Europeans or Franks. 

The bianthi of Manfred us de Monte Imperiali, according to Sprengel, 
is clearly the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). — This plant is noticed 
by Ruellius ; was seen in Egypt by Forskal and Delile ; and I found 
it everywhere a favourite among the Arabs, and frequently kept by 
them in pots. 

The art of printing, though long practised in China, was indepen- 
dently invented in Europe, "about A. D. 1430," by Laurentius. The 
improvement of movable types, was made twelve years later (Edin. 
Cycl.) 

In "A. D. 1438," the accession of Djemaleddin Yusuf, the twenty- 
ninth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. In the same year, he was 
succeeded by Djakmak. 

The coffee plant (Coffea arabica), a native of the region southwest 
of Abyssinia, is said to have been introduced into Yemen about A. D. 
1450 ; though according to Lane, the berries were first imported into 
Egypt fifty years later. — Rauwolf is said to be the earliest European 
traveller who speaks of coffee. The living plant was seen in Egypt by 
Alpinus ; and, as appears from ClotrBey and Figari, has been recently 
re-introduced. 

In "A. D. 1453," the accession of Othman El-Mansur, the thirty- 
first Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. In the same year, he was 
succeeded by YnaL 



In this year also, the Turks obtained possession of Constantinople, 
and the Greek or Byzantine Empire became extinct. 

Seeds of the Abrus precatorius, were seen by Cadamosto, A. D. 1454, 
at the River Senegal. — The living plant, as appears from Alpinus and 
Hasselquist, has been sometimes cultivated in Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, Cadamosto met with the baobab (Adansonia 



130 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

digitata) at the River Senegal. — The fruit (brought down the Nile) is 
figured by Alpinus ; and according to Forskal and Delile, is sold in 
the drug shops of Cairo. 

In " A. D. 1461," the accession of Achmed Abu-1-Fetah, the thirty- 
third Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. His name occurs on a coin 
figured by Marcel, p. 185. 

In the same year, the accession of Koschkadam, the thirty-fourth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. He was by birth a Greek. 

In "A. D. 1467," the accession of Belbay, the thirty-fifth Memluk 
sultan of Egypt, took place. In the same year, he was succeeded by 
Timar Bogha. 

In " A. D. 1468," the accession of Kayt-Bay, the thirty-seventh 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. He built at Cairo the small 
but remarkable mosque which bears his name (Clot-Bey, xv. 2). 

According to Sprengel, The Verbena officinalis is figured in the Hor- 
tus Sanitatis of Jo. Van Cube, and by Brunfels. — The plant is also 
noticed by Belon, Matthioli, and Lobel ; was seen in Greece by Sib- 
thorp ; and I found it common in waste ground in Lower Egypt. The 
V. supina is noticed by Dodonaeus and Lobel ; and was seen by Sib- 
thorp in Asia Minor, and by Forskal and Delile at Cairo. The 
aspect of these plants does not well accord with the Mediterranean 
vegetation. 

The " rosam moscheuton" of Hermolaus Barbarus, may be compared 
with the Hibiscus abehnoschus. — This plant was seen by Alpinus and 
Delile in gardens at Cairo.* 

The Cassia sophera was probably known in Egypt during the Early 
Muslim Period. — The plant was seen by Alpinus, Forskal, and Delile, 
in gardens at Cairo ; by Browne, in Darfour ; and by Graham, in Hindo- 
stan. 

The Kalanchoe JEgyptiaca was probably known in Egypt during 
the Early Muslim Period. — It is enumerated by Forskal, Delile and 

* The " cotula " of Hermolaus Barbarus and Matthioli, may he compared with the 
Anthemis cotula. — This plant, according to Sprengel, is noticed by Brunfels and Fuch- 
sius : it was seen in Greece by Bory de St. Vincent, but appears to have remained un- 
known in Egypt. 

The Chenopodium. bonus Henricus is said to have been cultivated in Europe during 
the Early Muslim Period. — The plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 131 

others, among the garden plants of Egypt ; and was besides seen by 
Forskal on the mountains of Yemen. 

The Cissus rotundifolia was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — The plant was seen by Delile in gardens at 
Cairo; and by Forskal, on the mountains of Yemen. 

The Euphorbia tliymifolia, an Indian weed, was probably known in 
Egypt during the Early Muslim Period. — It is figured by Plukenet ; 
and was seen by Forskal in the mountain region of Yemen ; and by 
Delile, in Upper Egypt and at Damietta. 

The Hibiscus trionum, a Tropical weed, was probably known in 
Egypt during the Early Muslim Period. — The plant is figured by 
Matthioli, Lobel, and Parkinson ; and was seen by Sibthorp in Greece 
and Cyprus ; and by Forskal and Delile in Egypt. 

The Sida spinosa, another Tropical weed, was probably known in 
Egypt during the Early Muslim Period. — It was seen by Forskal and 
Delile, growing spontaneously around Cairo. 

The Sida mutica, also a Tropical weed, was probably known in Egypt 
during the Early Muslim Period. — It was seen by Delile, in gardens at 
Rosetta; and again, in Nubia, where it has a native name. 

The Achyranthes argentea, another Tropical weed, was probably 
known in Egypt during the Early Muslim Period. — It was seen by 
Hasselquist in Palestine; by Sibthorp in Sicily; and by Forskal, 
Delile, and others, growing spontaneously around Cairo. 

Other Tropical weeds now common in Egypt, were probably intro- 
duced during or before the Early Muslim Period : as, the Aerva tomen- 
tosa, seen by Forskal and Delile, in Yemen, in Upper Egypt, and in 
gardens at Cairo ; the Celosia margaritacea, seen by Delile at Cairo ; 
and the Alternanthera sessilis, seen by Hasselquist at Jerusalem, and 
by Forskal and Delile at Rosetta. 

Seeds of an undetermined species of Chamceriphis, were found by 
Delile in the drug shops of Cairo : the same description of seeds may 
have been imported during the Early Muslim Period. 

The Impatiens balsamina was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — The plant is figured by Fuchsius and by Mat- 
thioli ; is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, as cultivated in the 
gardens of Egypt; and according to Graham, grows wild in the environs 
of Bombay. 

The Dactyloctenium, an Indian grass, was probably known in Egypt 
during the Early Muslim Period. — It was seen in Egypt, by Alpinus, 
Forskal, and Delile ; and in Greece, by Sibthorp. 



132 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The Echinocliloa crus-galli was probably known in Egypt daring the 
Early Muslim Period. — This grass is figured by Matthioli ; and was 
seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile in Egypt. 

The Setaria verticillata was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — This grass was seen in Egypt by Delile ; by 
Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago ; and by Roxburgh and Graham 
in Hindostan. 

The Setaria glauca was probably known in Egypt during the Early 
Muslim Period. — This grass was seen by Forskal and Delile, growing 
spontaneously at Cairo and Rosetta ; by Sibthorp, in Greece ; and by 
Roxburgh and Graham, in Hindostan. The S. viridis was seen by 
Sibthorp at Constantinople ; and is enumerated by Delile among the 
weeds of Egypt.* 

The Ornithogalum datum was perhaps cultivated in Egypt during 
the Early Muslim Period. The living plant was received by Andrews 
from Alexandria. 

The Solanum pseudocapsicum was probably known in Egypt during 
the Early Muslim Period. — The plant is noticed by Gesner, Dodo- 
nseus, and Bauhin ; and was seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens at 
Cairo. 

The Convolvulus Cairicus was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — The plant is noticed by C. Bauhin (Pin. 295), 
and by Vesling, and was seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens at 
Cairo. Delile also met with it, growing along the banks of the Nile. 

The Lavatera arborea was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — This plant was seen by Sibthorp on the sea- 
coast near Athens; and by Delile, in gardens at Alexandria. The 
L. Cretica was seen by Sibthorp in Crete and in other parts of Greece ; 
and by Delile, at Damietta. 

The Antirrhinum linaria was probably known in Egypt during the 
Early Muslim Period. — It has a native Egyptian name; as appears 
from Forskal, who met with the plant in a single garden at Cairo. 

Seeds of the Datisca cannabina were probably imported into Egypt 
during the Early Muslim Period. — This is an indigenous plant of 
Crete and Asia Minor : seeds were seen by Forskal and Delile in the 
drug shops at Cairo. 

* The Lappago racemosa was probably known in Europe during the Early Muslim 
Period. — This grass is noticed by Tragus, Tournefort, and Haller ; was seen by Sibthorp 
in Greece ; and by Graham and others, in Hindostan ; but appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 133 

Of the eighteen following grasses and herbaceous plants, some may 
have been growing in Egypt from the time of the first introduction of 
Agriculture; but being inconspicuous, were overlooked by the Ancient 
writers ; or if noticed by them, have not as yet been identified : as the 
Bromus mollis: — Seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago; and 
by Delile, growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The Bromus rubens and B. distachyos ; — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; 
and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The Festuca uniglumis: — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and by Fors- 
kal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria and Rosetta. 

The Crypsis aculeata: — Figured by Matthioli; and seen by Sibthorp 
in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously at Alex- 
andria and Cairo. The C. schoenoides, by some writers considered as 
only a variety, was also seen by Delile growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The Crypsis alopecuroides : — Seen by Delile growing spontaneously 
at Cairo. 

The Poa annua: — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and by Hasselquist, 
at Damietta. 

The Poa eragrostis: — Figured by Lobel and by Barrelier; and seen 
by Sibthorp in Greece ; by Forskal and Delile, growing spontaneously 
at Cairo; and again by Delile in Nubia (where it has a native name); 
and by Forskal in the mountain region of Yemen. 

The Dactylis glomerata: — Noticed by Dalechamp and C. Bauhin; 
and seen by Sibthorp in the Grecian Archipelago; and by Delile, 
growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The Vella annua: — Seen by Clusius in Spain ; by Sibthorp in Greece; 
and by Delile growing spontaneously at Alexandria. 

The Coronopus Ruellii: — Noticed by Ruellius and Camerarius; and 
seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; and by Forskal and Delile, growing spon- 
taneously at Cairo. 

The Arenaria rubra: — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece and Cyprus; and 
by Delile, growing spontaneously at Alexandria, Rosetta and Cairo. 

The Arenaria media: — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and (according 
to Delile) "by Granger in Egypt, and by Olivier at Alexandria." 
This, however, is a maritime plant, and probably indigenous. 

The Polycarpon tetraphyllum : — Seen by Sibthorp along waysides in 
the Grecian Archipelago; and by Delile, growing spontaneously at 
Alexandria. 



134 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The Trifolium procumbens: — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece and Cy- 
prus ; and by Hasselquist at Damietta. 

The Galega officinalis: — Noticed by Hieronyraus Fracastor, Gesner, 
Dodonseus, and Gerarde ; and seen by Sibthorp on the mountains of 
Northern Greece ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, only recently 
introduced into Egypt. 

The Mentha rotundifolia :. — Noticed by C. Bauhin and Tournefort ; 
and seen by Sibthorp in Crete and other parts of Greece ; but according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, only recently introduced into Egypt. 

And the Lamium amplexicaule : — Seen by Sibthorp in Greece; and 
by Delile in cultivated ground at Damietta.* 

During the reign of Sultan Kayt-Bay, Europe, having become the 
home of many enlightened nations, was in the midst of the Revival of 
Literature; a result, to which the invention of printing largely con- 
tributed. 

IX. THE MODERN MUSLIM PERIOD. 

In A. D. 1492, Columbus sailed on his First Voyage; and Egypt 
ceased to be the main or only channel through which foreign animals 
and plants were transmitted to Europe. The broad ocean now became 
the theatre of commerce ; and the old routes were comparatively 
neglected. In the midst of the new order of things in the surrounding 
countries, Egypt appears to have remained in a measure a neutral 
point ; slowly reached, and but slightly influenced. 

According to Gomara xvi. and xvii., Columbus procured from the 
aboriginals of the West Indies " batatas que son rayzes dulces," or 
sweet-potatoes (Convolvulus batatas). — This plant is noticed by Mo- 

* The European gooseberry (Ribes grossularia) was probably cultivated in Europe 
during the Early Muslim Period. — The plant was seen by Sibthorp and Bory de St. 
Vincent, wild on the high mountains of Crete, and of the Peloponnesus ; but it appears 
to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The horse-radish (Cochlearia armoracia) was probably cultivated in Europe during the 
Early Muslim Period. — The plant is noticed by Petrus Placentius, Fuchsius 660, Mat- 
thioli, Gerarde, and T. Johnson ; was seen by Belon at Constantinople ; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Syria and Egypt. 

The cockscomb (Celosia cristata) was probably known in Europe during the Early 
Muslim Period. — The plant is noticed by Lobel, Bauhin, and Rumphius ; has a native 
name in the gardens of India; was seen by Forskal, both in Yemen and at Constantinople; 
and in all probability, has been sometimes planted in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 135 

nardes and Lobel ; is figured by Rheede and Rumphius, as cultivated 
in Hindostan and Amboyna; was seen by Hasselquist in Palestine; 
and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been recently introduced 
into Egypt. 

According to Gomara, Columbus procured from the aboriginals of 
the West Indies " axies, especia que les quemo la lengua," or capsicum 
(the fruit of Capsicum annuum). — This plant is noticed by Tragus, 
Cordus, Fuchsius, Matthioli and Lobel; is figured by Rheede, as culti- 
vated in Hindostan; and was seen by Hasselquist at Jerusalem. The 
C. frutescens (regarded by Graham as only a variety) was seen in 
Egypt by Forskal and Delile, and again by Forskal in Yemen. 

According to Gomara, Columbus procured from the aboriginals of 
the West Indies " gallipauos que son mejores que pauos y gallinas," or 
the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallipavo). — Oviedo distinctly describes 
the turkey ; but many years appear to have elapsed, before the bird 
became generally known in Europe. Its introduction into Egypt was 
subsequent to the visit of Alpinus : but it is now common there, and 
is sometimes called the " Maltese fowl," a name indicating the route 
of transmission. 

According to Gomara, Columbus found "maiz," or maize (Zeamays), 
cultivated by the aboriginals of the West Indies. — Its introduction 
into Europe appears to have taken place shortly afterwards; for 
Rhamnusis states, that the plant "was first seen in Italy in his own 
time." Forskal found the maize cultivated among the mountains of 
Yemen, and also in Egypt; and Delile's account of the Egyptian name 
and tradition indicates, that the plant was received from the North 
by the way of Syria and Turkey. 

The " axes or ajes," found by Columbus (Navig. lxxxix.) cultivated 
by the aboriginals of the West Indies, is referred by Humboldt and 
others to the yam (Dioscorea). — From a figure given by Alpinus, the 
yam appears to have been sometimes planted in Egypt. 

According to Barcia, Columbus on his Second Voyage, met with pine- 
apples (Bromelia ananas). — This plant is noticed by Monardes iii. 4 ; 
and is figured by Rheede and Rumphius, as cultivated in Hindostan 
and Amboyna. Hasselquist speaks of the pineapple having been for- 
merly planted at Damietta ; and Clot-Bey and Figari mention some 
recent unsuccessful attempts to re-introduce this fruit into Egypt. 

In " A. D. 1496," the accession of Mohammed Abu-1-Saadat, the 
thirty-eighth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 



136 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

In " A. D. 1498," the accession of Kansu Abu-Said, the thirty-ninth 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In " A. D. 1499" (Marcel), the accession of Kansu Djan-balat, the 
fortieth Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1500" (Marcel), the accession of Toman-Bay, the forty- 
first Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1501," the accession of Kansu El-Gouri, the forty-second 
Memluk sultan of Egypt, took place. He built at Cairo the mosque 
which bears his name (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, p. 297) ; and 
sent a fleet down the Red Sea against the Portuguese, who had entered 
the Indian Ocean. 

According to Wilkinson (Thebes and Egypt, p. 546), the use of 
Kufic letters ceased in A. D. 1508. 

In the same year, according to Pereira, guaiacum (the product of 
Guaiacum officinale) was first brought to Europe by Gonsalvo Ferrand; 
who obtained the drug from the natives of St. Domingo. — Guaiacum 
is noticed by Dalechamp (Annot. in Diosc), and by Monardes; and 
Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of its medicinal use in Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1516," the accession of Toman-Bay II., the last of the 
Borgite Memluk Dynasty, and the last sultan of Egypt, took place. 

The Turks having defeated the Egyptian army in Syria, partly 
through the employment of artillery (Marcel, p. 189), the Turkish sul- 
tan, Selim, entered Egypt in "A. D. 1517," and obtained possession of 
the country. The sovereignty and Muslim spiritual authority were 
now transferred to Constantinople; the Memluks were formed into an 
aristocracy ; and from this time, the names of the Turkish sultans 
were inserted on the Egyptian coins (Wilkinson, Thebes and Egypt, 
p. 557).* 

In " A. D. 1520," the accession of Suliman II., the second Turkish 
sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. The coins issued by him bear 
the date of his accession only, agreeably to the uniform practice of the 
Turkish sultans (Marcel, p. 200). 

Whether the celery (Apium dulce) is a European or Magellanic 
plant, is a question to be decided by comparing specimens. The Straits 
of Magellan were first visited by Europeans in the last-named year. — 
Twenty-six years later, Belon found the " ache" cultivated and blanched 

* According to Pereira, the Spaniards first became acquainted with cochineal (Coccus 
cacti) on their arrival in Mexico, about A. D. 1518. — Cochineal has doubtless been some- 
times imported into Egypt; but I have met with no direct evidence of the fact. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 137 

at Constantinople : the plant referred to, is clearly the celery ; as is the 
" apium called carass," enumerated by Alpinus among the esculent 
plants of Egypt. According to Clot-Bey and Figari, the cultivation of 
celery in Egypt is nearly confined to the Pasha's gardens.* 

According to Piso (pp. 96 and 159), The Carica papaya is mentioned 
by Ximenes, as cultivated by the aboriginals of Mexico. — The plant, 
according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has recently been successfully intro- 
duced into Egypt. 

According to Clusius and Sprengel, The guava (Psidium) is men- 
tioned by Oviedo (about A. D. 1525). — The plant is noticed by Monar- 
des hi. 5, as brought from " Tierra Firme ;" is figured by Rheede and 
Rumphius, as cultivated in Hindostan and Amboyna; and according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, has recently been successfully introduced into 
Egypt.f _ 

According to Sprengel, The Saponaria officinalis is noticed by Ruel- 
lius, A. D. 1529, and by Fuchsius. — The plant is figured by Lobel ; 
was seen in Greece by Sibthorp; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, 
has only recently been introduced into Egypt. 

According to Pereira, Sarsaparilla (the root of certain species of 
Smilax) first became known in Europe in A. D. 1530. — Alpinus ascer- 
tained, that a portion of the sarsaparilla of commerce is really derived 
from the Mediterranean ; and both he and Forskal (Mat. Med.) speak 
of the medicinal use in Egypt.J 

* According to Beckmann, buckwheat (Polygonum fagopyrum) is mentioned in a Ger- 
man Bible, printed in A. D. 1522; or about the time when, according to John Bruye- 
rinus(who wrote eight years afterwards), the plant was brought from Northern Asia into 
Europe : the same account of its origin and introduction, is given by Buellius and Conrade 
Heresbach. — The plant was received by Sibthorp from Constantinople; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 

■{" The "bixa" of Oviedo, is referred by Clusius and others to the arnotto tree (Bixa 
Orellana). — Arnotto has doubtless been sometimes imported into Egypt; but I have met 
with no direct evidence of the fact. 

According to Sprengel, The lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis) is described by Jo- 
hannes Manardus, and by Brunfels i. 211. — The plant is noticed by Fuchsius, Dodonaeus, 
and Lobel ; was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; but appears to have remained unknown in 
Egypt. 

The Viburnum opulus is noticed by Ruellius, Cordus, Tragus, Gesner, Matthioli, 
Dodonaeus, Thalius, and Tabernaemontanus ; and the cultivated variety, called the snoiv- 
ball tree, is figured by C. Bauhin. — The plant was seen by Forskal and Sibthorp at Con- 
stantinople ; but appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

| According to Sprengel, the Viola tricolor, or heart's ease, is figured by Brunfels, A. 
D. 1532. — The plant is also figured by Fuchsius 803, Dodonseus, Lobel, and Stapel, p. 

35 



138 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The introduction of the Cactus opuntia into the Mediterranean 
countries, appears to have taken place as early as the last-named date; 
for Matthioli states, That the plant was brought within his recollection 
from the West Indies. — This species of Cactus has become abundantly 
naturalized around the Mediterranean; and was seen in Egypt by 
Forskal and Delile. 

According to Clusius and Barcia, the "papas" of Peru, or potato 
(Solanum tuberosum), is described by Qarate, Petrus Cieca 40, and 
Gomara. — The plant is figured by Lobel (Nova Stirp. adv. p. 317), 
C. Bauhin, and Gerarde ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has 
only recently been introduced into Egypt. 

The Melilotus coerutea is noticed by Fuchsius, A. D. 1542, and by 
Cordus, Gesner, Turner, Anguillara, Matthioli, Dodonaeus, and C. 
Bauhin. — The plant, according to Clot- Bey and Figari, has only re- 
cently been introduced into Egypt. 

In the last-named year, De Soto found the kidney-bean (Phaseolus 
vulgaris) cultivated by the aboriginals of Florida. — In England, the 
plant is often called the " French bean ;" a name that indicates a 
Canadian route of introduction. Forskal appears to be the only writer, 
who has met with the plant ("lubia Frandji") in Egypt. 

The " tanacetum Peruvianum" of Valerius Cordus, is referred by 
Beckmann to the Tagetes erecta. — This plant is figured by Tragus, 
Fuchsius, Matthioli, and Dodonaeus; and was seen by Forskal and 
Delile in gardens at Cairo.* 

According to Garcilasso de la Vega (384), The black rat (Mus rat- 
tus) was introduced into South America by European ships, in A. D. 

651; and was seen by Graham in gardens at Bombay; I have met with no evidence that 
it is known in Egypt. 

* The "grase poley " of Cordus, is referred by C. Bauhin and Willdenow to the Ly- 
thrum hyssopifolium. — This plant is noticed also by Gesner, Camerarius, Barrelier, 
Tournefort, and Ruppius ; and was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Egypt. 

The "ribes hortense" of Tragus, Clusius, and Besler, is referred by Willdenow and 
others to the red currant of the gardens (Ribes rubrum). — This plant, as suggested by 
Dr. T. W. Harris, may have been derived from the mountains of Canada and Maine. 
It was seen by Forskal at Constantinople ; but appears to have remained unknown in 
Greece and Egypt. 

The "ribes sylvestre" of Tragus, and the "r. nigrum" of Dodonaeus and Dalechamp, 
are referred by C. Bauhin and Willdenow to the black currant of the gardens (Ribes 
nigrum). — This plant appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

The Scirpus lacustris is noticed by Tragus, C. Stephanus (p. 520), Gesner, Lobel, and 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 139 

1544. — This species of rat is described by Gesner; is regarded as an 
American animal by Linnaeus and Pallas ; and by Bartram (quoted by 
Kalm ii. 47) and Bachman, as indigenous in the United States. 

The brown rat (Mus decumanus), though apparently a native of 
Southeastern Asia, is said to have reached Europe at a somewhat later 
period. — This is probably the species of rat, which is now common in 
Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, China root is described by Amatus Lusitanus, 
and by Garcias. — The living plant, Smilax china, was seen by Kaemp- 
fer and Thunberg in China and Japan: Alpinus and Forskal (Mat, 
Med.) speak of the medicinal use in Egypt of the imported root.* 

The "arbre de vie de Canade," known to Belon in A. D. 1553, is 
clearly the Thuya Occidentalis. — The introduction of this tree into 
Egypt, appears to have been much more recent ; according to Clot-Bey 
and Figari, it is now common in gardens at Cairo. 

The musk duck (Anas moschata), a native of Tropical America, is 
figured by Belon. — At the present day, the domesticated bird is com- 
mon in most parts of the globe; and from a remark by Clot-Bey, 
appears to be known in Egypt.f 

The "anacardum Indis familiaris" of C. Stephanus, A. D. 1554, is 
doubtless the Anacardium Occidentals. — The tree was seen by Acosta 

C. Bauhin. — The plant was seen in Greece by Sibthorp and Bory de St. Vincent ; but 
appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Solarium dulcamara is figured by Tragus and by Matthioli. — The plant does not 
well accord with the natural vegetation of Europe : it was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; 
but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

* According to Sprengel, The Agave Americana is described by Lopez de Gomara, and 
is figured by Camerarius. — The plant (according to Sieber and Bory de St. Vincent) has 
become naturalized in Greece ; but I have met with no evidence of its being known in 
Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, Chocolate, and the tree which produces it, Theobroma cacao, 
are described by Lopez de Gomara. — Chocolate has doubtless been sometimes imported 
into Egypt, but I have met with no direct evidence of the fact. 

According to C. Bauhin, Barcia, and Sprengel, The Mimosa pudica is described by 
Lopez de Gomara, Acosta, and Martinus del Barco. — The plant was seen by Graham in 
gardens at Bombay ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The "manga" of J. C. Scaliger and Garcias, is referred by C. Bauhin, Willdenow, 
and others, to the mango (Mangifera Indica). — The tree is cultivated in Yemen, and 
doubtless the seeds have been sometimes brought into Egypt, but I have met with no 
direct evidence of the fact. 

f The "cerasus trapezuntina," stated by Belon to have been brought from Trebizond, 
is referred by C. Bauhin to the Diospyros lotus. — This plant was received by Matthioli 



140 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

in gardens at Cochin in Hindostan. Clusius speaks of the nuts being 
brought from Brazil to Lisbon ; and Rouyer found them imported by 
the way of Europe into Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, Hieronymus Benzoni (who returned from 
the West Indies in A. D. 1556) describes "petum," or tobacco (Nico- 
tiana tabacum). — This species of Nicotiana is figured by Monardes, 
Lobel, and Camerarius ; and the N. rustica, by Matthioli and Lobel. 
Lane states, That the use of tobacco was introduced into the East at 
the close of the Sixteenth Century : and according to Forskal, Delile, 
and Clot-Bey, both species are cultivated in Egypt. It is worthy of 
note, that the custom most prominently distinguishing the present from 
all former ages, was taught by the Aboriginals of America.* 

The tomato of Peru (Solan um lycopersicum) is noticed by Gesner, 
Anguillara, Lobel, Camerarius, and C. Bauhin. — The plant was seen 
by Delile in Egypt; where, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, it is now 
abundantly cultivated. 

According to Sprengel, The morning-glory (Ipomsea nil, also called 
I. hederacea) is described by Gesner. — The plant is figured by Lobel 
(Stirp. hist. p. 340) ; and was seen by Forskal in gardens at Cairo. 

The Canna Indica is noticed by Gesner, Lobel, and Camerarius : and 
was derived, according to C. Bauhin, from seeds brought from the West 
Indies to Portugal. — The plant was seen by Forskal, Delile, and others, 

from Busbecke at Constantinople ; and was also seen at Constantinople by Forskal and 
Sibthorp ; but appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. Bung found it 
indigenous on the mountains of Northern China. 

According to Clusius and Beckmann, About the middle of the Sixteenth Century, roots 
of the crown-imperial (Fritillaria imperialis) were brought from Persia to Constantinople, 
and thence to Vienna; from which city they were distributed over Europe. — The plant 
is figured by Dodonasus and by Lobel; but I have met with no evidence of its being 
known in Egypt. 

According to Balbinus and Beckmann, The tulip (Tulipa Gesneriana) was brought 
from Constantinople, probably by Busbecke, about A. D. 1554. — The plant is a native of 
the Caucasian countries. It was seen by Rauwolf in gardens upon Lebanon; but I have 
met with no evidence of its being known in Egypt. 

According to Beckmann, the Canary bird (Fringilla canaria) is first mentioned by 
Gesner, A. D. 1555 ; and is first figured by Aldrovandus. — The bird is a native of the 
Canary Islands; and has doubtless been sometimes kept in cages in Egypt; but I have 
met with no record of the fact. 

* An account of the horse-chestnut (iEsculus hippocastanum) was sent by Quakelbeen 
at Constantinople to Matthioli, in A. D. 1557. — The tree appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt ; and indeed, is not successfully cultivated as far South in the United 
States. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 141 

in the gardens of Egypt ; and Delile met with seeds in the drug shops 
at Cairo. 

According to C. Bauhin, Willdenow, and Chaubard, The sainfoin 
(Onobrychis sativa) is noticed by Gesner, Dodonseus, Thalius, and 
Lobel. — The plant appears to have been first employed for agricultural 
purposes about a century later. It was seen in Greece by Bory de 
St. Vincent ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been recently 
introduced into Egypt.* 

The Melia azedarach is figured by Matthioli. — The tree was seen by 
Eauwolf and Hasselquist in Palestine ; and by Forskal and Delile, in 
gardens at Cairo. 

According to Sprengel, The Dracocephalum Moldavicum, a native of 
Siberia, is figured by Matthioli. — The plant, according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, has been recently introduced by the way of France into Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The Ligusticum Peloponnense is noticed by 
Matthioli. — The plant grows wild on the mountains of Carniolia ; but 
has not been found in Greece ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, 
has only recently been introduced into Egypt. 

In " A. D. 1566," the accession of Selim II., the third Turkish sul- 
tan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

An account of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was sent by Cor- 
tusi to Matthioli, and was published in A. D. 1568. — The sunflower 
is also figured by Dodonseus and Monardes; and is enumerated by 
Forskal, Delile, and Clot-Bey, among the garden plants of Egypt. 

The Narcissus jonquilla is noticed by Dodonseus, A. D. 1569 ; and 
also by Linnaeus. — The plant is supposed to be a native of Spain : it 

* The Abutilon vulgare is noticed by Gesner, Anguillara, Matthioli, Dodonseus, Came- 
rarius, and C. Bauhin. — The plant has become naturalized in some parts of Europe ; but 
appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

The " alsine glutinosa " of Gesner, and the " auricula muris " of Dodonseus, are referred 
by C. Bauhin and Willdenow to the Cerastium viscosum and C. vulgatum. — These are 
enumerated by Sibthorp and Bory de St. Vincent as common weeds in Greece ; but no 
species of Cerastium has hitherto been observed in Egypt. 

The Periploca Grseca is noticed by Gesner, Matthioli, Lobel, Camerarius, Clusius, and 
C. Bauhin. — The plant does not well accord with European vegetation. It was seen 
by Sibthorp in hedges in Northern Greece ; and according to Persoon, is found in Syria ; 
but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Hyacinthus Orientulis, supposed to have been brought from Constantinople, is 
noticed by Gesner, Matthioli, Dodonaeus, Castor Durantes, Lobel (who first saw it " in 
A. D. 1562"), and C. Bauhin. — The plant was seen in Greece by Bory de St. Vincent 
and Gittard ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 



142 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, as cultivated for ornament in 
the gardens of Egypt. 

The pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) is described by Dodonseus. — The 
plant, according to Dr. T. W. Harris, was derived from the aboriginals 
of America. It was seen by Forskal and Delile in Egypt ; where its 
name, "kara estombouli" or gourd of Constantinople, indicates a 
northern route of introduction. 

According to Dr. T. W. Harris, the squash (Cucurbita polymorpha) 
was derived from North America ; and is the " askiitasquash," culti- 
vated by the aboriginals of New England, mentioned by Josselyn, 
Wood, and R. Williams. The plant is described by Dodonseus. — Delile 
is perhaps the earliest writer who mentions the presence of the C. poly- 
morpha in Egypt ; where its name, " kara mogrebi" or western gourd, 
indicates a Mediterranean route of introduction. 

The " nasturtium Indicum" of Dodonaeus, Monardes, and Lobel 
(Stirp. Hist., p. 338), is referred by C. Bauhin and Willdenow to the 
Tropceolum minus, a native of Peru. — This has become a well-known 
garden plant ; and was seen by Delile, and by Clot-Bey and Figari, 
cultivated in Egypt.* 

According to Sprengel, The Copaifera officinalis, an indigenous tree 
of Brazil, is described by Lerius. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) speaks of the 
importation of "copaivae" balsam into Egypt. 

The " mandobi" seen by Lerius cultivated in Brazil, is referred by 
Monardes, Piso, and others to the pea-nut (Arachis hypogea). — This 
plant is said to have been long known in China and Cochin China ; 
and, according to Purchas, also in Equatorial Africa. It is now culti- 

* According to C. Bauhin and Willdenow, The Celosia coccinea is figured by Dodo- 
naeus. — I have met with no evidence, that this plant is known in Egypt. 

The Hemerocallis fulva is figured by Dodonaeus. — The plant was seen by Kaempfer 
and Thunberg, cultivated and growing spontaneously in Japan ; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Egypt. 

According to Willdenow, the Hibiscus palustris is figured by Dodonaeus. — This is a 
North American plant ; which appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The " syringa" of Dodonaeus, Lobel (Stirp. Hist.), and Oaesalpiuus, is referred by C. 
Bauhin and Willdenow to the Philadelphus coronarius. — This plant appears to have 
remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

The " flos tygridis" sent by Brancion to Dodonaeus and Lobel (Stirp. Hist. p. 59), is 
referred by Dalechamp and others to the tiger-lily (Tigridia pavonia), a native of Mexico. 
— The plant has become common in gardens ; but appears to have remained unknown 
in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 143 

vated in Egypt, as appears from Clot-Bey and Figari ; and its Egyp- 
tian name indicates, that the plant was received from Sennaar. 

The Laurns sassafras is figured by Monardes ; who states, that it 
was known to him in A. D. 1571, and was brought from Florida. — 
Forskal enumerates "sassafra" wood among the articles of the Egyptian 
Materia Medica; imported by the way of Greece. 

In " A. D. 1574," the accession of Amurath III., or Murad III., the 
fourth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Robbers having 
become numerous among the population of Egypt, the pasha sent 
by him, is said to have decapitated not less than "ten thousand" 
(Marcel, p. 200). Coins issued at Cairo during the reign of Murad 
III., are figured by Marcel, p. 202. 

According to Lobel, The Convolvulus alihceoides is described by Clu- 
sius. — The plant was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; by myself, at 
Malta ; and by Delile, at Alexandria.* 

According to Sprengel, the weeping ivillow (Salix Babylonica) was 
seen by Rauwolf in Palestine. — Forskal and Delile met with the 
tree in Egypt ; where it is now common in gardens. 

According to Barcia and Sprengel, The Passifiora ccerulea is de- 
scribed by Martinus del Barco, A. D. 1581. — The plant was seen by 
Forskal at Constantinople ; and by Forskal, Delile, and others, in gar- 
dens at Cairo. 

The Balanites was seen at Cairo by Alpinus in A. D. 1583, and 
subsequently by Vesling. — The tree (according to Figari and Lloyd) 
has disappeared from Lower Egypt : it was seen in Upper Egypt 
by Vansleb, Lippi, and Delile; and by Cailliaud, growing along the 
Nile from Sennaar to Fazoglo. In Darfour, Browne found the tree 
regarded as brought from Arabia : it was seen in Arabia by Forskal 
("haledj," p. 197) ; but having also been seen in Hindostan by Royle, 
in Senegal by Adanson, and in St. Domingo by Poiteau, some doubt 
has arisen as to the true place of origin.f 

The " magnae admirationis herba Peruviana" of Lobel, Tabernseinon- 
tanus, and Clusius (Hist. ii. p. 87), is referred by C. Bauhin and Will- 

* According to Linnseus and Persoon, The Primus laurocerasus was introduced into 
Europe in A. D. 1576. — The tree is figured by Camerarius; and was seen in Greece by 
Sibthorp ; but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

■j" The " quamoclit" of Caesalpinus, Camerarius, and Clusius, is referred by C. Bauhin 
and others to the Ipomcea quamoclit. — I found this plant cultivated in gardens at Bom- 
bay; but I have met with no evidence, that it is known in Egypt. 



144 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

denow to the Mirabilis Jalapa. — This plant is figured by Rheede and 
by Rumphius, as cultivated for ornament in Hindostan and Amboyna; 
and was seen in Egypt by Hasselquist, Forskal, and Delile, sometimes 
bearing the name " yimani," which indicates a Yemen route of in- 
troduction. 

A branch of the Cacalia Kleinia was sent by Garetus to Clusius in 
A. D. 1593 (Exot. i. 5). — The plant is usually regarded as a native of 
the Canary Islands : but it was seen by Graham and Gibson, growing 
on the rocky hill-tops of Western Hindostan. According to Clot- Bey 
and Figari, the C. Kleinia is now planted in the gardens of Egypt.* 

According to Beckmann, The tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) was pro- 
cured from the East Indies by Simon de Tovar, prior to A. D. 1594; 
and was communicated to Bernard Paludanus, who published a de- 
scription in Linschoten's Voyage. — Rumphius, however, speaks of it 
as an introduced plant at Amboyna; and according to Ruiz and 
Pavon, it is a native of Peru. The tuberose was seen by Hasselquist, 
Forskal, Delile, and Clot-Bey, cultivated in the gardens of Egypt. 

In " A. D. 1595," the accession of Mohammed III., the fifth Turkish 
sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at Cairo during his 
reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 204.-}- 

Gerarde, A. D. 1597, notices the introduction into England of the 
Yucca aloifolia. — This plant is a native of Carolina ; is figured by 
Parkinson and by Dillenius ; and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is 
now cultivated in the gardens of European residents in Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The Zapania nodiflora is described by Fer- 

* In the same year, according to Beckmann, roots of the Amaryllis formosissima were 
procured from South America by Simon de Tovar, and were communicated to Clusius 
and to Bernard Paludanus. — The plant appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The " grossularia spinosa fruct. purpurasc." seen by Clusius at Leyden in A. D. 
1594 (Rarior. i. 85), may be compared with the Jiibes gracih of North America. — This 
species of gooseberry is sometimes cultivated for the sake of the fruit; it appears to have 
remained unknown in Egypt. 

-j- Seeds of the Anjcmone Mexicana were received from England by C. Bauhin, in 
A. D. 1596. — The plant is also noticed by Ferrandus Imperatus; and was seen in Surinam 
by Merian : it is now cultivated and naturalized in Hindostan ; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Egypt. 

A rattan, or stem of Calamus rotang, is figured by C. Bauhin (in Matthiol. p. 58), 
A. D. 1598. — The living plant (described by Bontius) is a native of the Malay countries; 
and according to Graham, also of Hindostan. Rattans, being often used in enveloping 
merchandise, have doubtless been sometimes brought into Egypt; but I have met with 
no direct evidence of the fact. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 145 

randus Imperatus, A. D. 1599. — The plant is noticed by C. Bauhin; 
was seen by Sibthorp in Greece ; by Forskal and Delile, at Cairo and 
Rosetta ; and I met with it, growing as a weed on the alluvial flats of 
Upper Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The Cyperus articulatus was discovered in 
Mexico by Hernandez, A. D. 1600. — The plant was seen by Forskal 
and Delile, growing as a weed in the rice grounds of Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1603," the accession of Achmed or Achmet, the sixth 
Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

According to Pereira, The earliest notice of gamboge (the product of 
Hebradendron gambogioides) is by Clusius ; who in the last-named 
year, received some by the way of Amsterdam from China. — Rouyer 
found gamboge sold in the drug shops at Cairo.* 

According to Sprengel, The North American strawberry (Fragaria 
Virginiana) is described by Besler, A. D. 1613. — Clot-Bey and Figari 
speak of the recent introduction and successful cultivation of the straw- 
berry in Egypt. The species, is probably the North American; which 
furnishes the most approved garden varieties. 

The Helianthus tuberosus is figured by Fabius Columna, A. D. 1616. 
— The plant is now cultivated in Hindostan, as appears from Graham; 
and according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has been recently introduced 
into Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1617," the accession of Mustafa, the seventh Turkish 
sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1623," the accession of Amurath IV. or Murad IV., the 
eighth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at 
Cairo during his reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 215.f 

According to Sprengel, The Acacia Famesiana is described by Tobias 
Aldinus, A. D. 1625, and by Hyacinthus Ambrosinius. — The plant is 
figured by Parkinson ; and was seen by Hasselquist, Forskal, and 
Delile, in the gardens of Egypt.J 

* The " hyosciamus Virginianus" of Alpinus, is referred by C. Bauhin, Willdenow, 
and others, to the Oenothera biennis. — This plant has become naturalized in Northern 
Europe ; but appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

fThe " botrys ambrosiodes Mexicana" of C. Bauhin (Pinax 520), A. D. 1623, is re- 
ferred by Sprengel to the Chenopodium ambrosioidcs. — This plant was seen by Forskal 
at Constantinople; and according to Bory de St. Vincent, has become naturalized in 
Greece ; it appears, however, to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

| According to Cornuti, The Antholyza sEthiopica, of Austral Africa, first flowered 
at Paris in A. D. 1633. — The plant has become common in greenhouses; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 



146 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The North American locust, Robinia pseudacacia, is figured by Cor- 
nuti (64), A. D. 1635. — The tree, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is 
now planted in gardens at Cairo. 

According to Sprengel, The Eleusine coracana was seen in Egypt by 
Vesling, A. D. 1638; and in Malta, by Cavallini. — This grain is abun- 
dantly cultivated in Hindostan and on the Eastern coast of Africa; 
but is no longer to be found in Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1640," the accession of Ibrahim, the ninth Turkish sultan 
who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at Cairo during his reign, 
are figured by Marcel, p. 219. 

In "A. D. 1648" (Marcel), the accession of Mohammed IV., the 
tenth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

According to Aiton, The Celtis Occidentalis was discovered in Virginia 
by Tradescant, and was introduced into England in A. D. 1656. — It 
is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, among the trees now planted 
in the gardens of Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The ipecacuanha plant (Psychotria emetica) 
is described by Piso and Marcgrave, A. D. 1658. — Forskal (Mat. Med.) 
speaks of the importation of ipecacuanha by the way of Europe into 
Egypt. 

The "camara" figured by Piso and Marcgrave, p. 177, is clearly the 
Lantana camara. — This shrub, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is 
now planted in the gardens of Egypt.* 

According to Cornuti and Beckmann, The Amaryllis Sarnlensls first flowered in Eu- 
rope in A. D. 1634. — The plant was ascertained by Kaempfer to be a native of Japan ; 
it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Ampelopsls hederacea, of North America, is figured by Cornuti, 41. — This orna- 
mental vine was seen by Sibthorp at Constantinople ; but appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 

The trumpet-Jioiccr (Bignonia radicans), a native of North America, is figured by Cor- 
nuti, 42. — The plant appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Datura stramonium is figured by T. Johnson (Ger. Emen., p. 348), A. D. 1636. 
— The plant has become naturalized in Europe; and was seen in Greece by Sibthorp and 
Bory de St. Vincent; but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt and Hindostan. 

The " rosa Batavico Jndica" seen by Bontius in Java, is referred by Piso and others 
to the Hibiscus rosa- Sinensis. — This has become a common greenhouse plant; but it 
appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

* According to Sprengel, The Amaranthus vlrldls is described by Piso and Marcgrave, 
241. — It is mentioned by Graham, as a common weed in Hindostan : but appears to have 
remained unknown in Egypt. 

According to Linnaeus and Persoon, The Melianthus major was introduced into Europe 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 147 

According to Sprengel, The Poinciana pulcherrima is described by 
Zannoni, A. D. 1675. — The plant is figured by Rheede and by Rura- 
phius, as cultivated for ornament in Hindostan and Amboyna ; and 
according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is now common in gardens at Cairo. 

The custard apple (Annona squamosa) is figured by Rheede and by 
Rumphius, as cultivated in Hindostan and Amboyna. — The plant 
was seen by Forskal and Delile in gardens at Cairo; where, according 
to Clot-Bey and Figari, it now produces fruit. 

The Chrysanthemum Indicum is figured by Rheede and by Rumphius, 
as cultivated for ornament in Hindostan and Amboyna. — The plant 
(under the synonym of Anthemis grandiflora) is enumerated by Clot- 
Bey and Figari, as now common in the gardens of Egypt. 

The Euphorbia tirucalli is figured by Rheede and by Rumphius, as 
growing in Hindostan and Amboyna. — The plant was seen by Delile, 
cultivated in a garden at Cairo.* 

According to Sprengel, The Vinca rosea is figured by Cleyer (who 
returned from Japan about A. D. 1680.) — The plant was also seen in 
Japan by Thunberg : according to Clot-Bey and Figari, it is now com- 
mon in the gardens of Egypt.f 

from Austral Africa in A. D. 1672. — The plant is figured by Hermann; and has become 
common in greenhouses; but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

According to Chaubard, The Erigcron (Janadense is figured by Boccone (Sic. t. 86), 
A. D. 1674. — The plant is noticed by Zannoni aud Tournefort ; has become a common 
weed in Europe, and was seen in Greece by Sibthorp ; but it appears to have remained 
unknown in Egypt. 

* The Ci/cas circinalis is figured by Rheede and by Rumphius. — The plant has 
become common in greenhouses; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

"I" According to Sprengel, The Gardenia fiorida is figured by Cleyer. — The plant was 
again seen in Japan by Kaempfer and Thunberg: it has become common in greenhouses; 
but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The Pittosporum tobira is figured by Cleyer.- — The plant was 
again seen in Japan by Kaempfer : it has become common in greenhouses ; but appears 
to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

According to Sprengel, The Lagerstra"rnia Indica is described by Cleyer. — The plant 
was again seen in Japan by Kaempfer and Thunberg : it has become common in green- 
houses ; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Xanthium spinosum is described by Morison and by Magnol. — The plant, ac- 
cording to Bory de St. Vincent, is now abundantly naturalized in Greece; it appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Justicia adhatoda is figured by Hermann (Lugd. t. 643), A. D. 1687 ; and also 
by Plukenet. — The plant is supposed to be a native of Hindostan ; and is planted there 
in gardens; but it appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 



148 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

In "A. D. 1687," the accession of Suliman III., the eleventh Turk- 
ish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

The Oossypium vitifolmm, is figured by Rumphius, A. D. 1690. — 
The plant was seen by Forskal, cultivated in Yemen; and by Forskal 
and Delile, in gardens at Cairo and Rosetta. 

The Urtica nivea, is figured by Rumphius ; and according to Lou- 
reiro, has been long cultivated in China and Cochin-China for making 
cordage. — According to Clot-Bey and Figari, the plant has been re- 
cently introduced by the way of France, and is now successfully culti- 
vated in Egypt. 

The Spilanthus acmella, an Indian weed, is figured by Rumphius, 
Plukenet, and Seba. — The plant, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has 
been recently introduced by the way of France into Egypt. 

In the last-named year, the Asclepias fruticosa (Gomphocarpus) was 
brought from Austral Africa by Oldenland (Hermann, Parad. Batav. 
p. 24) . — The plant is also figured by Plukenet ; was seen by Delile in 
Egypt, in a single garden ; but according to Clot-Bey and Figari, has 
since become more abundant. 

According to Aiton, the Pelargonium capitatum of Austral Africa, 
was introduced into England in the same year. — It is described by 
Cavanilles ; and is enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari among the 
garden plants of Egypt. 

In " A. D. 1691," the accession of Achmed II. or Achmet II., the 
twelfth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place* 

According to Sprengel, The Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is de- 
scribed by Volckamer (who died A. D. 1693). — The plant is said to 

* The Ageratum conyzoidcs is figured by Plukenet (Phyt. 88), and by Sloane. — It has 
become a common weed in most Tropical countries ; but appears to have remained un- 
known in Egypt. 

The Kerria Japonica is described by Kaempfer (who returned from Japan in A. D. 
1692), and by Tlmnberg. — The plant has become common in gardens ; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Camellia Japonica was seen by Kaempfer and Thunberg, growing spontaneously 
in Japan. — The plant has become common in greenhouses; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Egypt. 

The Saxifraga sarmentosa was seen by Kaempfer and Thunberg, indigenous on the 
mountains of Japan. — The plant has become common in greenhouses; but appears to 
have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Hemerocallis Japonica was seen by Kaempfer and Thunberg, cultivated and grow- 
ing spontaneously in Japan. — The plant has become common in greenhouses; but ap- 
pears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 149 

have been found by Thunberg, indigenous in Austral Africa. It was 
seen by Sibthorp, naturalized within the limits of the city of Athens ; 
and by Delile, at Alexandria. 

In " A. D. 1695," the accession of Mustafa II., the thirteenth 
Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place.* 

The Acacia lebbeck is figured by Plukenet. — The tree was seen by 
Forskal and Delile at Cairo ; where it has become common in gardens. 
It was also seen by Forskal, cultivated in Yemen ; and according to 
Graham, is well known in Hindostan. 

The ash-leaved maple of North America, Acer negundo, is figured by 
Plukenet, 123. — The tree, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, is now 
planted in the gardens of Egypt. 

The Phytolacca decandra, a North American Aveed, is described by 
Plukenet and by Tournefort. — The plant, according to Sibthorp, has 
become naturalized in Greece ; it was seen by Forskal and Delile, 
growing spontaneously at Cairo. 

The Cassia Occidentalis is figured by J. Commelyn, A. D. 1697, and 
by Sloane. — The plant is now naturalized in most Tropical countries ; 
and was seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo.f 

The vanilla plant (Vanilla aromatica), a native of Mexico, is de- 
scribed by Plukenet, Catesby, and Schwartz. — According to Clot-Bey 
and Figari, the living plant has been recently introduced, and is now 
successfully cultivated in Egypt. 

According to Loudon, the Gleditscfiia triacantJios of North America 
was introduced into the English gardens in A. D. 1700. — The tree is 
enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, as planted in the gardens of Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1703," the accession of Achmed III. or Achmet III., the 

* The Asclepias Curassavica is figured by Hermann (who died in the last-named year), 
and by Sloane. — The plant has become naturalized in most Tropical countries; but 
appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Sicyos angulata is figured by Hermann (Parad. Batav., p. 133). — The plant was 
seen by Thunberg in Japan ; and is abundantly naturalized in the United States; but it 
appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

The Amaryllis belladonna, a native of Tropical America, is figured by Hermann 
(Parad. Batav. p. 194), and by Seba. — The plant has become naturalized in Madeira ; 
but appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

f The Agapanthus umbellatus is described by J. Breynius (who died in the last-named 
year). — The plant has become common in Northern greenhouses ; but appears to have 
remained unknown in Egypt. 

The Mollugo verticillata, a North American weed, is figured by Plukenet (Mant. tab. 
332). — The plant appears to have remained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 



150 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

fourteenth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued 
at Cairo during his reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 225. 

In the same year, the Polygonum Orlentale is said to have been 
brought from the Levant by Tournefort. — The plant was seen by 
Delile in gardens at Cairo* 

In "A. D. 1707" (Marcel, p. 221), a change took place in the in- 
ternal affairs of Egypt. The authority of the pasha sent from Con- 
stantinople became chiefly nominal; while from this time, the adminis- 
tration was really conducted by the Schekh-el-beled, Ismael-Bey, and 
his successors in the office. 

According to Aiton, The Pelargonium zonale, a native of Austral 
Africa, was introduced into the English gardens in A. D. 1710. — The 
plant is figured by Cavanilles : and is enumerated by Clot-Bey and 
Figari, as cultivated for ornament in the gardens of Egypt. 

The Momordica pedata is figured by Feuillee (who returned from Peru 
in A. D. 1711). — The plant was seen by Delile in gardens at Cairo.f 

According to Sprengel, The Poa pilosa is described by Scheuchzer, 
A. D. 1719. — The plant has not been found in Greece; but was re- 
ceived from Italy by Linnseus ; and was seen by Delile, growing spon- 
taneously at Cairo. 

The catalpa (Bignonia catalpa) is figured by Catesby (who returned 
from Carolina in A. D. 1726). — The tree, according to Clot-Bey and 
Figari, has been recently introduced into Egypt. J 

In "A. D. 1730," the accession of Mahmood, the fifteenth Turkish 
sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. — Coins issued at Cairo during his 
reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 229. § 

* The Tritlcum repens is described by Tournefort. — The plant was seen by Forskal at 
Constantinople; and according to Sibthorp, is common in Greece; but it appears to have 
remained unknown in Egypt. 

■f" According to Sprengel, The Nicandra pJiysalodes is figured by Feuillee. — The plant 
has become naturalized in the United States and in Hindostan ; but appears to have re- 
mained unknown in Greece and Egypt. 

| The Hordeum jubntum is figured by J. C. Buxbaum ; who met with it, growing 
spontaneously at Smyrna. — The plant was again seen at Smyrna by Sibthorp; and on the 
island of Milo by D'Urville; but appears to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

§ The Aster Chinensis is figured by Dillenius, A. D. 1732, and by Knorr. — The plant 
has become common in gardens; and was seen by Forskal at Constantinople; but appears 
to have remained unknown in Egypt. 

The North American black currant, Ribes Jloridum, is figured by Dillenius. — The plant 
has become common in gardens ; but appears to have remained unknown in Greece and 
Egypt. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 151 

Leersia oryzoides is described by Linnaeus, A. D. 1753, and by 
Schreber. — The plant was perhaps derived from North America ; but 
is now found in Central Europe ; and was seen by Delile at Rosetta 
and Damietta. 

In "A. D. 1754," the accession of Osman II. or Othman II., the 
sixteenth Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

In "A. D. 1757," the accession of Mustafa III., the seventeenth 
Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at Cairo 
during his reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 239. 

Sterculia platanifolia, according to Aiton, was cultivated in England 
in the last-named year. — Six years later, the tree was seen by Forskal 
among the mountains of Yemen; where it was called "kulham." It is 
enumerated by Clot-Bey and Figari, as now planted in the gardens of 
Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1768" (Marcel), war was declared between Russia and 
Turkey; and Egjpt was called upon to furnish "twelve thousand 
men." At this time, the Memluk chieftain, Ali-Bey, having acquired 
great influence in Egypt, and the sultan failing in an attempt to get 
rid of him, declared himself independent; and maintained his position 
for about four years. Coins issued by him, are figured by Marcel, p. 
335. 

Phytolacca dioica, a native of Tropical America, was cultivated in 
England by Miller in the last-named year. — The plant is figured by 
L'Heritier-; is described by Aiton ; and according to Clot- Bey and Figari, 
has been recently introduced into Egypt. 

Phormium tenax, the New Zealand flax, was discovered by Cook and 
Forster in New Zealand, in A. D. 1773. — The plant, according to Clot- 
Bey and Figari, has been recently introduced by the way of France 
into Egypt. 

In "A. D. 1774," the accession of Abd-el-Hamid, the eighteenth 
Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at Cairo 
during his reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 249. 

Polygonum tinctorium, used for dyeing in China, was introduced into 
England by J. Blake in A. D. 1776. — The plant is described by Aiton, 
and by Loureiro ; and according to Clot- Bey and Figari, has been re- 
cently introduced by the way of France into Egypt. 

Aloysia citriodora is described by Ortega; and was ascertained by 
Dombey to be a native of Chili. — It is enumerated by Clot-Bey and 
Figari among the garden plants of Egypt. 



152 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

In " A. D. 1789," the accession of Selira III., the nineteenth Turkish 
sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. Coins issued at Cairo during his 
reign, are figured by Marcel, p. 249. 

Dahlia variabilis was sent from Mexico in the last-named year to 
Cavanilles at Madrid. — The plant, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, 
was introduced by the French into Egypt. 

Thalia dealbata, according to Pursh, was discovered by J. Millington 
in Florida. — Clot-Bey and Figari mention the recent introduction of 
the plant by the way of France into Egypt. 

On the " 1st of July, A. D. 1798" (Thiers and Ryme), the French 
under Bonaparte, after overthrowing the independence of Malta, landed 
near Alexandria, and obtained possession of Egypt ; where they main- 
tained themselves for more than three years. 

Euphorbia calenduUfolia was discovered by Delile in A. D. 1799, 
growing as a weed in cultivated fields near Cairo. — Its place of origin 
remains unascertained. 

In "A. D. 1807," the steam engine was applied to navigation with 
full success by Fulton ; the trial of the boat taking place in North 
America, on the Hudson River. 

In the same year, the accession of Mustafa IV., the twentieth Turk- 
ish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. In this year also (Clot-Bey 
and others), the English took possession of Alexandria; where they 
maintained themselves for about six months ; but were finally forced 
to re-embark.* 

In "A. D. 1808," the accession of Mahmood II., the twenty-first 
Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took place. 

The breaking up of the Memluks by the French, and the measures 
adopted for the expulsion of the latter, led to the introduction into 
Egypt of a body of four thousand Albanians. These became the 
source of the power of their chieftain, Mohammed Ali ; who, on the 
"1st of March, A. D. 1811" (Clot-Bey and others), extinguished by 
violence the remains of the Memluk Aristocracy : and who became 
virtually independent ; and twice rendered European interference 
indispensable to the preservation of the reigning Dynasty at Constan- 
tinople.f 

* This year forms a convenient point of reference to the botanist, from being the date 
of the concluding volume of the manual of Persoon. 

f Coreopsis tinctoria was discovered by Nuttall on the Arkansas River, in A. D. 1819. 
This soon became a favourite flower, and so widely diffused, that in Brazil, I met with a 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 153 

In "A. D. 1822" (Brewster's Cycl.), a revolution commenced in 
Greece : which ended four years later, in the independence of a large 
portion of the country ; partly accomplished through European inter- 
ference. 

In " A. D. 1829," the steam-engine was successfully applied to land- 
transportation ; the trial taking place in England, on the rail-road at 
Liverpool. 



In "A. D. 1832" (Gliddon), the voyages of the English Steamer 
on the Red Sea commenced. The successful employment of Ocean 
steamers forms an epoch in Navigation ; as also, in international affairs; 
and at the present moment, is even tending to restore Egypt to her 
ancient position, as naturally the centre of the routes of intercourse, 
both by land and sea. 

At or near the last-named date, a line of demarcation should be 
drawn: for ^botanic garden under European superintendence has been 
established in Egypt; and at the time of my visit, it already contained 
many plants not noticed in these pages. The object could be accom- 
plished, by retaining as notes the long-known species introduced into 
Egypt after the selected date : but for the present, as I am about 
taking leave of the whole subject, I will here change the order of 
enumeration. 

Terminalia. Two species, according to Clot-Bey and Figari, are now 
planted as shade trees in Egypt. 

Brugmansia Candida, according to Graham, was introduced by the 
way of Egypt into Bombay, in A. D. 1837. 

In "A. D. 1839" (Clot-Bey and others), the accession of Abd-el- 
Medjid, the twenty-second Turkish sultan who ruled Egypt, took 
place. 

Citrus decumana, the shaddock. An expression of Rabbi Schwarz 
ii. 2, seems to imply, that this fruit has been seen at Jerusalem : the 
specimens may have been brought from India by the route of the Red 
Sea ; and possibly by steamboat. 

solitary plant kept at a window amid the surrounding magnificence of the vegetation of 
the Organ Mountains. According to Graham, the C. tinctoria has become common in the 
gardens of Hindostan; hut I have met with no evidence of its having been introduced 
into Egypt. 

39 



154 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The foregoing Tabular Arrangement, in its present imperfect con- 
dition, will yet be found to throw light on the history of words, and 
upon the whole subject of Philology. Take, for instance, the question 
of the origin of the word "cow," and of the time when this word was 
first used in England ? 

The animal bearing the name has been the companion of man from 
the earliest historical records. In Egypt and throughout Arabia, the 
male is universally called "thour;" in Ancient Palestine (in Hebrew) 
" thwr ;" further north, in Ancient Greece " tayros ;" in Ancient Italy 
"taurus;" in France "taureau," to the very margin of the Channel; 
over which the word does not appear to have ever crossed into Eng- 
land. Again : in Egypt and throughout Arabia, the female is univer- 
sally called "bakar;" in Ancient Palestine (in Hebrew) "bkr;" in 
Ancient Italy "vacca;" in France "vache;" but in like manner, this 
second word does not appear to have entered England : as though, 
when the two words arrived at the Channel from the South, the 
objects in England were already supplied with names. 

Turning now to the so-called English word "cow:" which is un- 
known in the above-named southern countries ; but which occurs in 
Germany; in Northern Europe (in the Scandinavian countries); in 
Persia; in Ancient Hindostan (in the Sanscrit language); and further 
east, in China. By what route did the word reach England? and, To 
what language did it originally belong? If we go back in history four 
thousand years, to the Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty, we find the word 
"cow" at that time used in Egypt. (See Bunsen, Anc. Egypt. Vocab.) 

The Egyptian measurement of time. 

Some remarks properly belonging to this head have been already 
given, in the course of the preceding pages; but a more full explanation 
has been reserved for this place. 

Among the various calendars devised for measuring time, the most 
simple is the one which follows the period of three hundred and sixty- 
five days. The fractional excess of the natural year being excluded, 
such a calendar at once gives the number of days between two dates; 
a source, under our own system of intercalation, of perpetual incon- 
venience to Astronomers and Historians. 

Such a calendar, however, is not a fixed one : its initial day does 
not always keep at the same distance from the solstices and equinoxes, 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 155 

but gradually traverses all the seasons, and returns to the starting 
point. If the length of the natural year was precisely three hundred 
and sixty-five days and a quarter, the return would take place after 
an interval of 1460 natural years, and of 1461 calendar years; for 

i- A x 1461=3651 days; and 
365| d x 1460 = 533,265 days = 365 d x 1461; 

but the natural year being in reality somewhat shorter than 365i days, 
the return will be proportionally delayed. 

An intelligent people would hardly fail to note the return and the 
real interval. But in Egypt (where this calendar was once in vogue), 
a peculiar circumstance tends to direct attention to these particulars : 
for the summer solstice, taking place simultaneously with the com- 
mencement of the inundation, regulates the agriculture* and the 
whole business of the country. No other river, save the Nile, is punc- 
tual to a day in its rise ; and in no other country, save Egypt, is there 
an abrupt terrestrial mark of the termination of the natural year. 
Were it yet possible for a community to overlook such manifest indi- 
cations, the attention of the Ancient Egyptians was further arrested 
by stated Sacred Festivals. 

The Egyptians used the calendar in question for many centuries, 
and counted out the interval between the departure of their New Year 
from the solstice and its return. Various ancient writers speak of the 
Completion of the Egyptian Cycle ; and the date of this Completion 
has formed the subject of inquiry, as an important point in Chronology. 

The length of this Cycle remaining uncertain, and believing, that 
the experience of the Ancient Egyptians was somewhere recorded, I 
proposed to myself a search; being aware (from Biot's computation), 
that if our astronomical measurements of the year are correct, the 
Cycle should consist of "1505 years:" 

Not long after this, I met with Manilius' account of the phoenix, 
. . . " vivere annis DCLX. . . . Cum huius alitis vita magni conver- 
sionem anni fieri prodidit idem Manilius, iterumque significationes 
tempestatum et siderum easdem reverti : it lives six hundred and sixty 
years : With the life of this bird, Manilius also relates, the revolving 
of the Great Year comes to pass, and the signs of the seasons and stars 

* Mr. Grliddon informs me, that the Egyptian peasant, or "fellah," without regard to 
any established calendar, ascertains seed-time by simply counting with his fingers the 
number of days from "green water :" the name given to the initial day of the inundation. 



156 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

again return" (Pliny x. 2). Now, a period of 660 years does not 
agree with the return of the stars and seasons : but a question arose, 
Might not this period have formed a division of the Great Year? 
2i phoenixes fell below the mark; 2i far exceeded it; 21 gave 1540 
years, which was a possible number. I was now to apply a test; 
derived from an opinion I had formed, that the Egyptian Cycle was 
some multiple of 7. The test appeared to fail in the instance of 660; 
but 1540 years proved to be divisible by 7 ; and when so divided, gave 
i of a phoenix. 

I was no longer in doubt, as to the experience of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians : and when I had nearly finished printing my work on the Races 
of Man, an opportunity offered of introducing the subject. It seemed 
however to be going out of my way, and I had nearly decided in the 
negative ; in a moment of perplexity seeking to divert my thoughts, I 
took up Fisher's "Dial of the Seasons," a volume chance had placed 
upon my table. Turning over the leaves, my eye rested on the page 
treating of the velocity of light; and I perceived, that the time assigned 
for the passage of light from the sun, was the amount wanting to 
reconcile the astronomical and Egyptian measurements of the Great 
Year. Here, was confirmation of a count by the Egyptians ; but the 
accompanying result was unlooked for. 

The next step was, to determine with more precision the annual 
difference. Roemer (as quoted in Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, 
545), assigns 8 m 133 s for the passage of light across half the diameter 
of the earth's orbit. Keeping this in view, I proceeded at first by 
rough approximations : as 

1505 yre 1540 5 ' re 365i diys 

1460 1505 365 5 h 48 m 49-7' (Solar year, Baily, quoted by Herschel, 383). 

~^5 :~ 35 :7 Tl 10-3 : 8 m 41-3' 

1460 y " : £*» : : 1540 yrs : 379 m 434]° (exceeding i (1 +H m 10-3% by 8 m 33-2 s ). 
1461 yrs . i6,j . . 1540 yrs . 379™ 27|g^ s (exceeding the same, by 8 m 17-6 S ). 

The results obtained by the above approximations are all too large ; 
for 

365! d — 7 y = 365 3 V g = 3 7 oV X 1541 ; and 
3653 7 oV X 1540 = 562,465 days = 365 d x 1541 ; 

or in other words, If the natural year were 7 1 ? d shorter than 365 i days, 
the return would take place at the end of 1540 natural years, of 1541 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 157 

calendar years, and of precisely 562,465 days. As, however, the 
Egyptian Enumeration of the days appears to have gone on without 
interruption, it seems probable, that the Great Year really consisted of 
1540 calendar years, or of 562,100 days: now the nearest of the above 
approximations, 

365 d 5 h 48 m 49-7 s (the Solar year) — 8 m 17-6', or more exactly, 
365| d — 19 m 27||^ s X 1539 = 562,098 <1 22 h 41 m 38f™ s , 

gives a difference of more than an entire day. 

It was only after my book had been printed and published, that I 
obtained a number which satisfies all the requirements : 

1 day — H = 1389 5 y = 1389 7 y j and 
1389 JL 1440 1440 

II . . . . . 1 Q 5 17 in , nr 1 C|m OQ 2 fi 9 9 \ 

77 77 • • 77 ly T337 ( 0r lJ Zd T337 )■ 

From the Solar or Natural year = 365 d 5 h 48 m 49-7% 
deduct 365| d — 19 m 23 T 2 &y =365 5 40 36}g«s . 
and the remainder, 8 12 -9, 

differs only a fraction of a second from Roemer's quantity ; a fraction 
too small to be easily reached by instrumental observation. Granting, 
however, that it can be reached and rendered sensible; as astronomers 
use sidereal time, and as everything relating to the Egyptian Great 
Year is in solar time, the difference between solar and sidereal time 
proves to be in favour of the new quantity. In regard to the third 
test, the difference in the length of the Great Year amounting to less 
than an entire day, might readily escape the notice of the Egyptian 
community ; 

365 d 5 h 40 m 36-|0|8s x 1539 = 562,099 d h 43f|f4 m . 

Up to this stage in the investigation, I had not doubted the correct- 
ness of the received Theory of the progressive motion of light. I had 
been in search of a smaller quantity than 8 m 12'9 S ; for the Sun itself 
occupying no inconsiderable portion of the diameter of the Earth's orbit, 
g m 12-9 3 d n ot correspond to the alleged rate of travel from the Sun's 
surface to our Earth; whether at the Equinoctial points, or even at 
the average orbital distance. This led to an examination into the 
origin of the Theory : 



158 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

The planet Jupiter presents a system of worlds, which can be ren- 
dered visible by any ordinary telescope. The satellites perform their 
revolutions each in its own time ; and these revolutions are of course 
invariable, like that of the Earth. When however we attempt to 
measure these revolutions (for Ave can watch the instant when the 
satellite dips into Jupiter's shadow), we get an irregularity; or in 
plainer words, we make mistakes. When the Earth is in a certain 
part of its orbit, Jupiter's satellites seem to complete their revolutions 
in 8 m 13 - 3 S less than the average period; and when the Earth is in the 
opposite portion of its orbit, in 8 m 133 s more than the average period. 
In other words, the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites give the dif- 
ference between "true" and "apparent" time: between "true" time, as 
maintained in the System of Jupiter; and "apparent" time, when we 
measure from the surface of the Earth. As the Theory stands, the 
fault is in the light, which does not come fast enough : but the required 
irregularity has been obtained above, without the aid of Jupiter and 
his satellites, and by a process which has nothing to do with properties 
of light. 

However singular it may appear, For months I did not think of 
chronological verification : and after all, the first instance in confirma- 
tion of Pliny's statement, came in a measure by chance : 

1. One day, on referring to the Old Egyptian Chronicle, I hap- 
pened to remark the sum of the years in two consecutive lines : 

"EireiTa ijixi&eoi f3a.giks7z oxru gV») di%'. Kai fASr' uurovi ysvsa.} is Kuvuou xuxXou dvsypa(py](fav 
h IVstfiv ufiy' ; 

" Then eight demigods, royal princes, year .... 217 
And after these, 15 generations of the Cynic Cycle were re- 
gistered in ........ . 443 Years." 

660 (= a phoenix). 

2. Inquiry being once awakened, other instances of conformity were 
soon discovered : According to Bunsen, the Turin Papyrus (a docu- 
ment in hieratic writing containing the name of no king more recent 
than Ramses II.) has the following line ; 

" Kings up to Horus, 23,200 years." (1540 X 15 = 23,100). 

3. The "panegyries" of the Sacred Calendar (the rpiaxov<ra£rripi<5wv, or 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 159 

" thirty-year periods," of the Rosetta Stone) ; for these correspond to 
the already-given larger Divisions of Time, 

30 years . . . . = a panegyry. 
22 panegyries = 660 years = a phoenix. 
2} phoenixes = 1540 years = a Great Year. 

4. Another line in the Turin Papyrus, is given by Bunsen as fol- 
lows, 

"13,420 years." (=1540 x 9—440 = 9 Great Years— f phoenix.) 

5. According to Julius Africanus, The first book of Manetho's His- 
tory of Egypt contained the events of 

"2308 years 70 days." (2310 = 1540 + 770=1* Great Years). 

6. Claudius Ptolemy, according to his own statement, "made his 
Observation of the Vernal Equinox in the third year of Antoninus" 
(A. D. 139, Clinton) ; and he further names "the seventh of the Egyp- 
tian month Pachon," as the equinoctial day. On comparing the fixed 
and movable calendars, the twentieth of July being the admitted 
starting place, 

March 10 + April 30 + May 31 + June 30 + July 19 =120 

Pachon 23 + Paoni 30 + Abib 30 + Misra 30 + Epagomena 5=118 



we find a deficiency of two days: but morning being the time of adjust- 
ment, and the equinox in question taking place " one hour after noon," 
we may assume a deficiency of 21 days; and that the Great Year ended 
(21 x 4=) 11 years previously, or in A. D. 128 : 

From this date, counting backwards (1540 — 128 — 1, the latter 
deduction being required on reversing the order of reckoning), we 
obtain, 

for the commencement of this Great Year, B. C. 1413. 

" Apion placed the Exodus in the 1st yr. 7th Olympiad" (B. C. 751, Clinton), 

662 ( — 2=a phoenix). 

Compare with this, the date of the alleged "burning of Bocchoris 
by Sabaco ;" and Lysimachus' placing " the Exodus under Bocchoris " 



160 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

(referring however to a much earlier date than B. C. 751). Compare 
also, the Era of Nabonassar, "B. C. 747:" and the Building of Borne, 
placed by Fabius Pictor (the earliest Roman historian) "in the first 
year of the eighth Olympiad," or at the commencement of the Era of 
Nabonassar: Polybius, however, places the Building of Rome "in the 
second year of the Seventh Olympiad" (the spring of B. C. 750, Clinton, 
Fast. Hellen. iii. In trod. 19); while Varro's computation, "the third 
year of the Sixth Olympiad" (B. C. 753), coincides with the date 
obtained above from Ptolemys' Observation of the equinox ; for 

B. C. 1413— B. C. 753=660 (=a phoenix). 

Pliny xxx. 3, makes the following statement, " DCLVII 

demum anno urbis Cn. Cornelio Lentulo P. Licinio Crasso Coss. senatus- 
consultum factum est ne homo immolaretur : at length in the 657th 
(+ 3 =660) year of the City, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus and P. Licinius 
Crassus being consuls, a decree of the senate was passed, that a man 
should not be sacrificed." The consuls are the same named in Pliny 
x. 2, where Manilius states of the phoenix and Great Year: "Et fuisse 
ejus conversionis annum prodente se P. Licinio Cn. Lentulo consulibus 
ducentesimum quintum decimum: and the year of its revolution, P. 
Licinius and Cn. Lentulus being consuls, was the 215th:" 

These consuls are placed by Clinton in B. C. 97 

End of the Great Year (by Ptol. Obs.), in A. D. 128 (—1)= 127 

224 years ; 

making a surplus over the i phoenix, corresponding very nearly to the 
five years' deficiency given by Manilius. It would seem, therefore, that 
the Romans, while supposing they were reckoning their years from 
the Building of the City, really dated from an Egyptian phoenix. 

The Second Era of Gaza may deserve examination in connexion 
with the ending of the Great Year. This Era " commenced in A. D. 
130;" in the same year, Hadrian visited Egypt and left an inscription 
on the Vocal Memnon at Thebes ; which is still legible, and is dated in 
" the fifteenth year of his reign, the 24th of the Egyptian month Athyr, 
and the 25th of the Roman month November" (see Clinton). 

7. From various considerations, some of them already mentioned, 
it has been inferred, that the Great Year in question commenced in 
the reign of Meneptha Sethos: a Pharaoh placed by Lepsius at the 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 



161 



head of the Nineteenth Dynasty. Manetho's numbers (as transmitted 
by Julius Africanus, Syncellus, and Routh), below the Nineteenth 
Dynasty inclusive, are as follows, 



"XIX. 


Theban . 




209 yrs. 


XX. 


Theban 




185 




XXI. 


Tanite . 




130 




XXII. 


Bubastite 




116 




XXIII. 


Tanite . 




89 




XXIV. 


Saite 




6 




XXV. 


Ethiopian 




40 




XXVI. 


Saite 




150J 




XXVII. 


Persian . 




124! 




XXVIII. 


Saite 




6 




XXIX. 


Mendesian 




20| 




XXX. 


Sebennyte 




38" 


by Modern computation, 


Add, "XXXI. 


Persian" 


(Africa- 




Persians reconquered Egypt (Clinton) 


nus?) 






"9" 


"B.C. . . 350 


Alexander conq. Egypt (i 


vrongly 




(Alexander conq. Eg. "B. C. 332," 


placed by Syncellus in) 


<B. C. 


339" 


the correct date, Clinton and others.) 


End of Great Year (by Ptol. Obs.) 




End of Great Year (by Ptol. Obs.), 


A. D. 128 ( 


-1) = 




127 

1539i 


A. D. 128 (—1) = . 127 
154H 



On a monument, discovered and figured by Cailliaud, Ramses II. 
(the son of Meneptha Sethos) is represented receiving the symbols of 
two Great Years. It appears therefore, that in B. C. 1413, the Egyp- 
tians believed, that two Great Years had been counted out. This 
corresponds with the statement of the priests to Herodotus ii. 142 ; 
and will place the commencement of the Egyptian Chronological 
Reckoning (1540 x 2 + 1413) in B. C. 4493. Now, 



Manetho's first book contained, 
Manetho's second book contained, 
Manetho's third book contained, . 



."2308 yrs. 70 days." 
. "2121" (=660 + 1461) 
. "1050." 



Add, XXXI Dyn. Persian, (Africanus ?), " 9 ' 
Alex. conq. Egypt (wrongly placed by 

Syncellus in) "B.C 339 : 

End G. Y. (Ptol. Obs.) A. D. 128 (—1)= 127 



Deduct, the above-obtained Commence- 
ment, B. C. 



by another computation, 
Persians reconq. Eg. (Clin- 
ton), "B. C. . . . 350" 
Censorious' End of G. Year, 
"A. D. 139" (— 1)== 138 
5967 
4493 



5954 
4493 
1461 yrs. 70 days. 



1474 



A surplus of 1461 years has thus become evident in the Syncello- 

41 



162 



CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATION 



Africano-Manetho Table of Chronology. The separate Dynasties, 
however, do not give the same result : though the presence of a large 
surplus may be inferred ; from the years of the Ninth, Tenth, and 
Eleventh Dynasties, equalling those of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth; 
and from the discrepancy in the length of Shepherd rule, in Josephus' 
quotation from Manetho. From the Eighteenth to the Seventh 
Dynasties inclusive, we count 2812 yrs. 70 days, an excess over a 
Great Year of 1272 yrs. 70 days; and these precise results will be 
found expressed by the separate Dynasties, if they are arranged in the 
following manner : 



"VII. Memphite, . . 


yrs. 70 days. 






IX. Heracleopolite, 


. 409 






X. Heracleopolite, 


. 185 






XI. Theban, . . . 


. 43 


VIII. Memphite, 


. 146 yrs 


Ammenenie, 


. 16 


XII. Theban, 


. 160 


XIV. Xoite, . . . 


. 184 


XIII. Theban, 


. 453 


XV. Shepherd, . . 


. 284 


XVI. Shepherd, 


. 518 


XVII. Shepherd and The! 


>an, 151 


XVIII. Theban, 


. 263" 



1272 yrs. 70 days. 



1540 yrs. 



The Second Great Year being thus accounted for, there remains a 
Third, before reaching the commencement of the Egyptian Chronology. 
Continuing backwards in the Table, we have, 



"I. Thinite, . . 

II. Thinite, . . 

III. Memphite, . 

IV. Memphite, . 
V. Elephantinite, 

VI. Memphite, . 

Not far off, is the number, . 



253 yrs. 
302 
214 
277 
248 
203" 
" 43 " (the yrs. of the XL Dynasty). 

1540 yrs. 



In the two last determinations, I was assisted by a suggestion of 
C. Muller : That the Nitocris, who closes the Sixth Dynasty, and "her 
yellow hair and red cheeks," and who (according to Herodotus) " was 
burned," refers to the phoenix (Fragm. Historic. Graec. vol. ii. p. 520). 
Let us now compare the names, N/t^kpis; Kenx^, on the monuments 
HoNt-Re CHe, as read by Champollion (see Champollion-Figeac, 
Egypte Anc. p. 329); v>oxwf>"i or b *yx*'P'<, pronounced BoNCHoRis; and 
aCHeRNaR, the Arabic name of the bright star in the constellation 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 1(33 

Phoenix : the terminal t being the sign of the Feminine in the An- 
cient Egyptian language, and the radical consonants KNR occurring 
in all the above names, we have in fact but one word differently dis- 
guised. 

8. The concluding chapter of Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy 
contains some remarks on the so-called "Julian Period;" a device, 
said to have been received "by Scaliger from the Greeks of Constan- 
tinople ; "and " found so useful, that the most competent authori- 
ties have not hesitated to declare that, through its employment, light 
and order were first introduced into chronology." On examination, 
the so-called "Julian Period" proves to be adapted to the meridian 
of Alexandria ! 

Its initial point is placed at "B.C. 4713," 

deduct the above Commencement of Egyp. Chronology, B. C. 4493, 

220 (= | phoenix); 

and the remainder, amounting precisely to a third of a phoenix, implies 
absolute connexion. 

9. The Old Egyptian Chronicle, at first, does not appear to } r ield 
such satisfactory results : for we count, 

Below and including the XIX Dyn., 105G yrs. 
Add, Persians reconquered Egypt 

(Clinton), "B. C 350" 

End C. Y. (by Ptol. Obs.) A. D. Censorinus' End of G. Year, 

128 (—1)= 127 "A.D. 139 "(— 1)= 138 

1533 yrs. 1544 yrs. 

On adding together the years given in the Old Egyptian Chronicle, 
we find 

The total number, . . 36,341 (+1540=23 G.Y. 921 yrs.) 
According to Syncellus, 

the number aimed at, 

was "1461 x 25 = . 36,525"(-f- 1540=23 G.Y. 1105 yrs.) 
Add, the Diocletian Era, 

commencing " A. D 284" 

2310 (=1JG. Y.). 
Now, the Diocletian Era is the one used at the present day by the 



164 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

Copts : and we may yet be obliged to appeal to Modern Egypt, and 
the current Reckoning there, to recover the connecting points in our 
own Chronology.* 

10. It appears, from the Old Egyptian Chronicle, as well as from the 
Africano-Manetho Table of Chronology, that the numbers 1540 and 
1461 were both used by the Egyptians in measuring time. Possibly, 
the latter number may not always stand for years: for there are 
(3651x4=) 1461 days in a quadrennium of our own Calendar; and 
one hundred of our Calendar years contain "1461x25 = 36,525" 
days ; a sum, which, by changing the place of the comma, becomes 
the decimal expression of 365L 

The Egyptians have long used a Fixed Calendar; and, as de- 
scribed by Lane and others, it does not materially differ from our own. 
When Augustus visited Alexandria (in B. C. 30), the Egyptian New 
Year fell on "the 29th of August:" and in modern times, a similar 
arrangement has been found to exist in several Oriental Calendars. 
The origin of the practice appears to be connected with the Egyptian 
Sacred Numbers, 40 and 70; the 29th of August, being forty days 
after the Rising of Sirius (July 20th), and seventy days after the 
Solstice. In Modern Egypt, we find the New Year no longer "seventy" 
days from the Solstice; and we thus acquire the means of testing the 
reality of Precession. 

Leyjsius is said to have traced the Egyptian Fixed Calendar as far 
back as the Building of the Pyramids. However this may be, the 
sign of the quadrennium occurs on the very earliest monuments, and 
implies, that the Egyptians kept a record of the natural tears : 
either by the approximation of a fourth year intercalation ; or they 
may have used a simple enumeration ; the same, perhaps, that after- 
wards among the Greeks was continued as the " Olympiads." 

11. The Ancient Egyptians also enumerated the lunations : using 
for this purpose a short Lunar Calendar ; which has been traced by 
Lepsius as far back as the Twelfth Dynasty, and is perhaps the one 
continued at the present day by the Muslims. This short Lunar 

* Some ambiguity arises, in consequence of the Dionysian Era (already noticed in the 
preceding pages) commencing 284 years before the Christian Era; while the Diocletian, 
commences 284 years afterwards. Whichever Era may have been employed in con- 
nexion with the Old Egyptian Chronicle, the substitution will produce no change in the 
main results. 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 165 

Calendar was not unknown to the Ancient Hebrews ; as will appear, 
on comparing the following names of months : * 

HEBREW. MUSLIM. 

2. VI, Ziou, or Zif (1 Kings vi. 1 and 37), 2. Suf'ax. 

8. Sn, BaocX, or Bui (1 Kings vi. 38), . 3. Eaiee'a e?-Ow'wal. 
V?X, EXouX, or Elul (Neh. vi. 15, and 

1 Mace. xiv. 27), 5. Gooma'd el-Ow'wal,orGooma'da-7-0o7a. 

7. D'jfiX, Adaviv, Ethaniin (1 Kings viii. 2), 6. Gooma'd et-Ta'nee, or Gooma'd«-?-7V- 

niyeh. 

2siouaX (Baruch), 10. Show'wa'l. 

12. The Third Calendar used by the Egyptians, or the "Sacred" 
Calendar, which enumerated the days, has been already noticed. It 
should however be observed, that this Enumeration was regulated and 
greatly aided by means of thirty-six " deccans ;" each bearing a sepa- 
rate name, and consisting of ten days. 

13. On proceeding now to our minor divisions of time, the following 
coincidences may be remarked : 

The radius of a circle has been found to describe a hexagon within 
the circumference. 

From remote and unknown Antiquity, it has been the practice, to 

* In regard to the date couveyed by the terms in which tbe Exodus is narrated, It is 
clear, That the event took place when the Egyptian month Abib fell in the Spring. But 
the statement in Ex. ix. 31 and 32, seems to refer to some local peculiarity, that may 
designate the season within yet narrower limits. According to the Jewish mode of cele- 
brating the Passover, the earliest date for the Exodus, 

April 12 + May 31 + June 30 + July 19 = 92 
Abib 16 + Misra 30 + Epagomena 5, . =51 

41 
4 1413 B. C. 

1460 : 1539 : : 164 : 172|J|, 

may be placed at about B. C. 1240 ; 

if, however, as modern Astronomers assert, the Rising of Sirius really recedes from the 
Equinox, this, perhaps, might place the Exodus some fifty years earlier. For the present, 
I shall only remark, that another element remains to be considered, before we can 
positively fix the date : Moses would naturally select the time of full-moon for a journey 
in the Desert, but the Egyptian month Abib is not a lunar month. That the Abib in 
question was the well-known Egyptian month bearing that name, appears from the esta- 
blishment of Pentecost; celebrated for the first time, as will be seen above, on the last 
day of the Egyptian Year. 

42 



IQQ CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

divide the circle into 360 degrees (= 6 X 6 x 10, or the square of 
6 X 10) ; and the quarter of the day into the same number of minutes: 
making 1440 (= sq. 6 x 40) minutes for the entire day. 

The fractional quantity which would join the two ends of the cycle 
of time, has been given above, as £ d — J 7 d = / TJ 3 g d =:341|f m . These 
minutes, when expressed as a whole number (26,280 seventy-sevenths 
m.), are divisible only by 360. 

The Proportion of "113 : 355" is well known as an approximation 
to the ratio of the diameter to the circumference ; and is commonly 
supposed to have been discovered by Archimedes. The first of these 
numbers proves to be the counterpart of the last employed fraction 
added to a quarter of a day, for i d + || d = 410i° m = 4520 elevenths 
m. = 40x 113. 

Here, we again find the "sacred number" 40; and if we multiply 
together the squares of these two fractional quantities (sq. 341§f m x sq. 
410} £ m ), we shall include the square of 1440, or of the number of 
minutes in a day. 

On recurring to the Proportion which gives the irregularity in the 
revolutions of Jupiter's satellites, one of the portions of the quarter of 
a day (i d — 19 /^y" =) 340/jyy", is found to be divisible by 360; 
and also by 11 ; while the complemental portion, if left unreduced 
(19^~^fo m ) and expressed as a whole number, is itself the square 
of 1440. On attempting to divide the square of 1440 by 11, the re- 
mainder is found to be T ] T ; and it may also be remarked, that the sum 
of the two portions (=360 x 1337 x 80) is divisible by 7. 

Multiplying this unreduced quarter by 1440 divided by the first mem- 
ber of the Proportion, gives 360 x 1337 x 80 x 79{|J = 3,073,593,600 
= sq. 36 x sq. 1540 =sq. 24 x sq. 2310; and the same result is obtained 
from all fractions, not exceeding i, that can be expressed in minutes 
or 77ths of a minute. The unconformable fractions require multi- 
plying by the first denominator ; thus, 

1420/2 1440 ^40 . 1R . ftv1! , w 

— — mi. : : , gives sq. 36 x sq. 1540 x 1337. 

77 77 77 & * ^ 

14. A standard measure of time should follow the properties of 
number: and it may already have been perceived, that lh Egyptian 
Great Years (= 2310 = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11) are composed of the in- 
divisible elementary numbers multiplied together. 

It now appears, that 2310 is a universal number ; divisible by each of 
its component elements, and by every combination of two or more of 



ON INTRODUCED ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 



167 



them; the quotient in all instances consisting of the omitted elements. 
Further, on the introduction of a new quantity, multiplying the uni- 
versal number by the same, will maintain these results. 

In the following examples, the element 11 is left out of the calcu- 
lation; as the remainder, 210 (=2x3x5x7), forms a quantity easily 
multiplied, and easily kept in mind : 



DIVISOR. 


DIVIDEND. 






QUOTIENT. 


7 


210 




(2 


X 3x5 = )30 


14 ( = 7x2) 


210 






(3x5=) 15 


21 ( = 7X3) 


210 






(2x5=) 10 


28 ( = 7x4 = 7x2x2) 


(X2 = ) 420 






(3x5 = ) 15 


35 ( = 7X5) 


210 






(2X3=) 6 


42 ( = 7X6 = 7X2X3) 


210 






5 


49 (=7X7) 


(X7 = ) 1470 




(2 


X 3x5 = )30 


56 ( = 7x8 = 7x2x2x2) 


(X2x2 = ) 840 






(3X5 = ) 15 


63 ( = 7x9 = 7x3x3) 


(X3 = ) 630 






(2 x 5 = ) 10 


70 ( = 7x10 = 7 X2x5) 


210 






3 


77 ( = 7X11) 


(X 11=) 2310 




(2 


X 3x5 = )30 


84 ( = 7x12 = 7x2 X3 x 2) 


(X2=) 420 






5 


91 ( = 7X13) 


(X 13 = ) 2730 




(2 


X 3 x5 = )30 


98 ( = 7x14 = 7x2x7) 


(X 7 = ) 1470 






(3 x5 = )15 


105 ( = 7x15 = 7x3x5) 


210 






2; 


io, with the number 6, and its multiples ; 








DIVISOR. 


DIVIDEND. 






QUOTIENT. 


6 ( = 3x2) 




210 




(5x7=) 35 


12 (-— 6x2 = 3 X2X2) 


(X2=) 


420 




(5x7 = ) 35 


18( = 6x3 = 3x2x3) 


(X3=) 


630 




(5x7 = ) 35 


24 ( = 6x4 = 3x2 X2 X 2) 


(X2X2=) 


840 




(5x7 = ) 35 


30 ( = 6x5 = 3x2x5) 




210 




7 


36 ( = 6x6 = 3x2x2x3) 


(X 2X3=) 1260 




(5 X 7 = )35 


42 ( = 6x7 = 3 X2X7) 




210 




5 


48 ( = 6x8 = 3x2x2x2x2) 


(X2x2x2 = ) 1680 




(5x7 = ) 35 


54 ( = 6x9 = 3x2x3x3) 


(X 3x3=) 1890 




(5x7 = )35 


60 ( = 6x10 = 3 X2x5x2) 


(X2=) 


420 




7 


66 ( = 6x11=3x2x11) 


(x 11=) 2310 




(5x7 = ) 35 


72 ( = 6x12 = 3x2x2x2x3) 


(x 2 x 2 x 3 = ) 2520 




(5 x7=)35 


78 ( = 6 X 13 = 3x2 x 13) 


(x 13 = ) 2730 




(5x7 = )35 


84 ( = 6x14 = 3x2x7x2) 


(X2 = ) 


420 




5 


90 ( = 6x15 = 3x2x5x3) 


(x3=) 


630 




7; 



in like manner, we may go through the remainder of the Multiplica- 
tion Table; and mentally supply divisible numbers, for quantities 
that at first appear inconveniently large. 



168 CHRONOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

On further examining the properties of the indivisible elementary 
numbers, it may be remarked, that 2 and 5 can in a measure be con- 
cealed in 10 ; that 11 furnishes, as it were, two separate pivots for the 
change of elements (as T * T + i£ = ? 4 ? + %% = 1) ; and that there remain 
in fact but two working elements, 3 and 7; the sum of which, is also 10. 

I do not know, how far the above analysis of numbers may have 
been previously noticed. The circumstance, that the Ancients rarely 
made use of "fractions," has been pointed out to me: and from what 
I witnessed among the people of Hindostan, I was led to suspect 
the practice there of arithmetical processes which are unknown to 
Europeans. 

15. An Astronomical fact remains to be mentioned. In Greece, the 
atmosphere is so clear, that the stars are visible to the very edge of 
the horizon. When sailing among the Greek islands, I was much 
impressed with the spectacle presented by the constellation of the Great 
Bear, the lowest of the bright stars not quite reaching the surface of 
the ocean. It immediately occurred to me, that the same scene is 
described by Homer (see II. xviii. 489, and Od. v. 275) : to the dis- 
proving of an assertion, repeated in works of high standing; that even 
at a later date than the clays of Homer, The star we call the pole-star 
"was twelve degrees from the pole." 

That the axis of the Earth has pointed to about the same place in 
the heavens ever since the days of Homer, is further proved from 
Posidonius ; who gives a list of places along the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, where on proceeding south the star Canopus first becomes 
visible (see his statement, as quoted by Cleomedes ii. 10, and by 
Strabo ii.). I do not know, whether any verification of these obser- 
vations has been made in Modern times ; but I am persuaded that if 
a change has taken place, it will prove to be extremely slight. 



INDEX. 



FOREIGN WORDS. 



Aatharilal, 121. 
Abitheran, 115. 
Abtykbym, DTVCMK, 14. 
Afiporovov, 78. 
Abuscham, 38. 
Acer gallicum, 95. 
Ayspioiq, 41. 
Achilel ruelicb, 43. 
A'ds, 32. 
A'ds el-ma, 90. 
AyaMidat;, 51. 
AyalXoyov, 93. 
Ayyouva, or yyourra, 65. 
Aypioaefovov, 91. 
Aypuifrris, 76. 
Agwz, tux, 39. 
Aegtoov fuxpovj 90. 

A<paxi}, 77. 

Atyetpmo fiaxeSvTjS, 41. 

Atyetpoq, 26. 

Adoupos, 52. 

Atfsywopsvyj, 75. 

Ajes, or axes, (Aborig. Araer.), 135. 

Axaxafos, 92. 

AxaXvjcpyj, 64. 

AxavOai Xeuxai, 60. 

AxavOai pskavai, 60. 

AxavOr], 60. 

^xav(9o?, 81. 

j4xoy(TOV, 70. 



Axopot;, 78. 
^•nj, 66. 
^.exru^, 24. 
J^(zaxa/3»s, 81. 
AXiapa, 90. 
,4/*e«, 90. 

Almgym, D'Jo^x, 38. 
Aloe, 88. 
AXOaia, 79. 

AXu<T(TOV, 85. 
Akw-exoopoq, 76. 
Amama, 72. 
Aij.apa.xos, 67. 
Amarantbus, 88. 
Ambar, 118. 
Ambar, 88. 
ApfiXey, 110. 
Aji[3po<jia, 91. 
Ameum, 112. 
J/jt/jit, 68. 
ApL/Movtaxov } 92. 
Appovoq, 94. 
AfxopytSoc;, 65, 

ApLCUpOV, 72. 

Amomon berba, 94. 
Anacardi, 122, 139. 
ylvoya.M^, 51. 
Jva^a^J.j? evudpoq, 94. 
AvdpayvT), 75. 
^vfyfi^a^, 79. 



INDEX. 



Auefio^opTov, 90. 

Av£[HOV1) } 60. 

Anjurat, 120. 
Anthriscum, 62. 

AvtffOV } 56. 
Avvrjzw, 53. 
Apium, 58. 
AtpuOiiD, 54. 
Argemonia, 89. 

ApiffzuXoyia, 71. 

Arjan, or arjuna (Mahratta), 121. 

ApfiaXa, 41. 

Apvafiu), 96. 

ApvoyX.uioaov, 79. 

Aprsixiffta, 71. 

J^rurt/oj, 105. 

Anapov, 82. 

Askiitasquasb (Aborig. Amer.), 142. 

Askyl, 55. 

Airrakas, 80. 

Aff^apayoq, 59. 

Asparagus, 59. 

ArrrpiO'j, 94. 

Athl, 114. 

Azpaya&s, see wjdpa<pak~tq. 

Atrum olus, 72. 

Axes, or ajes, (Aborig. Amer.), 135. 

Axies (Aborig. Amer.), 135. 

Ayakbouh, 46. 

Azwb, 3i;x, 34. 

Bachra, 69. 
Bachur, 55. 
Badingan, 112. 
Babman, 116. 
Bakar, 154. 
Bakla, 76. 

Ba/.yaptq, 55. 

BaXavos pupe<{'txy, 75. 

Bale, or ball (Bengali), 116. 

BaXw, 37. 

Ball, or bale (Bengali), 116. 

Bamiat, 115. 

Batatas (Aborig. Amer.), 134. 

Bazoq, 45. 

Bazpaywv, 70. 

Barpay.ov aypioasXtvuv, 91. 



BkULtm, 31. 

Bdlkh, nVia, 31. 

BsXtXay, 110. 
BsXiw, 37. 
Bernice arbor, 127. 
Bersym, 76. 
Besilleh, 64. 
Bisch, 70. 
Bkr, 133, 154. 
BXiymv, 64. 
BXtzov, 64. 
BoXpos, 64. 
Booza, 19. 
Botm, 34. 

Borpuq aprqusM, 91. 
BouyAoxTffov, 92. 
BoupeXia, 42. 
Bouvtadaq, 59. 
BouTrXeupov, 82. 
BoutpOaXpov, 84. 
Br, 13, 33. 
Bras (Malay), 74. 
Bpopoq, 71. 
Bryt, ma, 53. 
Bshm, D»3, 38. 
Btnym, D"JB3, 34. 
Btzlym, n ,l 7X3, 12. 
Buglossa, 119. 
Bui, or bwl, Sl3, 165. 
Burr, 34. 

Cafur, or kafur (Bengali), 109. 

Calamus Alexandrinus, 75. 

Carafs, 45. 

Carduus nondum fullonibus aptus, 

Chaenopadas, 85. 

XaXftayq, 35. 

Xap.at.dpuq, 77. 

XapatptjXov, 67, 91. 

Xap.amtzuq, 82. 

XeXidovtov zuavsiovj 79. 

Chicborium, 57. 

Chortinon, 94. 

Chouk, 37. 

XpuaujSaX.avoq, 97. 

Xpuaoq'uXuv, 53. 

Cicutae, 119. 



FOREIGN WORDS. 



Cimex, 63. 
Cimini carmeni, 120. 
Convolvulus, 95. 
Coriandrum, 69. 
Corrago, 92. 
Cotula, 130. 
Croton, 61. 
Cyanus, 94. 

Aauxot;. 

Aaoxoq xpyrixos, 78. 
Aa<pvr], 44. 
Aa<pvq aXezavdpeia. 
Dbywnym, D'Jv;n, 46. 
Dend, 113, 
Deyl el-far, 118. 
Dgn, \li, 33. 
Dianthi, 129. 
Aixrapvoq, 72. 
Dima ayoub, 106. 
AuJ'axos, 93. 

Diwdar (Bengali,) 120 
Dkhn, jm, 33. 
Dokhn, 22, 33. 
AoXt X o<;, 69. 
Dourra, 98. 
Draconis saniem, 66. 
Dracunculus, 71. 
Dragon tea, 112. 
Apaxuvrtov, 71. 
Drdr, l"m, 32. 

Eiffjixepov, 78. 
Eiptocfft ajzo £;uXu } 54. 
flam, 32. 
EXaia aiOioTitxr], 92. 
EXato/xsXt, 42. 
EXayoftoaxov, 93. 
EXarrjpcov, 58. 
HXexrpov, 46. 
HXtozpomov, 79. 
Efo%pu<Tu>, 52. 
EXXeflopos, 65. 
Elul, or alwl, Si 1 ?**, 165. 
EXt-ivy xiaaaiinekoS) 90. 
H/iepoxaXXec, 59. 
Evdpoaxov, 62. 



ExiOupov, 71. 

EpefitvOoq, 41. 

Ep-uXXos, 59. 

Eruca, 76. 

EpuirtfiLov, 76. 

EpuOpoSavovy 68. 

EaitepiS, 76. 

Ethanim, or atnym, o'inx, 165. 

EuavOsfioVy 68. 

Eu<popj3u», 88. 
Eu^wp.ov, 76. 

Fabula, 37. 

Qaxoc; o erj TsXparmv, 90. 

QaXapiq, 90. 

Far, 34, 42. 

<Pa<n]Xns, 64. 

Faselum vilem, 64. 

<Paiy/yoyopTov, 83. 

Faurum, 42. 

Fawfal (Mahratta), 109. 

Fel, 116. 

tfeMoc, 58. 

Festok, 75. 

QiXXupsa, 92. 

#^y/sa, 63, 

QXoyto'j, 60. 

0Xo/xo<;, 63. 

Flos siriacus i flos malvae, 127. 

0O£V(f, 91. 

Fool, 37. 
#ow, 57. 
<2W, 68. 
Frasioun, 77. 
Fuji, 111. 
<Puxos, 54. 
#yA«>j, 80. 

Galia muscata, 122. 
Garna, 79. 
Garyopbyllon, 94. 
r^uuffa, 65. 
Gelisia, 95. 
Gentiana, 84. 
FepavtoVf 79. 
rr]6oXXidas, 56. 
F-qduov, 12. 



NDEX. 



Ghobbeyreh, 61. 
Gios, 39. 
Glastum, 87. 

rxrjxcav, 51. 

rkuxuppi^a, 77. 
rXuxoaidrj, 54. 

Gml, hey, 75. 

royyukv;, 55, 64. 

Goomad el-owwal, or goomada-1-oola, 165. 

Goomad et-tanee, or goomada-t-taniyeh, 165. 

Gramen Arabum, 75. 

Grana paradisi, 124. 

Gromphaena, 95. 

Gutran, 43. 

Gutteh, 14. 

Habhasis, 79. 

Hadak, 39. 

Haledj, 143. 

Hamdhidh, 115. 

Hares, 116. 

Harnial, 41. 

Hbni (hieroglyph.), 19. 

Helbeh, 43. 

Hemsis, 39. 

Herba Britannica, 95. 

Herba impia, 94. 

Herbe Sancte Marie, 91. 

Hommos, 41. 

Hordeum murinum, 91. 

Homejg, 92. 

Horreyg, 92. 

Hour, 41. 

Hunesdarm, 123. 

Hyssopum, 119. 

I%0uoxo\\a, 61. 
fyuov, 40, 57. 
Indicum, 50. 
Indicum nigrum, 88. 
Intubum erraticum, 57. 
Ivv, 46. 
lov wypoVf 84. 
I-Tnzoaehvov, 72. 
Ipivov pupov, 67. 

//>(?, 67. 



Iffartq, 87. 
Isfanaj, 116. 
hea, 45. 

Jama, 79. 

Jawars (Mahratta), 98. 

Jemmel, 32. 

Kababat (Bengali), 113 

Kabar, 39. 

Kabsjie, 79. 

Kadi, 35. 

Kafal, 62. 

Kafur (Bengali), 109. 

Kahleh, 52. 

KaXa/.avOou, 99. 

hakap.ivOrj , 58. 

Kak.ap.oq eucodrjq, 75. 

KaX%av, 52. 

Kamraoun, 49. 

Kawafc, 61. 

Kantarian, 66. 

Ka-rtvos, 90. 

Kaxnapiq, 39. 

Kara estombouli, 142. 

Kara mogrebi, 142. 

Karawih, 92. 

KapSap.ov, 64. 

Kap3ap.mp.ov, 74. 

Kapdtoftoravov, 126. 

Karilli, 39. 

Ko.pvaftaScov, 55. 

Karnabid, 55. 

Kapoq, 92. 

Karpas (Bengali), 54. 

Kapua xspiTUT], 39. 

Kapua Ttovrtxa, 65. 

Kapuov (isytffTOv rov ivdtxov, 98. 

Ka.(TTavsia, 70. 

Katira, 77. 

Kau (hieroglyph.), 154. 

Kao/.ahq. 

Kauun, 48. 

Kdh, mp, 35. 

Kedpog, 43. 

Keera, or khiar (Bengali), 114. 

Ke<pak(orov, 56. 



FOREIGN WORDS. 



Keyxpoq, 33. 

Kevraupiov, 66. 

Kepaao%, 80. 

Keparta, 80. 

Kepwvia, 49. 

Keschut, 38. 

Khafur, 124. 

Kharub, 49. 

Khawlanjan, 112. 

Kb.dk, pin, 39. 

Khiar, or keera (Bengali), 114. 

Khiar janbar, 103. 

Khlbnh, naaSn, 35. 

Khrwl, Snn, 39. 

Kbth, nan, 14. 

Khwkb, nin, 37. 

Kms, 80. 

Kuua, 48. 

Kilkil, or kolkol, 109. 

Kivapa, 14. 

A'twafiap, 65, 66. 

Kiwap.iDp.ov, 35. 

Kiaaoq, 57. 

Acrpcov, 69. 

Kkrjdp-q, 44. 

Kmkh, nap, 10. 

Kmn, JD3, 49. 

Knmwn, pajp (Tamil), 35. 

Kohl, 23. 

KoxaXoq, 99. 

KoXXOpjjXoV, 55. 

Kofyuw, 78. 

Kolgas, 85. 

Kolkol, or kilkil, 92. 

KoXoxaffta, 85. 

KoXoxuvrrj, 31. 

KoXoxuvdrj aypirj, 69. 

KoXoxuvOts, or xoXoxuvOa aXecavdpivrj, 72. 

Kopapos, 81. 

Kujvswv, 37. 

Zowfy, 56. 

Aopiavvov, 69. 

Z»^ff, 63. 

Kupcovonouq, 79. 
Koroumb, 55. 

IlatTToS, 75. 
A<iUVflU7Zl8t, 55. 



Kourat, 57. 
Kpr, 133, 39. 

A~ pappy, 55. 
Kpaveta, 44. 
A/?;, and x/>!0ij, 13. 
Krkm, oro, 39. 

Apoxo-e-XuSj 43. 

A'poxoq, 25. 

Apop/iua, 12. 

Kpoppua xapra xaXoupsva, 56. 

A'po-ojv, 61. 

Krps, D3"0, 54. 

Krt, ma, 57. 

Ktzyowt, nip'Xp, 38. 

Koapoq, 41. 

Avp.ivov, 49. 

Auptvov aypiov STspov, 91. 
KuvoyXw/raoq, 84. 
A'ovopuia, 34. 
Ku7:apt(T(Toq, 44. 
Ko-stpoq, 45. 
A'u-etpoq iv3uo<;, 39. 

Au-pos, 73. 

Kurcum, 39. 

Kurras, 120. 

Kurth, 94. 

Kus, 32. 

Kykywn, p'p'p, 48. 

Kymwsh, and krnsn, BnDp, BflD'p, and 



Ladanum, 62. 
Laden, 62. 
Lak, 116. 
yla-a0w, 57. 
il«-a0<,ii/ aypiov, 79. 
AaOupog, 69. 
Lbnb, nnS, 23, 33. 
Lebakh, 115. 
Lebakb el-gebel, 99, 
Lebleb, 113. 
Lectuli bestias, 63. 
iV«w,., 62. 
Lehibakb, 100. 
4 S{/ >j v, 45. 
ieTTt&ov, 91. 



INDEX. 



Aeuxrj, 41. 

Asuxotov, 76. 

Aeuxowv [ifjfovov, 84. 

Aifiavog, 23. 

Atfiavwrct;, 33. 

A tfiavwros, 62. 

A tyu<TTixov, 92. 

Lilium, 45. 

Limun (Bengali), 117. 

AlvoXioaztq, 66. 

Lissan el-hamal, 79. 

Iissan el-tour, 92. 

Aofloc;, 69. 

Lonh, nv 1 ?, 37. 

Awtos, 22, 43, 80. 

Louz, 33. 

Luban, 23. 

Lubanum, 33. 

Lubia, 69. 

Lubia frandji, 138. 

Luffah, 124. 

Auyoc;, 43. 

AuXLOV, 89. 

Auxwv vdtzov, 93. 
Auxoxepfftov, 97- 
Lutum, 87. 
Lwz, n 1 ?, 33. 
Lycium, 88. 

Maxep, 93. 
MaxoviStoy aprcovj 53. 
Malabrathrum, 83. 
Malays 46, 47. 
Malum, 42. 
MavSpayopoitf 66. 
Manga, 139. 
Mapa0ov } 57. 
Mardakusj, 67. 
%>ov, 92. 
Maseh, 47. 
MaZa, 47. 
MrjStxy], 28. 
Mtjxwv putas, 37- 
MeXavOiov, 53. 
Msksaypiq, 72. 
Melh afsantin, 54. 
OUto, 42. 



MeXdmros, 43, 60. 

iJ/eAtvT?, 60. 

MeXiaaoipuXXov, 77. 

Mekreta, 77. 

Mj/W, 42. 

Mfjlov xudwvtov, 42. 

Mr t lov prjStxov, 69. 

Mt]\ov -sptnxov, 69. 

Mercurialis herba, 66. 

AWaf, 62. 

Milseh, 60. 

Millefolium, 112. 

J/<v0ij, 55. 

Mish, 81. 

Mlwkb, mbD, 50. 

MwXo, 41. 

J/o^v, 29. 

Jfoogo?, 104. 

Mr, ID, and "liD, 34. 

Mrrym, D'-nn, 34. 

ftuta, 39. 

MmXxuvia, 88. 

Mullseab, 50. 

Mulukbia, 116. 

Mur, 35. 

Muralis herba, 77. 

Murreyr, 34. 

Mot, 49. 

Muscae spicula, 34. 

Najm, 124. 
Naphri, 103. 
Nana, 55. 

Naranj (Bengali), 117. 
Napdos, 40. 
NapSos tvStxoi;, 40. 
Napduc; xsXtixti, 57. 
Narjis, 47. 
Napy.iaaoZi 47. 
Nasturtium, 86. 
Nefyr, 103. 
A f c-- £ ^c-?, 43. 
Nepeta, 112. 
Neschusch, 49. 
Ngau (Chinese), 154. 
Notzwtz, Y^V : > 49. 
Nrd, T-iJ, 40. 



FOREIGN WORDS. 



Qypos, 69. 
Odsh, vnjf, 32. 
iixt/iov, 67. 
OXupa, 42. 
Olus atrum, 72. 
OiroitavaZ, 78. 

07TO? fLTjdlXOS, 73. 

Orb, my, 49. 
Opcyavov, 57. 
Opjtfo? f«Aa, 46. 
O/jo/30?, 70. 
0/wCa (Malay), 73. 
Oschar, 33. 
OSaXts, 84. 

OZua, 80. 
OgoaxavOa, 79. 

Ilaciovta, 54. 

IIavaS; yetpcuvtov, 78. 

Havaf; ypaxXetov, 77. 

Papas (Aborig. Amer.), 138. 

HapOeviov, 77. 

n-rfrmov, 64. 

IlevTayuXXou pt^wv, 66. 

Pentaphyllum, 66. 

77£^/)( (Malay), 68. 

IlsnXcov, 68. 

Z7 £ -/U<r, 68. 
ffemloc, 90. 
mpduuov, 77. 

Tlspi-koxada, 128. 
IlepcffTspswva, 83. 
77e,o<rea, 24. 
Jlepaixa, 81. 
Petalion, 83. 
Petroselinuni, 89. 
ZZtffe/lj, 64. 
Ilciriiv, 63. 
Pistacia, 75. 
IJtffzaxi, 75. 
77(To<r, 44. 
HXazaviaroq, 45. 
Ukazavoq, 45. 

Z7o/Uov, 46. 

IJoXuyovov, 84. 
HoXuxapTTOVj 82. 
Porruni sectivum, 57. 



Tlpaaiov, 77. 
Tlpaaov, 56. 
Presillum, 118. 
Prh, ma, 49. 

IlpOU'ST], 55. 

^tatfos, 11. 
iPbJUa, 37. 
Psyllion, 89. 
tfreAea, 44. 
/fofo?, 44. 
IIopsOpov, 84. 

Ilupoq, 33. 

Pwl, Via, 37. 
Pyrethrum, 84. 

/>«, 80. 

Rabeea el-owwal, 165. 

Radix, 111. 

Roetasrn, 37. 

/Vvo?, 60. 

Ramus, 9. 

Pafaviq, 59. 

Pa<pavos, 55. 

Raphaninum oleum, 59. 

Rapum, 64. 

Rash, and rwsh, tvjo, and BH, 37. 

Razela, 123. 

/>v, 80. 

Rheum barbarum, 106. 

Ribas, 116. i 

Ricinus, 61. 

Rigleh, 75. 

Rigl el-ghorab, 78. 

Rododaphne, 87. 

Rosam moscheuton, 130. 

Poos, 67. 

Rtm, Dm, 37, 51. 

Ryhau, 57. 

Ryteh, 53. 

Sadj (Mabratta), 74. 
Safsaf, 45. 
Zayaitrjvou, 82. 
Sayjivapia/iy 94. 
Sah (Japanese), 114. 
EavraXuv, 104. 
ZapxaxoXXa, 93. 



INDEX. 



Saffa/iuff 52. 

Secale, 42. 
Seigle, 42. 
ZeiouaX, 165. 
Selem, 18. 
Selica seuda, 93. 
SeXtvov eXeoOpsnrov, 45. 
Sehvov raftatov ) 58. 
Selk, 23. 
Semsem, 52. 
S W uda, 80. 
Septda, 57. 
%T)pixa } 73. 
2We/l;, 69. 
Setargi indi, 120. 
SsutXov, 23. 
Schea, 32. 
-^tvo?, 62. 
2%oivos, 75. 
Sena, 34, 107. 
2<paxov, 70. 
E(pev8aiivos, 63. 
Shorh, m^, 13. 
Showwal, 165. 
Shwshn, \ei\iO, 29. 
Shyeh, 32. 
Sbykb, WW, 32. 
Sibistan, 113. 
luua, 48. 
Zr/.uoc, 48. 

IWywv, 53, 73. 

Zd/uxunptutv, 61. 

2UW0W, 91. 

Sinapi, 55. 
Sisaban, 123. 
ZlToq, 10. 
2zaij.pM>na, 29. 

Zxavot-, 64. 
Zxc/./.a, 55. 

ExoXufios, 47. 

Zy.updtov, 86. 
&ry>0*a, 12. 

£co/»nov, 78. 

IxuOr/.rj piZttf 77. 
2/j.upva, 35. 
Snh, hjd, 34. 
H770?, 69. 



Sphasri, 76. 

Iizoyyoq, 46. 

Squash, see Askutasquash. 
Sschin (hieroglyph.), 29. 
■Tra^uAci'o?, 48. 
SrcKpuXivoq aypioq, 78. 

I-pw/vo<;, 76. 

Izpuyvoq UTZViod-qq, 71. 
IrpuOtou pi^-qZi 70. 
Erupaxa, 33. 
Succinum indicum, 88. 
Sufar, 165. 

-uxa/xtvoq, 29. 
Susann, 29. 

Tamalak, or tuniluk (Dongola), 125. 

Tamul, 109. 

Tanarita, 112. 

Tanbul (Mahratta), 109. 

Tartir, 32. 

Tat (hieroglyph.), 29. 

TavpeXeqxv;, 102. 

Taupos, 154. 

Teil, 118. 

TepeftivOtx;, 34. 

Termes, 41. 

Testudinum dorsa, 73. 

Terpayyoupov, 124. 

feyrAoi/, 23. 

Tbalisfar, 113. 

8a<J>m, 53. 

Tharkhun, 112. 

dtjXiHpovov, 78. 

6»;.aff^(, 70. 

Thour, 154. 

0pi8axa, 52. 

6uiJ.fi pa, 62. 

0waw, 65. 

0oov, 43. 

Thwr, -iin, 154. 

Tiffah, 39. 

TcOufiaXos rjXioffxomo^, 90. 

Toupxoi, 105. 

Tpwkb, man, 39. 

TpayaxavOa, 77. 
'J'payoiraiyov, 80. 
Tpipokoq, 77. 



FOREIGN WORDS. 



TptjioAos <poXXaxavOos, 34. 

Tpupukkov, 43, 60. 

Tumluk, or tamalak (Dongola), 125. 

Turea virga, 62. 

Tut, 29. 

Twkyym, D""on, and o"3in (Tamil), 38. 

Tzptzph, riDYay, 45. 

Tzry, n*, 33. 

Yaxivdoc;, 46. 
Uard, 40. 

Ydpapyupoq, 66. 

Ukhowan, 126. 
Yua/.uapot;, 67. 
Ynepaov, 66. 

Y<TG<i)-oq, 34. 

Vacca, 154. 
Vache, 154. 
Vara, 116. 
Venich, 123. 



Verbena, 83. 
Vettonica herba, 87. 
Virga aurea, 127. 

Savdiov, 91. 
SawOofiaXavos, 97. 

Yansoun, 56. 
Yasmin, 114, 120. 

Zakkoum, 107. 
Zarnab, 96. 
Zatar hendi, 120. 
Zea, 42. 
Zeytoon, 32. 
Zif, or zyw, rr, 165. 
Zingiber, 88. 
Zizypbus, 89. 
Zubbad, 122. 
Zymbane (Negro), 88. 
Zyt, n't, 32. 



INDEX 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Aahmes, 21. 

Aahmes II., or Amasis, 54. 

Abd Allatif, 18, 115, 117. 

Abd-el-Hamid, 151. 

Abd-el-Medjid, 153. 

Abd-el-Melek, 109, 110. 

Abix, 107. 

Abram, 113. 

Abubekr, 127. 

Abu Hanifa, 94, 98, 104, 109, 112, 115. 

Abu'l Abbas, 111. 

Abulfadli, 118. 

Abul-Fawaris, 119. 

Abulfeda, 50, 114, 118. 

Abuzeid, 98, 114. 

Achaeus, 47, 55. 

Acbmed, or Acbmet, 145. 

Achmed II., 148. 

Achmed III., 149. 

Acbmed Abu-1-Fetah, 130. 

Achoris, see Hakor. 

Acosta, 139. 

Actuarius, 94, 97, 103, 111. 

Adams, P., 82, 97, 107, 111, 113, 114, 117, 

118, 124. 
Adanson, 143. 
Adelard, 111. 
Adhed, 122. 

Adrianus, see Hadrianus. 
Aegineta, Paulus, 42, 54, 62, 66, 67, 68, 

70, 71, 79, 82, 87, 88, 90, 92, 93 to 96. 
JE\Mc, 121. 
Aelius Promotus. 70. 

45 



Aemilianus, 99. 

Aeneas Tacticus, 48. 

Aeschylus, 11, 24, 29, 55, 58. 

Aeschylus, the Archon, 48, 49. 

Aetius, 88, 93, 96, 104. 

Africanus, Julius, 36, 40, 48, 49, 51, 159. 

Agatharchides Cnidius, 63. 

Agathias, 105. 

Ahmed El-Mozaffer, 129. 

Ahrun, 107. 

Ainslie, 83, 109. 

Aiton, 146, 148, 151. 

Ajax, 46. 

Albasari, 107. 

Alcaeus, 48, 53. 

Alcman, 52, 53. 

Aldinus, Tobias, 145. 

Aldrovandus, 140. 

Alexander I., 58. 

Alexander III., 21, 58, 72, 74. 

Alexander IV., 74. 

Alexander Myndius, 58. 

Alexander Severus, see Severus. 

Alexander Trallianus, 105. 

Alexis, 69, 70. 

Ali, 108, 109. 

Ali-Bey, 151. 

Ali El-Mansur, 128. 

Alkanzi, 113. 

Allatafet, 102, 117. 

Alpinus, 12 to 145. 

Alsted, J. H., 50, 101, 104, 127. 

Alvarez, 117. 

Amasis, see Aahmes. 

Amatus Lusitanus, 124, 139. 



INDEX. 



Ameipsias, 59. 

Amenatep, Aminadab, or Amenophis, 22. 

Amenatep II., 25. 

Amenatep III., 26. 

Amenatep IV., 26. 

Amenemha, or Ammeneme, 16. 

Aineneinha II., 16. 

Amenemha III., or Amenemha Moeris, 19. 

Amenemha IV., 19. 

Amenophis, see Amenatep. 

Ammeris, see Amnerith. 

Amnerith, 50. 

Amos, 25, 33, 37. 

Amphis, 29, 59. 

Amphitryon, 36. 

Amru, 107, 108, 121. 

Amurath, see Murad. 

Amyrtaeus, see Meritetnacht. 

Ananias, 55. 

Anastasius, 104. 

Anatolius Berytius, 99. 

Anaxandrides, 69. 

Anaxilaus, 38. 

Andrews, 132. 

Andromaehus, 57, 72, 82, 83. 

Ange de Saint-Joseph, 33. 

Anguillara, 80, 138, 140, 141. 

Annaniah, or Annianus, 93. 

Antigonus of Carystus, 70, 72. 

Antiphanes, 29, 59, 63, 68, 69. 

Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, 97. 

Antoninus Pius, 97, 159. 

Antonius, 85. 

Antonius, M., 87. 

Apicius, 92. 

Apion, 159. 

Apollodorus, 75, 82. 

Apollodorus Carystius, 55. 

Apollonius Tyaneus, 98. 

Apries, see Hophra. 

Apuleius, 87, 121. 

Apuleius Barbarus, 72, 78, 92. 

Arcadius, 103. 

Archelaus, 88. 

Archestratus, 57, 64. 

Archimedes, 166. 

Aretgeus, 64, 69, 93, 99 



Aristohulus, 73. 

Ariston, 65. 

Aristophanes, 11 to 65. 

Aristophon, 39, 64, 70. 

Aristoteles, 17 to 72. 

Arnaldus, 127. 

Arrianus, 58, 73. 

Arses, 72. 

Artabanus, 60. 

Artaxerxes, see Artcheschsesch. 

Artcheschsesch, or Artaxerxes, 60. 

Artcheschsesch III., or Artaxerxes Ochus. 

70. 
Asa, 41. 
Assa, 13. 
Asclepiades, 68. 
Atai, or Othoes, 14. 
Athena;us, 14 to 82. 
Athothis, and Thoth, 4, 5, 6. 
Augustus, 87. 
Aurelianus, 100. 
Aurelius Claudius, see Claudius. 
Aurelius, M., see Antoninus. 
Averrhoes, 106. 
Avicenna, 18, 32, 47, 61, 77, 78, 81, 82, 

92, 94, 96, 98, 100, 104, 106 to 120. 
Azariah, see Uzziah. 
Aziz, 120. 



B. 



Bachman, J., 139. 

Bacon, Roger, 126. 

Bakui, 114, 118. 

Balbillus, 89. 

Balbinus, 140. 

Barcia, 138, 139, 143. 

Barakah-Khan, 126. 

Barkook, 128. 

Barrelier, 133, 138. 

Barsebay El-Aschraf, 129. 

Barthema, see Vertoman. 

Bartram, J., 139. 

Baudet, 119. 

Bauhiu, C, 62, 132, 133, 134, 137 to 

144. 
Beale, 118. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Beckmann, 35, 64, 98, 111, 123, 137, 140, 

144, 146. 
Belbay, 130. 
Belon, P., 34, 38, 41, 42, 44, 53, 57, 59, 

70, 75, 78, 80, 89, 91, 103 to 139. 
Belzoni, 28. 

Ben Masah, Isa, see Ibn Masah. 
Benzoni, Hieronymus, 140. 
Beslcr, B., 46, 138, 145. 
Beydarah, 127. 
Biot, 155. 

Birch, S., 6 to 52, 68, 102. 
Blake, J., 151. 
Boccone, 128, 147. 
Bonaparte, 152. 
Bonomi, J., 14. 
Bontius, J., 74, 75, 93, 110, 116, 117, 

124, 144, 146. 
Bory de St. Vincent, 12 to 141. 
Brancion, 142. 
Breynius, J., 149. 
Browne, 72, 122, 130, 143. 
Brunfels, O., 112, 126, 130, 137. 
Bruyerinus, John, 137. 
Bung, 140. 

Bunsen, 154, 158, 159. 
Busbecke, 140. 
Buxbaum, J. C, 150. 



C. 

Cadamosto, 117, 122, 129. 

Cadmus, 35, 36. 

Csesalpinus, A., 142, 143. 

Csesar, 32, 87. 

Cailliaud, 74, 88, 106, 122, 125, 143. 

Caius, see Caligula. 

Calamis, 58. 

Caligula, Caius, 89. 

Callimachus, 36, 48, 51. 

Callinicus, 109. 

Callisthenes, 17. 

Callixenus, 43, 44, 62, 63, 72, 76, 81. 

Cambyses, see Kembath. 

Camerarius, J., 61, 76, 123, 127, 133, 138, 

139, 140, 143. 
Capella, Michael de, 118. 



Caracalla, 98. 

C/arate, 138. 

Carinus, 101. 

Carus, 100. 

Castor Durantes, 141. 

Catesby, M., 149, 150. 

Cato, 29, 31, 39, 58, 59, 64, 66, 67, 83. 

Catullus, 63. 

Cavallini, 146. 

Cavanilles, 148, 150, 152. 

Celsus, 35, 4.0, 61, 66, 75, 77, 78 to 89. 

Censorinus, 161, 163. 

Cephisodorus, 55, 67. 

Chasremon, 67. 

Champollion, 5 to 162. 

Champollion-Figeac, 5 to 162, 

Chariton, 110. 

Charlemagne, 102, 111, 112. 

Charles Martel, 111. 

Chaubard, 43, 141, 147. 

Cheops, see Chufu. 

Chephren, see Schafra, 

Cheschearscha, or Xerxes, 58, 108. 

Cheschearscha, II., 63. 

Christophorus de Honestis, 122. 

Chufu, or Cheops, 11. 

Cicero, 45. 

Cieca, Petrus, 138. 

Claudius, 89. 

Claudius II., or Aurelius Claudius, 100. 

Claudius Iolaus, see Iolaus. 

Clearchus Solensis, 39. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, 4, 5. 

Clemens Romanus, 96. 

Cleomedes, 168. 

Cleopatra, 87. 

Cleophantus, 48. 

Cleyer, 147. 

Clinton, 17 to 164. 

Clot-Bey, 28 to 153. 

Clovis, 106. 

Clusius, 92, 133, 137, 138, 140 to 145. 

Clytus of Miletus, 72. 

Colarbas, 97. 

Columbus, 134, 135. 

Columella, 62, 64, 72, 75, 76, 81, 85 to 



INDE X. 



Columna, Fabius, 59, 145. 

Commelyn, J., 149. 

Commodus, 97. 

Constantinus, 66. 

Constantinus, 101, 102. 

Constantius, 101. 

Constantius II., 102. 

Cook, 151. 

Cordus, Valerius, 91, 122, 135, 138. 

Cornelius, see Lentulus. 

Cornuti, 145, 146. 

Cortusi, 141. 

Cosmas Indicopleustes, 82, 98, 104. 

Costus, 111. 

Crassus, P. Licinius, 160. 

Crates, 52. 

Crate vas, 83. 

Cratinus, 48, 52, 59, 60. 

Ctesias, 17, 33, 65, 68. 

Curtius, Quintus, 42, 73. 



Daher, 120. 

Dalechamp, J., 76, 112, 127, 133, 136, 138, 

142. 
Damogeron, 75, 102. 
Danaus, see Ramses III. 
Darius, see Nteriusch. 
David, 37. 
Decius, 99. 

De la Vega, G-arcilasso, 138. 
Del Barco, Martinus, 139, 143. 
Delile, 13 to 152. 
Delia Cella, P., 53. 
Deinochares, 62. 
Deinocritus, 99. 
Demosthenes, 57, 65, 66, 70. 
De Rouge, 14, 22, 27. 
De Soto, 138. 
De Sousa, Jao, 55, 124. 
Desvergers, 124, 126, 128. 
Dhafer, 122. 
Dbanvantare, 117. 
Diagoras, 43. 
Didius Julianus, 97. 
Didymus, 67. 



Dieuches, 48. 

Dillenius, J. J., 64, 144, 150. 

Diocles, 48, 57, 58, 64, 67, 79, 81. 

Diocletianus, 101. 

Diodorus, 4, 42, 63, 67, 86. 

Diodotus, Petronius, 78. 

Diomedes, 45. 

Dionysius Exiguus, 104. 

Dionysius Periegetes, 75. 

Dioscorides, 23 to 94. 

Diphilus, 54, 56, 80, 81. 

Djakmak, see Jakmak, 129. 

Djauhar Kaid, see Jauhar. 

Djemaleddin Yusuf, see Jemaleddin. 

Djenghiz-Khan, see Jengbiz-Kban. 

Dodonseus, R., 22, 82, 91, 106, 123, 130, 

132, 134, 137, 138, 140 to 142. 
Dombey, 151. 
Domitianus, 96. 
Domitianus, L. D. 7 100. 
D'Rosario, 55. 
D'Urville, 150. 

E. 

Edrisi, 74, 110, 114, 116, 117, 118 to 

122. 
Elagabalus, 73, 98. 
El-Amin, 112. 
El-Amr, 121, 122. 
Elgafaki, 114. 
El-Hadi, 111. 
El-Hafez, 122. 
Elburi, 113. 
Elijah, 37. 

Ellahabali, A. H., 115. 
El-Mahadi, 111. 
El-Mamun, 112, 113. 
El-Mansur, 111. 
Elnabati, A. A., 103, 115. 
Eltamini, 102, 118. 
Elthabari, 111. 
Elzabarawi, 121. 
Enoius, 83. 
Epaenetus, 56, 63, 82. 
Epicharmus, 24, 39, 40, 52, 55, 56, 57. 
Epilycus, 55. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Eratosthenes, 36. 

Erasistratus, 43. 

Eriphus, 69. 

Esther, 54. 

Eubulus, 29, 56, 59, 67, 68. 

Euclides, 7. 

Eudemus, 23. 

Euphorion, 60, 70. 

Eupolis, 38, 59, 60, 63. 

Euripides, 23, 62. 

Euryphon, 60, 65, 66, 67. 

Eusebius, 35, 48, 49, 50, 93. 

Eutyches, 104. 

Evenor, 81. 

Ezekiel, 32, 33, 35, 37, 45. 



Fabius Pictor, 160. 

Faradj, 128. 

Fatimah, 119. 

Fayez, 122. 

Fee, 87. 

Fenestella, 32. 

Feuillee, L., 150. 

Figari, 28 to 153. 

Fisher, T., 156. 

Flaccus, Publius Avilius, 89. 

Florentinus, 48, 55. 

Florianus, 100. 

Forskal, 13 to 151. 

Forster, 151. 

Fracastor, Hieronyinus, 134. 

Franciscus Pedemontium, 91, 122, 124. 

Fuchsius, L., 94, 122, 123, 126, 130, 131, 

134, 135, 137, 138. 
Fulton, 152. 

G. 

Galba, 93. 

Galen, 41, 48, 51, 56, 59, 61, 66, 68, 69, 

70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 79 to 82, 87 to 97. 
Galerius, 101. 
Gallienus, 99. 
Gallus, Cornelius, 87. 
Gallus, Trcbonianus, 99. 
Garcias, 40, 139. 
Garetus, 144. 

4G 



Gaza, Theodoras, 58. 

Gentius, 84. 

Gerarde, J., 70, 123, 127, 134, 138, 144. 

Germanicus, 30. 

Gesner, C, 132, 134, 137, 138, 140, 141. 

Gesenius, 29, 39, 49, 67, 100. 

Geta, 98. 

Gibson, 121, 144. 

Gittard, 87, 92, 141. 

Glaucias, 85. 

Glaucon, 82. 

Gliddon, 4, 30, 38, 45, 46, 67, 153, 155. 

Gomara, Lopez de, 134, 135, 138, 139. 

Gonsalvo Ferrand, 136. 

Gordianus Pius, 99. 

Graham, J., 39, 53, 74, 95, 96, 100, 107, 

110, 115, 116, 121, 125, 130 to 153. 
Granger, 59, 133. 
Gratianus, 102, 103. 
Greenhill, W. A., 82, 116. 



Hadji Saleh, 128. 

Hadrianus, or Adrian, 96, 160. 

Hakem, 120. 

Hakor, or Achoris, 67. 

Hales, 36. 

Haller, 96, 113, 132. 

Haly Abbas, 32, 98, 103, 107, 109, 113, 

117, 118. 
Harpocration, 60. 
Harris, A. C, 72. 
Harris, T. W., 138, 142. 
Harun-el-Rashid, 111. 
Hassan, 127. 
Hasselquist, 12 to 145. 
Hawkins, 67, 77, 92. 
Hecataeus, 56. 
Hegesander, 29, 65, 69. 
Helena, Flavia Julia, 101. 
Heliodorus, 98. 
Hellanicus, 60. 
Her, or Horus, 26. 
Heracleon of Ephesus, 70. 
Heraclides Tarentinus, 64. 
Heraclius, 106, 107. 
Herapath, 50. 



INDEX. 



Heresbach, Conrade, 137. 

Hercules, 36. 

Hermann, P., 147, 148, 149. 

Hermas, 34. 

Hermes, or Ermes, see Eamses II. 

Hermolaus Barbarus, 130. 

Hernandez, 145. 

Herodotus, 5 to 62, 108. 

Heron, 84. 

Herscbel, 156. 

Hescbam, 110. 

Hesiodus, 29, 36, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 52. 

Hezekiab, 50. 

Hicesius, 76. 

Hieronymus, 38, 100. 

Hildegard, 95, 123. 

Hippocrates, 58, 68, 69. 

Hipponas, 52, 55. 

Hobaiscb, 109, 113, 114. 

Hoisington, 38. 

Homerus, 5 to 46, 51, 52, 168. 

Honain, 104, 111, 113. 

Honorius, 103. 

Hopbra, Uapbres, or Apries, 54. 

Horapollo, 56, 60. 

Horatius, 74, 78, 83. 

Horus, see Her. 

Hosea, 29, 32, 33, 37, 39. 

Hoskins, 89. 

Hulagu Khan, 126. 

Humboldt, 135. 

Hyacintbus Ambrosinius, 145. 

Hyginus, 46. 

Hyperides, 72. 



Iambulus, 86. 

Ibek, 125. 

Ibn Amran, Isaac, 107, 109, 112, 113, 114. 

Ibn Baitar, 35, 77, 82, 94, 98, 103, 106, 

109 to 125. 
Ibn Elbozar, 116. 
Ibn Gnefitb, 103. 
Ibn Jamia, 117. 
Ibn Joljol, 120. 
Ibn Masab, 98, 114. 



Ibn Masawia, 103, 104, 107, 111, 112, 113. 

Ibn Redwhan, 94, 121. 

Ibn Samhun, 116. 

Ibrabim, 146. 

Ibrahim, 111. 

Ibycus, 44, 52. 

Idatius, 101. 

Ignatius, 96. 

Ikhschid, 118, 119. 

Imperatus, Ferrandus, 144, 145. 

Iolaus, Claudius, 85. 

Ion, 23, 55, 57. 

Iphigeneia, 36. 

Iphitus, 36, 48. 

Isaiah, 17 to 50. 

Isidorus Hispalensis, 72, 93, 106. 

Ismael, 122. 

Ismael-Bey, 150. 



Jacobus of Edessa, 104. 

Jakmak, or Djakmak, 129. 

Jauhar Kaid, 119. 

Jemaleddin Yusuf, 129. 

Jenghiz-Khan, 124. 

Jephthah, 36. 

Jeremiah, 23, 32, 33, 37, 53, 54. 

Jerome, see Hieronymus. 

Joannes de Sancto Amando, 91. 

Joannes Epiphaniensis, 105. 

Job, 29, 32, 37, 39, 49, 50, 51. 

Joel, 33, 39. 

Johnson, T., 134, 146. 

Jonah, 48. 

Josephus Flavius, 17, 20, 30, 31, 34, 36, 

38, 95, 108. 
Josselyn, 142. 
Jotham, 49. 
Jovianus, 102. 
Juba, 69, 88. 
Julianus, 102. 
Jussieu, 85. 
Justinianus, 105. 
Justinus, 104. 
Justinus II., 105. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Kaempfer, E., 139, 142, 146, 147, 148. 

Kafur, 118, 119. 

Kaher, 117. 

Kalaoon, 127. 

Kalm, P., 139. 

Kansu Abu-Said, 136. 

Kansu Djan-balat, 136. 

Kansu El-Gouri, 136. 

Kasimirski, 106. 

Kayt-Bay, 130, 134. 

Kembath, or Cainbyses, 56. 

Khalyl, 127. 

Klaproth, 121. 

Knorr, 150. 

Koromelas, A., 46. 

Koscbkadam, 130. 

Kotoz, 126. 

Koutchouk, 127. 

L. 

Lane, E. W., 129, 140, 165. 

Laodamas, 36. 

Laurentius, 129. 

Lenaeus, 86. 

Lentulus, Cn. Cornelius, 160. 

Leo, 104. 

Leo II., 104. 

Leo Africanus, 18, 79, 88, 104, 106. 

Lepsius, 4 to 48, 97, 160. 

Lerius, J., 142. 

L'Heritier, 151. 

Libanius, 103. 

Licinius, see Crassus. 

Linnasus, C, 46, 58, 139, 141, 143, 146, 

150, 151. 
Linschoten, 144. 
Lippi, A., 59, 143. 
Livius, 83. 

Livius Andronicus, 83. 
Lloyd, G., 143. 
Lobel, M., 72, 76, 84, 91, 93, 95, 112, 115, 

116, 119, 123, 130, 131, 133, 134 to 143. 
Loudon, 149. 
Loureiro, 93, 151. 
Lowell, 28. 



Lucanus, 73, 75. 
Lucianus, 70. 
Lucilius, 85. 
Lucretius, 66. 
Luke, 80. 
Lycurgus, 48. 
Lynch, 33. 
Lysimacbus, 159. 



31. 



Macer Floridus, 57, 68, 69, 79, 84, 96, 

112, 119. 
Macrinus, 98. 
Macrobius, 60, 63, 85. 
Madscbhul, 123. 
Magellan, 136. 
Magnol, 147. 
Mahmood, 150. 
Mahmood II., 152. 
Makrisi, 112, 115. 
Malachi, 53. 

Manardus, Johannes, 137. 
Manetho, 5 to 51, 159, 161, 162, 163. 
Manfredus de Monte Imperiali, 129. 
Manilius, 155, 160. 
Maroel, J. J., 107 to 152. 
Marcellus, 82. 
Marco Polo, 50, 118, 126. 
Mardoch-Empadus, 50. 
Marcgrave, G., 146. 
Marcianus, 103, 
Mark, 40, 93. 
Martialis, 23. 
Maserjawia, 47, 103, 109. 
Masudi, 109. 

Matthaeus Sylvaticus, see Sylvaticus. 
Matthew, 103. 
Matthioli, P. A., 31, 72, 81, 92, 93, 103, 

115, 116, 121, 122, 130, 131, 132, 133 

to 141. 
Matron, 69. 
Mauricius, 105. 
Maximinus, 98. 
Maximus, Pupienus, 99. 
Megasthenes, 61, 73. 
Mehemet Arabs, 114, 
Melanthius, 23. 



INDEX. 



Melek-Adel Seif-Eddin, 123. 
Melek-Adel II., 125. 
Melek-Aziz Othman, 123. 
Melek-el-Mansur, 123. 
Melek-Kamel, 124. 
Melek-Saleh, 125. 
Menander Protector, 105. 
Menecrates Elaita, 81. 
Meneptha Sethos, 27, 160. 
Meneptha II., 29. 
Meneptha III., 30. 
Menes, 5. 

Menkera, or Mycerinus, 12. 
Menodotus, 38, 72. 
Mentuatep, 14. 

Mentuatep II., or Mentuatep Nebtura, 15. 
Merenra, 15. 
Merian, S. M., 144. 
Meritetnacht, or Atnyrtaeus, 63. 
Merodaeh-Baladan, see Mardoch-Empadus. 
Merrira, 30. 
Merwan, 109. 
Merwan II., 111. 
Mesarguil, 109. 
Meseab, 109. 

Mesue, 81, 98, 106, 107, 109, 110 to 120. 
Micah, 32, 39. 
Miller, 151. 
Millington, J., 152. 
Miseaben, 107. 
Mithridates, 86. 
Mizraim, see Ramses II. 
Mnesimacbus, 63. 
Mnesitheus, 58, 70. 
Moez, 119. 
Mohammed, 106. 
Mohammed III., 144. 
Mohammed IV., 146. 
Mohammed Abu-1-Saadat, 135. 
Mohammed Ali, 152. 
Mohammed El-Mansur, 128. 
Mohammed Saleh, 129. 
Mohtadi, 114. 
Moktader, 117. 
Moktafi, 116. 

Monardes, N., 135, 136, 137, 140, 141, 
142, 143. 



Montaser, 114. 

Moses, 10 to 35, 36, 165. 

Mosih Ben Elhakam, 114. 

Morison, R, 147. 

Mostaali, 121. 

Mostakfi, 118. 

Mostain, 114. 

Mostain, 128. 

Mostanser, 121. 

Motadhed, 115. 

Motaki, 118. 

Motamed, 115. 

Motassem, 113. 

Motawakkel, 114. 

Motaz, 114. 

Mothi, 118, 119. 

Mu'awiyah, 109. 

Mu'awiyah II., 109. 

Muller, C, 68, 162. 

Munk, S., 117, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125. 

Murad III., or Amurath III., 143. 

Murad IV., 145. 

Musa, Antonius, 87. 

Musseus, 46. 

Mustafa, 145. 

Mustafa II., 149. 

Mustafa III., 151. 

Mustafa IV., 152. 

Mycerinus, see Menkera. 

Myrepsus, see Nicolaus. 

N. 

Nabonassar, 160. 

Nachtenra, 15. 

Nasvius, 83. 

Naser, 127. 

Nearchus, 73. 

Nechao, see Neku. 

Nechtneb, or Nectanebus, 68. 

Nechtneb II., 70. 

Nectanebus, see Nechtneb. 

Nefruatep, 19. 

Nefrukera, 13. 

Nefrukera II., 15. 

Neku, Nechoh, or Nechao, 53. 

Nentef II., 15. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Nepherites, 63. 

Nero, 89. 

Nerva, 96. 

Nicander, 46, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 65, 66, 

71 to 84. 
Nicolaus Damascenus, 52. 
Nicolaus Myrepsus, 81, 90, 97, 103, 110, 

111, 112, 126. 
Nicolaus Propositus, 91, 113, 122. 
Nicolo Conti, 50. 
Niederstedt, 50. 
Niger, Pescennius, 97. 
Nooreddin of Damascus, 123. 
Nooreddin Ali, 126. 
Nteriusch, or Darius, 28, 56. 
Nteriusch II., 63. 
Nteriusch III., 72. 
Numerianus, 101. 
Nuttall, 106, 152. 

O. 

Ochus, see Artcheschsesch. 

Oldenland, 148. 

Olivier, 133. 

Omar, 107. 

Omar II., 110. 

Oncsicritus, 73. 

Onias, 85. 

Oribasius, 65, 84, 88, 92. 

Orosius, 103. 

Orpheus, 48. 

Ortega, 151. 

Osman, or Otbman, 127. 

Osman II., 151. 

Othman, 108. 

Othinan, see Osman. 

Othman El-Mansur, 129. 

Otho, 93. 

Othoes, see Atai. 

Ouenephes, 6. 

Ovidius, 65, 75, 76, 81, 83. 

Oviedo, 135, 137. 



Palladius, 48, 64. 
Pallas, P. S., 139. 



Paludanus, Bernard, 118, 144. 

Pamphos, 47. 

Parkinson, J., 80, 116, 117, 120, 121, 131, 

144, 145. 
Pausanias, 47, 50, 51, 58, 97. 
Pavon, 144. 
Paxamus, 99. 
Peher, 41. 
Peher Sesamen, 37. 
Pepi, Apappus, or Phiops, 14. 
Pepin, 111. 

Pereira, 121, 136, 137, 145. 
Persoon, C. H., 83, 141, 143, 146, 152. 
Pertinax, 97. 

Petpacht, or Petubastes, 48. 
Petronius Diodotus, see Diodotus. 
Petubastes, see Petpacht. 
Phanias of Eresus, 36, 48, 69, 77. 
Pherecrates, 30, 59, 62. 
Philippus Aridaeus, 74. 
Philippus, M. Julius, 99. 
Philistion, 48. 
Philon Judjeus, 34, 68. 
Philonides, 76. 
Philostratus, 88, 98. 
Philotimus, 81. 
Philoxenus, 106. 
Philoxenus of Cythera, 64. 
Philyllius, 39. 
Phocas, 106. 
Photius, 105. 
Phrynichus, 48. 
Piauch, 37. 
Pindar, 45, 57, 58. 
Pischam Miamn II., 38. 
Piso, W., 137, 142, 146. 
Placentius, Petrus, 134. 
Plate, W., 101, 108, 109. 
Plato, 46. 

Plautus, 17, 23, 37, 39, 49, 72, 83. 
Plinius, 17 to 95, 105, 156, 158, 160. 
Plinius Secundus, 96. 
Plukenet, L., 128, 131, 147, 148. 
Plutarchus, 42, 60, 88, 92. 
Pococke, R., 67, 92. 
Poiteau, 143. 
Polemon, 56, 71. 



INDEX. 



Pollio, Carvilius, 73. 

Pollux, Julius, 23. 

Polysenus, 42, 64. 

Polybius, 18, 76, 160. 

Posidonius, 168. 

Posidonius, 18, 75, 96. 

Pratinas, 57. 

Priscianus, 103. 

Prisse, 14, 48. 

Probus, 100. 

Propertius, 75, 83. 

Proteus, see Peher Sesainen. 

Prytanis, 48. 

Psamtik, or Psammetichus, 51. 

Psamtik II., 53, 54. 

Psamtik III., 56. 

Pseudo-Anacreou, 30. 

Pseudo-Callisthenes, 98, 102. 

Pseudo-Xanthus, 81. 

Psimut, 48. 

Ptolemseus, 74, 81. 

Ptolemseus II. Philadelphia, 43, 44, 62, 

63, 72, 76, 81. 
Ptolemseus III. Euergetes, 14, 82. 
Ptolemseus IV. Philopator, 83. 
Ptolemaeus V. Epiphanes, 83. 
Ptolemseus VI. Philometor, 83, 85. 
Ptolemseus VII. Physcon, 85. 
Ptolemseus VIII. Lathyrus, 85, 86. 
Ptolemseus IX. Alexander I., 86. 
Ptolemseus X. Alexander II., 86. 
Ptolemseus XL Auletes, 86. 
Ptolemseus, Claudius, 50, 83, 159, 160, 161, 

162, 163. 
Ptolichus, 58. 
Purchas, 142. 
Pursh, 152. 
Pythagoras, 55, 56. 
Pythermus, 29. 



Quakelbecn, 140. 
Queen of Sheba, 38. 



Radi, 117. 
Rakamai. 20. 



Ramsay, W., 99. 

Ramses, or Ramessu, 27. 

Ramses II., 28, 86, 158, 161. 

Ramses III., 30. 

Ramses IV., 31. 

Ramses V., 31. 

Ramses VI., 31. 

Ramses VII., 31. 

Ramses VIII., 35. 

Ramses IX., 35. 

Ramses X., 35. 

Ramses XI., 35. 

Ramses XII., 36. 

Ramses XIII., 36. 

Ramusio, 114. 

Ransesr, 13. 

Rauwolf, L., 42, 56, 89, 116, 129, 140, 

141, 143. 
Rehoboam, 40. 
Reichard, 37. 
Rhamnusis, 135. 
Rhazes, 35, 42, 45, 47, 61, 76, 77, 78, 82, 

92 to 117, 124. 
Rheede, H. Van, 35, 88, 125, 135, 137, 

144, 147. 
Roemer, 156, 157. 
Roger of Normandy, 121. 
Rosselini, 6, 11, 14, 17, 25, 26, 27, 29. 
Rouyer, 140, 145. 

Royle, 40, 83, 92, 93, 110, 113, 116, 143. 
Roxburgh, 132. 
Rudbeck, O., 46. 
Ruellius, 123, 129, 133, 137. 
Rufus Ephesius, 68, 90. 
Ruiz, 144. 
Rumphius, G. E., 88, 120, 125, 127, 134, 

135, 137 to 148. 
Ruppius, 138. 
Ryme, 152. 

S. 
Sabacon, see Schebek. 
Sahura, 13. 
Saladdin, 123. 
Salamesch, 127. 
Salatis, 20. 
Salvolini, 29. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Samson, 36. 

Sanutious, see Shenouda. 

Sappho, 39, 53. 

Sarac, the Indian, 111. 

Saul, 37. 

Saunders, 114. 

Scaliger, J. C, 139. 

Scarlatus, 46, 55, 59, 65, 67, 80, 94. 

Schaban-Aschraf, 128. 

Schaban-Kamel, 127. 

Schafra, or Chephren, 9. 

Schebek, or Sabacon, 49, 159. 

Schebek II., 49. 

Scheschenk, or Shishak, 40. 

Scheschenk II., 41. 

Scheschenk III., 47. 

Scheuchzer, 150. 

Scholiast of Theocritus, 128. 

Schreber, 151. 

Schwartz, 149. 

Schwarz, Kabbi, 47, 67, 70, 75, 153. 

Scribonius Largus, 80. 

Seba, 148. 

Sebekatep II., 19. 

Sebekatep III., 19. 

Sebekatep IV., 19. 

Sebekatep V., 19. 

Sebekemsaf, 20. 

Sebeknefrura, 19. 

Seif-Eddin, 123. 

Seif-Eddin Tattar, 129. 

Sekennen-raken, 21. 

Selim, 136. 

Selim II., 141. 

Selim III., 152. 

Semus Delius, 57. 

Senefru, 7. 

Serapion Senior, 107. 

Serapion, 33, 35, 43, 61, 104, 106, 

109 to 120. 
Serenus Sammonicus, 84, 93. 
Sestini, 80. 
Sesorthus, 6. 
Sesurtesen, 16. 
Sesurtesen II., 17. 
Sesurtesen III., 18. 
Severus, Alexander, 98. 



107, 



Severus, Septimius, 97. 

Shalmaneser, 50. 

Sharpe, S., 100, 105, 106. 

Shekh Mahmoudi, 128. 

Shenouda, or Sanutious, 115. 

Shishak, see Scheschenk. 

Sibthorp, 29 to 148. 

Sieber, 139. 

Simon de Tovar, 144. 

Simonides, 48, 55. 

Sloane, Hans, 148, 149. 

Smith, J. E., 84. 

So, see Schebek. 

Sogdianus, 63. 

Soliman, 110. 

Solomon, 14 to 40. 

Solon, 42. 

Sontheimer, 116. 

Sophocles, 14, 35, 39, 57, 60. 

Sophron, 60. 

Soyouty, 115. 

Sprengel, C, 62, 68, 92, 106, 112, 123, 

125, 129 to 150. 
Stapel, 83, 84, 94, 119, 137. 
Stephanus, 118. 
Stephanus, C, 138, 139. 
Stesichorus, 42, 52. 

Strabo, 18, 50, 61, 73, 74, 80, 87, 168. 
Strabus, Walafridus, 112. 
Strattis, 38, 67. 
Suetonius, 93. 
Suliman II., 136. 
Suliman III., 148. 
Sylvaticus, Matthgeus, 118. 
Symeon Sethus, 94, 104, 110, 112, 118. 
Symmachus, 104. 
Symon Januensis, 127. 
Syncellus, 27. 



Tabernasniontanus, 84, 137, 143. 
Tacitus, 30, 93. 
Tacitus, M. C, 100. 
Takelet, or Tiglath, 41. 
Takelet II., 48. 
Tamerlane, see Timur. 
Tarquinius Priscus, 32. 



INDEX. 



Terentius, 83. 

Tertulliarms, 34, 63, 73, 93, 103. 

Tetkera, 13. 

Tetmes, or Thothmosis, 22. 

Tetmes II., 22. 

Tetmes III., 23. 

Tetmes IV., 25. 

Thalius, 137, 141. 

Thamjris, 36. 

Themistagoras, 52. 

Theocritus, 39, 53, 76, 77, 79, 81. 

Theodorus Gaza, see Gaza. 

Theodosius, 103. 

Theodosius II., 103. 

Theognis, 24, 55. 

Theophanes Byzantius, 105. 

Theophrastus, 12 to 80. 

Tbeopompus, 46, 59, 67, 68, 70. 

Thiers, 21, 152. 

Thomas, 106. 

Thoth (see Athothis), 4, 7. 

Thrk, or Tirhakah, 50. 

Thucydides, 44, 51. 

Thunberg, 139, 142, 147, 148, 149. 

Thuoris, see Peher Sesamen. 

Tiberius, 75, 88. 

Tiberius Constantinus, 105. 

Tibullus, 39, 88. 

Tiglath, see Takelet. 

Thnseus, 55. 

Timar Bogba, 130. 

Timaristus, 81. 

Timocles, 39. 

Timur, or Tamerlane, 128. 

Tirhakah, see Thrk. 

Titus, 95, 96. 

Tochon, 100. 

Toman-Bay, 136. 

Toman-Bay II , 136. 

Tooloon, 115, 116. 

Tournefort, J. P., 42, 61, 62, 64, 65, 94, 

132 to 150. 
Tradescant, 146. 
Tragus, Hieronymus, 84, 119, 122, 132, 

135, 137, 188. 
Tmjanus, 96. 
Turan Schah, 125. 



Turner, W., 138. 
Turner, 114. 
Tyrtseus, 50. 



U. 



Uaphres, see Hophra. 
Userkan, 40. 
Userkan II., 41. 
Userkan III., 46. 
Userkna, 48. 
Useskef, 13. 
Uzziah, or Azariah, 48. 



Valens, 102, 103. 

Valentinianus, 102. 

Valentinianus II., 103. 

Valerianus, 99. 

Valerius, Julius, 98. 

Van Cube, J., 130. 

Vansleb, 143. 

Varro, 17, 18, 79, 86, 99, 160. 

Vertoman, or Barthema, 106, 117. 

Verus, Lucius, 97. 

Vesling, 124, 132, 143, 146. 

Vespasian us, 94. 

Victor, 98. 

Vincentius Bellovacensis, 127. 

Virgil, 26, 28, 42, 45, 58, 59, 62, 65, 81, 

85, 87. 
Vitellius, 93. 

Vitruvius, 50, 66, 81, 87, 88. 
Volckamer, 148. 
Vyse, 53. 

W. 

Wahab, 98, 114. 

Walid, 110. 

Walid II., 111. 

Wathek, 113. 

Wilkinson, 5, 18, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 

115 to 1-25, 128, 136. 
Willdenow, 138, 139, 141, 142, 145. 
Williams, R., 142. 
Wood, 142. 



NAMES OF PERSONS. 



X. 

Xanthus, 37. 
Xenarchus, 63, 64. 
Xenocrates, 69. 
Xenophon, 33, 34, 42, 60, 67. 
Xerxes, see Cheschearscha. 
Ximenes, 137. 



Yezid, 109. 
Yezid II., 110. 



Yezid III., 111. 
Ynal, 129. 



Z. 



Zalikoglous, 12, 42, 46, 71. 

Zannoni, J., 147. 

Zeno, 69. 

Zeno, 104. 

Zenobia, 100. 

Zephaniah, 39. 

Zerah, see Userkan. 

Zeyneddin, 127. 

Zoega, 100. 

Zosimus Panopolitanus, 110. 



INDEX. 



Abies picea, 27. 

Abrus precatorius, 129. 

Absinth, 54. 

Abu Simbcl, 29. 

Abusir, 7, 13. 

Abutilon vulgare, 141. 

Abydos, 15, 19. 

Abyssinia, 9, 15, 75, 82, 88, 105, 129. 

Acacia Farnesiana, 145. 

Acacia gummifera, 145. 

Acacia heterocarpa, 107. 

Acacia lebbeck, 149. 

Acacia Nilotica, 18. 

Acacia seyal, 2. 

Acanthus mollis, 81. 

Acanthus spinosus, 82. 

Acer campestre, 63. 

Acer platanoides, 94. 

Acer pseudo-platanus, 95. 

Acer negundo, 149. 

Achillea millefolium, 112. 

Achyranthus argentea, 131. 

Aconitum napellus, 70. 

Acorus calamus, 78. 

Adansonia digitata, 129. 

Adiantum capillus veneris, 2. 

Adobes, 6, 18. 

Adonis aestivalis, 60. 

xidriatic Sea, 46. 

Adule, inscription at, 82. 

Aegle marmelos, 116. 

Aerva tomentosa, 131. 

Aeschynomene sesban, 123. 



iEsculus hippocastanum, 140. 

Africa, circumnavigated, 53. 

Agapanthus umbcllatus, 149. 

Agave Americana, 139. 

Ageratum conyzoides, 148. 

Agricultural produce of Egypt, influence 

of, 107. 
Agriculture, 3, 10. 
Agrimonia, 89. 
Agrostis alba, 124. 
Ajuga iva, 82. 
Akhmin, 83. 
Alcea fieifolia, 47. 
Alcea rosea, 47. 
Alcoholic distillation, 122. 
Alder, 45. 

Alexandria, 24, 72, 74, 163. 
Alhagi Maurorum, 42. 
Alisma plantago, 90. 
Allium cepa, the onion, 12. 
Allium Askalonicum, the shallot, 12. 
Allium ampeloprasum, 56. 
Allium porrum, the leek, 56. 
Allium sativum, the garlic, 12. 
Almond, 33. 
Alnus glutinosa, 45. 
Aloe, 88. 

Aloexylum agallochin, 93. 
Aloysia citriodora, 151. 
Alphabet, 35, 36. 
Alpinia galanga, 112. 
Alternanthera sessilis, 131. 
Althea cannabina, 79. 
Althea Ludwigii, 79. 



INDEX. 



Althea officinalis, 79. 

Amada, 23, 25. 

Amaranthus blitum, 64. 

Amaranthus tricolor, 95. 

Amaranthus viridis, 146. 

Amarna, 26. 

Amaryllis belladonna, 149. 

Amaryllis formosissima, 144. 

Amaryllis Sarniensis, 146. 

Amber, 46. 

Ambergris, 118. 

Ambrosia maritima, 91. 

Americans, the Aboriginal, 2, 134 to 143. 

Ammania JEgyptiaca, 85. 

Ammania auriculata, 85. 

Ammi, 68. 

Ammi majus, 112. 

Ammi visnaga, 78. 

Ammoniacum, gum, 92. 

Amomum cardamomum, see Elettaria. 

Amomum grana-paradisi, 124. 

Amomum zingiber, 88. 

Ampelopsis hederacea, 146. 

Amygdalus communis, the almond, 33. 

Amygdalus Persica, the peach, 81. 

Amyris commiphora, 31. 

Amyris kafal, 62. 

Amyris opobalsamum, 38. 

Anacardium Occidentale, 139. 

Anagallis arvensis, 51. 

Anas boschas, 17. 

Anas moschata, 139. 

Anatomy, early work on, 5. 

Anchusa officinalis, 119. 

Andropogon calamus-aromaticus, 75. 

Andropogon schoenanthus, 75. 

Anemone, 60. 

Anethum graveolens, 53. 

Anise, 56. 

Annona squamosa, 147. 

Antseopolis, 84. 

Antelopes, 3. 

Anthemis cotula, 130. 

Anthemis grandiflora, 147. 

Anthemis nobilis, 68. 

Anthemis pyrethrum, 84. 

Antholyza iEthiopica, 145. 



Antimony, 23. 

Antirrhinum JEgyptiacum, 90. 

Antirrhinum elatine, 90. 

Antirrhinum linaria, 132. 

Ape, the cynocephalus, 9. 

Apis, the bee, 36. 

Apium graveolens, 45. 

Apium dulce, the celery, 136. 

Apple, 39. 

Apricot, 81. 

Aqueducts, subterranean, 115. 

Arabs, 20, 52. 

Arachis hypogea, 142. 

Arch, pointed, 115. 

Archers, Nubian, 11. 

Archil, or Argol, 64. 

Architecture, Greek, 16, 54. 

Architecture, Muslim, 115. 

Areca catechu, 109. 

Arenaria media, 133. 

Arenaria rubra, 133. 

Argemone Mexicana, 144. 

Aristolochia, 71. 

Arithmetical processes among the people of 

Hindostan, 168. 
Armeniaca, see Prunus. 
Armoracia, see Horse-radish. 
Arnica scorpioides, 78. 
Arnotto, 137. 

Arrows, foreign, Egyptian, and Nubian, 11. 
Artemisia arborescens, 71. 
Artemisia abrotanum, 78. 
Artemisia absinthium, 54. 
Artemisia dracunculus, 112. 
Artemisia Judaica, 32. 
Artichoke, 14. 
Artillery, 136. 

Arts and trades of the Anc. Egyptians, 17. 
Arum esculentum, see Colocasia. 
Arundo donax, 11. 
Asarum Europseum, 82. 
Asasif, 23, 26, 85. 
Asclepias Curassavica, 149. 
Asclepias fruticosa (Gomphocarpus), 148. 
Asclepias procera (Calotropis), 33. 
Ash, see Fraxinus. 
Asia Minor, 20, 30. 



INDEX. 



Asp, or cobra, 4. 

Asparagus, 59. 

Aspen, 41. 

Assafoetida, 73. 

Assuan, 15, 96. 

Assyrian, or cuneiform writing, 54. 

Assyrians, 20, 23. 

Aster Chinensis, 150. 

Astragalus aristatus, 77. 

Astronomy, 11, 17, 74, 112, 154 to 168. 

Athamantha Cretensis, 78. 

Athens, 49. 

Atriplex coriacea, 51. 

Atriplex hortensis, 79. 

Atropa inandragora, 66. 

Attar of rose, 40. 

Aubergine, see Egg-plant. 

Aucklandia costus, 75. 

Avena fatua, 124. 

Avena sativa, 71. 

Avena sterilis, 124. 

Azores, 106. 



15. 



Bab-el-Meluk, 27 to 81, 35, 36. 

Babylon, 13, 17, 33, 50, 111. 

Bachur ointment, 55, 124. 

Bactria, 31, 75, 82. 

Bactrian camel, 47. 

Bagdad, 111, 126. 

Balance-beam for carrying burdens, 11. 

Balanites, 143. 

Balm-tree, 38. 

Balsam-apple, 18. 

Balsamita vulgaris, 102. 

Baltic Sea, 46. 

Bamboo, 61. 

Batnbos arundinacea, 61. 

Bamia, see Hibiscus esculentus. 

Banana, 106. 

Barbary, 18, 46. 

Barberry, 79. 

Barges, 6, 18. 

Barkal, 28, 50. 

Barley, 13. 

Bathenians, or Hassassins, 122, 126. 

49 



Bdellium, 31. 

Bean, see Vicia and Phaseolus. 

Bear, 24. 

Beaver, 61. 

Bedouins, 17. 

Bee, 36. 

Beech, 80. 

Beer, or booza, 19. 

Beet, 23. 

Bengal, 55. 

Benihassan, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 20. 

Benzoin, 124. 

Berberis Cretica, 88. 

Berberis lycium, 93. 

Berberis vulgaris, 79. 

Beta vulgaris, 23. 

Betel, 109. 

Betonica alopecurus, 87. 

Betula alba, 80. 

Bezoars, 117. 

Bigeh, 25. 

Bignonia catalpa, 150. 

Bignonia radicans, 146. 

Birch, 80. 

Birdlime, 25. 

Birds, as hieroglyphic characters, 4. 

Biscutella apula, 85. 

Biscutella depressa, 85. 

Bistort, see Polygonum bistorta. 

Bitumen, 28. 

Bixa Orellana, 137. 

Blue earth, 25. 

Books, 4, 5, 7, 10, 19. 

Booza, 19. 

Borage, 92. 

Borago Africana, 92. 

Borago officinalis, 92. 

Borax, 114. 

Borysthenes, 33. 

Bos bubalus, 102. 

Boswellia thurifera, 23. 

Botanic garden, established in Egypt, 153. 

Bows, metallic, 29. 

Box-wood, 44. 

Brassica eruca, 76. 

Brassica napus, 59. 

Brassica oleracea, 55. 



INDEX. 



Brassica rapa, 64. 

Brazil, 118, 139 to 153. 

Bread, 53. 

Bricks, sun-dried, or adobes, 6, 18. 

Britain, 87, 94, 97, 105, 154. 

Bromelia ananas, 135. 

Bromus distachyos, 133. 

Bromus mollis, 133. 

Bromus rubens, 133. 

Bronze, 15. 

Brugmansia Candida, 153. 

Bryonia Cretica, 69. 

Bryonia dioica, 69. 

Bubastis, 40, 85. 

Bubon Macedonicum, 89. 

Buckwheat, 137. 

Buffalo, 102. 

Bullock, 8, 17, 154. 

Bullock, the Indian, 17, 18. 

Bupleurum rotundifolium, 82. 

Bupleurum semicompositum, 82. 

Buxus sempervirens, 44. 



Cabbage, 14, 55. 
Cabinet furniture, 30. 
Cacalia Kleinii, 144. 
Cactus coccinellifer, see Cochineal. 
Cactus Opuntia, 138. 
Csesalpinia sappan, 118. 
Cairo, founded, 119. 
Caladium, see Colocasia. 
Calamus aromaticus, 75. 
Calamus rotang, 144. 
Calendars, 6, 154 to 165. 
Calendula arvensis, 52. 
Calendula officinalis, 52. 
Callitris quadrivalvis, 114. 
Calotropis procera, 33. 
Calystegia, see Convolvulus. 
Camel, 32. 

Camel, two-humped, 47. 
Camellia Japonica, 148. 
Camelus Bactrianus, 47. 
Camelus dromas, 32. 



Camphor, 109. 

Camphor, precious, 114. 

Canal Bahr Yusuf, 5. 

Canarium commune, 120. 

Canary bird, 140. 

Canna Indica, 140. 

Cannabis sativa, 61. 

Canopus, the star, 168. 

Caper bush, 39. 

Capparis spinosa, 39. 

Capra hircus, 9. 

Capra ibex, the Capricorn, 8. 

Capricorn, 8. 

Capsella bursa-pastoris, see Thlaspi. 

Capsicum, 135. 

Caraway, 92. 

Cardamoms, 74. 

Cardiospermum helicacabum, 122. 

Carduus Marianus, 91. 

Carex, the genus not found in Egypt, 3. 

Carica papaya, 137. 

Carnation, 129. 

Carob tree, 49. 

Carrier-pigeons, 30. 

Carrot, 48. 

Carthamus tinctorius, 43. 

Carum carvi, 92. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus, cloves, 94. 

Caspian Sea, 18. 

Cassia absus, 92. 

Cassia fistula, 103. 

Cassia lanceolata, 107. 

Cassia Occidentalis, 149. 

Cassia obovata, 34. 

Cassia sophera, 130. 

Cassia tora, 109. 

Castanea, the chestnut, 70. 

Castor, the beaver, 81. 

Castor bean, 61. 

Cat, the domestic, 52. 

Catalpa, 150. 

Cataracts of the Nile, 11, 16, 18. 

Cattle, see Bullock. 

Caucalis daucoides, 37. 

Caucasian Countries, 47. 

Cauliflower, 55. 

Celebes, island of, 120. 



INDEX. 



Celery, 45, 136. 

Celosia coccinea, 142. 

Celosia cristata, 134. 

Celosia margaritacea, 131. 

Celtis Australis, 80. 

Celtis Occidentalis, 146. 

Centaurea behen, 116. 

Centaurea calcitrapa, 34. 

Centaurea cyanus, 94. 

Centaurea moschata, 60. 

Central Africa, 9, 10, 15, 19, 88, 122, 130, 

143. 
Cerastium viscosum, 141. 
Cerastium vulgatum, 141. 
Cerasus, see Cherry. 
Ceratonia siliqua, 49. 
Cereis siliquastruin, 80. 
Cercopithecus, 10. 
Cervus elaphus, the stag, 18. 
Chaerophyllum sativum, 62. 
Chainaeriphis, 131. 
Chameleon, 3. 
Chamomile, 68. 
Charcoal, traffic in, 38. 
Charlock, 59. 
Checkered baskets, 5. 
Cheeta, or hunting leopard, 18. 
Cheiranthus cheiri, 84. 
Cheiranthus incanus, 76. 
Chelonia, sea-tortoise, 73. 
Chemistry, Ancient Egyptian, 50. 
Chenoboskion, 15. 
Chenopodium album, 85. 
Chenopodium ambrosioides, 145. 
Chenopodium bonus Henricus, 130, 
Chenopodium murale, 85. 
Chenopodium rubrum, 85. 
Chequers, game of, 30. 
Cherry, 80. 
Chestnut, 70. 
Chiehorium endivia, 57. 
Chichorium intybus, 57. 
Chick-pea, 41. 
Chickweed, 123. 
Child-stealing, 43. 
China, 17, 35, 65, 114, 154. 
China root, 139. 



Chinese writing, and manufactures, 86, 88. 

Chocolate, 139. 

Christian Era, 105, 164. 

Christians, the Early, 93, 95, 97, 99, 100, 
102, 106. 

Chronological subjects, the Date-palm con- 
nected with, 7. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium, 84. 

Chrysanthemum Indicum, 147. 

Chrysanthemum segetum, 84. 

Chunam, 5. 

Churches in Egypt, 100, 101. 

Cicer arietinum, 41. 

Cimex lectularius, 63. 

Cineraria maritima, 126. 

Cinnabar, 65. 

Cinnamon, 35. 

Cipher writing, 27. 

Circle, properties of the, 165. 

Cissus rotundifolia, 131. 

Cirsium Syriacum, 37. 

Cistus, 62. 

Citron, 69. 

Citrullus, the water-melon, 14. 

Citrus acida, the lemon, 117. 

Citrus aurautium, 117. 

Citrus decumana, the shaddock, 153. 

Citrus limonum, 117. 

Citrus Medica, 69. 

Civet, 122. 

Cleome pcntaphylla, 125. 

Climate of Egypt, 3. 

Cloves, 94. 

Clubs, Nubian, 18. 

Cnicus benedictus, 99. 

Cobra, or asp, 4. 

Cocculus Indicus, 99. 

Coccus cacti, 136. 

Coccus ilicis, 17. 

Coccus lacca, 116. 

Cochineal, 136. 

Cochlearia armoracia, 134. 

Cochlearia officinalis, 95. 

Cocoa nut, 98. 

Cocos nucifera, 98. 

Coffea Arabica, 129. 

Coffee, 129. 



INDEX. 



Coins, 56, 58, 86, 87, 89 to 100, 101, 105, 

109 to 128, 130, 136 to 152. 
Coix lachryma, 106. 
Colchians, 50. 
Colchicum auturnnale, 78. 
Coleseed, 59. 
Colocasia esculenta, 85. 
Colocynth, 72. 

Colossi, 16, 22, 25, 26, 86, 87, 108. 
Columba, see Pigeon. 
Column at Alexandria, 101. 
Commerce, 5, 6, 24, 38, 134. 
Comoro Islands, 88. 
Compass, the mariner's, 121. 
Conium maculatum, 119. 
Constantinople, 24, 101. 
Constellations, 11, 163, 168. 
Contra-Latopolis, 97. 
Convallaria majalis, 137. 
Convolvulus arvensis, 128. 
Convolvulus althasoides, 143. 
Convolvulus batatas, 134. 
Convolvulus Cairicus, 132. 
Convolvulus nil, and C. hederaceus, 140. 
Convolvulus sepium, 95. 
Convolvulus scammonia, 29. 
Convolvulus Siculus, 29. 
Convolvulus turpethum, 109. 
Conyza iEgyptiaca, 56. 
Conyza Dioscoridis, 56. 
Copaifera officinalis, 142. 
Copal, 88. 

Copper and copper-mines, 6, 109, 110. 
Coptic inscriptions, 100. 
Copts, 95, 104, 115, 164. 
Corchorus olitorius, 117. 
Cordia crenata, 113. 
Cordia mixa, 24, 25, 113. 
Coreopsis tinctoria, 152. 
Coriander, 69. 
Coriandruin sativum, 69. 
Cork, 58. 
Cornel, 44. 
Cornelian, 6. 
Cornus mascula, 44. 
Cornus sanguinea, 44. 
Coronation, by priests, 104. 



Coronopus Ruellii, 133. 

Corylus avellana, 65. 

Costume of the Egyptians, 5. 

Costume of foreign nations, 17. 

Costus, 75. 

Cotton, 54. 

Cow, 154. 

Crane, 8. 

Crassulaceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Cress, see Nasturtium. 

Crocodilopolis, 16. 

Crocus, 25. 

Croton tiglium, 113. 

Croton tinctorium, 61. 

Crown-imperial, 140. 

Crusades, 121 to 125. 

Crypsis aculeata, 133. 

Crypsis alopecuroides, 133. 

Cubebs, 113. 

Cucumber, the hairy, 14, 15. 

Cucumber, the garden, 114. 

Cucumis chate, 14. 

Cucumis colocynthis, 72. 

Cucumis melo, the musk-melon, 48. 

Cucumis sativus, 114. 

Cucurbita pepo, 142. 

Cucurbita polymorpha, 142. 

Cuminum cyminum, 49. 

Cummin, 49. 

Cupressus sempervirens, 44. 

Curcuma longa, 39. 

Curcuma zerumbet, 96. 

Currants, 138, 150. 

Cuscuta, 71. 

Custard-apple, 147. 

Cycle of Time, 27, 36, 155. 

Cydonia vulgaris, 42. 

Cycas circinalis, 147. 

Cynara scolymus, 14. 

Cynocephalus, or ape, 9. 

Cynodon dactylum, 76. 

Cynoglossum officinale, 84. 

Cyperus alopecurus, 85. 

Cyperus articulatus, 145. 

Cyperus dives, 85. 

Cyperus esculentus, 107. 

Cyperus rotundus, 45. 



INDEX. 



Cypress, 44. 
Cyprus, 30, 54. 
Cyrene, 53. 



Dactylis glomerata, 133. 

Dactyloctenium, 131. 

Dahlia variabilis, 152. 

Dakkeh, 82, 83, 85, 96. 

Daphne, 59. 

Dariks, 56. 

Daschur, pyramids at, 6, 18. 

Date palm, 7, 15, 51. 

Datisca cannabina, 132. 

Datura fastuosa, 103. 

Datura metel, 103. 

Datura stramonium, 146. 

Daucus carota, 48. 

Dead Sea, 33. 

Debot, 87, 88. 

Deccans, or weeks of ten days each, 165. 

Deed, for sale of land, 86. 

Degree of Latitude measured, 112. 

Delos, 34, 51. 

Delphinium ajacis, 46. 

Demotic, or Enchorial writing, 52. 

Dendera, 87, 88, 89, 96, 97. 

Dendur, 87. 

Dianthus caryophyllus, 129. 

Digitalis purpurea, 121. 

Digitaria filiformis, 123. 

Digitaria sanguinale, 123. 

Dill, 53. 

Diocletian Era, 118, 163, 164. 

Dionysian Era, 81, 164. 

Dioscorea, the yam, 135. 

Diospyrus lotus, 139. 

Dipsacaceae, 3. 

Dipsacus fullonum, 93. 

Distillation, alcoholic, 122. 

Dodder, 71. 

Dog, 8, 52. 

Dolichos lablab, 113. 

Dolichos lubia, 69. 

Domestic fowl, 24. 

Dongola, 14, 18, 28, 114. 

50 



Donkey, 9. 

Dorema ammoniacum, 92. 

Doric architecture, 16. 

Doronicum pardalianches, 78. 

Doum palm, 5, 15. 

Dourra, 98. 

Dracaena draco, 66. 

Dracocephalum Moldavicum, 141. 

Dragon's blood, 66. 

Draughts, game of, 30. 

Droseraceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Drugs, the traffic in, 5. 

Druses of Lebauon, 120. 

Dryobalanops, or precious camphor, 114. 

Ducks, 17, 139. 

E. 

Earthen ware, art of making, 9. 

Earthquakes, 105. 

East Africa, 24, 38, 86, 88. 

Easter, 97, 98. 

Eastern Asia, 50, 65, 73, 88, 105, 110. 

Ebony, 19. 

Ecclesiastical Councils, 97, 98, 101, 104. 

Echinochloa crus-galli, 132. 

Echinochloa Italica, 22, 33. 

Echium rubrum, 65. 

Eclipses, Babylonian series, 50. 

Eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, 158. 

Eclipta erecta, 85. 

Edfu, 23, 83, 85, 89. 

Egg-plant, 112. 

Eguisse, 23. 

Elaeagnus Orientalis, 92. 

Elaeodendron argam, 107. 

Elaterium, 58. 

Elatine verticillata, 85. 

Elder, see Sambucus. 

Elecampane, 78. 

Elephant, the African, 15, 24. 

Elephant, the Indian, 24. 

Elephantine, 23, 26, 27, 31, 54. 

Elettaria cardamomum, 74. 

Eleusine coracana, 146. 

El Kab, tombs at, 9, 21, 22, 67. 

Elm, 44. 

Emblica officinalis, 110. 



INDEX. 



Endive, 57. 

Equinox, Ptolemy's observation on, 159. 

Equus asinus, 9. 

Equus caballus, 22. 

Era, Christian, 105, 164. 

Era, Diocletian, 118, 163, 164. 

Era, Dionysian, 81, 164. 

Era of Gaza, the Second, 160. 

Era of Nabonassar, 160. 

Ericaceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Erigeron Canadense, 147. 

Erinaceus auritus, 8. 

Erodium crassifolium, 79. 

Erodium glabelluin, 79. 

Erodium malacoides, 79. 

Erodium reflexum, 79. 

Ervum ervilia, 70. 

Ervum lens, 32. 

Erythraea centaurium, 3, 66. 

Esneh, 23, 82, 83, 88, 89, 94, 96, 97, 98. 

Ethiopian or Nubian Race, 5, 8, 11, 18, 22. 

Ethulia conyzoides, 85. 

Etruscan vases, 31, 47. 

Euphorbia antiquorum, 88. 

Euphorbia calendulifolia, 152. 

Euphorbia helioscopia, 90. 

Euphorbia peplis, 68 

Euphorbia peplus, 90. 

Euphorbia thymifolia, 131. 

Euphorbia tirucalli, 147. 

Euphrates, 28. 

Exodus, date of the, 36, 159, 165. 

Eye-paint, 23, 86. 

F. 

Faba, see Vicia faba. 

Fagus sylvatica, 80. 

Faium, 16. 

Fau, the flag-shaped, figured, 5. 

Fellahs, or Egyptian peasants, 155. 

Fennel, 57. 

Fenugreek, 43. 

Ferns, rare in Egypt, 2 ; figured at Kar- 

nak, 27. 
Ferula, 73, 82. 
Festuca uniglumis, 133. 



Ficus carica, 10. 

Ficus sycomorus, 23. 

Fig, 10, 15. 

Filbert, 65. 

Fine Arts, 25, 28, 52. 

Fir tree, 27. 

Fish, curing, 11. 

Fish-glue, or isinglass, 61. 

Flax, 5. 

Flea, 37. 

Florida, 138, 143, 152. 

Fly, the biting, 34. 

Fly, the house, 34, 39. 

Fly, the meat, 97. 

Fceniculum vulgare, 57. 

Foreigners, figured, 7, 17, 22, 24. 

Fortified places, 17, 20. 

Fox, 8. 

Foxglove, 121. 

Fowl, the domestic, 24. 

Fractions, arithmetical, 167. 

Fragaria vesca, 81. 

Fragaria Virginiana, 145. 

Frankincense, 23. 

Frankincense-wood, 62. 

Fraxinus excelsior, 42. 

Fraxinus ornus, 42. 

Fringilla Canaria, 140. 

Fringilla domestica, 4. 

Fritillaria imperialis, 140. 

Fumaria capreolata, 90. 

Fumaria officinalis, 90. 

Fumaria parviflora, 90. 

Funeral papyri, 27. 

Furs, 28. 



G. 
Galanga, 112. 
Galbanum, 35. 
Galega officinalis, 134. 
Gambia, 122. 
Gamboge, 145. 
Game, 3. 
Garden-basil, 57. 
Gardenia florida, 147. 
Garden-plans, figured, 5, 17, 23, 26. 



Garlic, 12. 

Garnets, 6. 

Gebel-Addah, 26. 

Gems, the traffic in, 6. 

Genealogical Table at Karnac, 24 ; at Aby- 

dos, 28 ; Ptolemaic, 74. 
Genette, 3. 
Gentiana lutea, 84. 
Gentianacese, rare in Egypt, 3. 
Geometry, 7. 
Ginger, 88. 
Girgeh, 30. 

Gizeh, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 25, 53, 89. 
Glass money, 122. 
Glaucium violaceum, 78. 
Gleditschia triacanthos, 149. 
Globulariaceae, rare in Egypt, 3. 
Glycyrrhiza, 77. 
Gnaphalium Germanicum, 94. 
Gnaphalium stoechas, 52. 
Goat, 9. 

Gods, the Egyptian, 4, 16, 21, 52, 84, 99. 
Gold, 6, 87, 100, 118, 120, 121. 
Gomphocarpus fruticosa, see Asclepias. 
Gomphrena globosa, 88. 
Goose, 8. 

Gooseberry, 134; the North American, 144. 
Gossypium, cotton, 54. 
Gossypium vitifolium, 148. 
Gourd, 30, 31, 48. 
Grain, 10. 

Grains of Paradise, 124. 
Grangea, 85. 
Granite, 16. 
Grape, 10. 

Great Bear, the constellation, 168. 
Great Year, 27, 36, 155. 
Greek alphabet, 58. 
Greek architecture, 16, 54. 
Greek fire, 109. 
Greek language, 41. 
Greeks, 25, 30, 51, 54, 130, 153. 
Greyhound, 8. 
Groves, cultivated, 6. 
Grus, or crane, 8. 
Guaiacum, 136. 
Guava, 137. 



Guinea, 106. 
Guinea-fowl, 72. 
Gum-Arabic, 62. 
Gums, the traffic in, 5, 33. 
Gunpowder, 126, 136. 
Gurna, 15, 16, 26, 27, 36. 

H. 

Habits of the early Egyptians, 10, 11. 

Hamamat, 14, 20. 

Hare, 18. 

Hassassins, or Bathenians, 122, 126. 

Heaths, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Hebradendron gambogioides, 145. 

Hebrew letters, 100. 

Hebrew names of plants, 41. 

Hedera, 57. 

Hedgehog, 8. 

Helianthus annuus, 141. 

Helianthus tuberosus, 145. 

Heliopolis, 16, 74. 

Heliotropium Europseuin, 79, 

Heliotropium supiuum, 79. 

Helleborus Orientalis, 65. 

Hemerocallis fulva, 142. 

Hemerocallis Japonica, 148. 

Hemlock poison, 37. 

Hemp, 61. 

Henna, 73. 

Herculaneum and Pompeii, 95. 

Hermonthis, 87. 

Hesperis acris, 76. 

Hibiscus abelmoschus, 130. 

Hibiscus esculentus, 115. 

Hibiscus palustris, 142. 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 146. 

Hibiscus Syriacus, 127. 

Hibiscus trionum, 131. 

Hieratic writing, 14, 15. 

Hieroglyphic characters, 4, 11, 52. 

Himalaya Mountains, 73, 113, 120. 

Himyaritic monuments, 32. 

Hindostan, 4, 10, 11, 15, 24, 31, 38, 39, 40, 

50, 53, 54, 58, 61, 65, 66, 68 to 154. 
History, written, the commencement of, 31. 
Hollyhock, 47. 



INDEX. 



Honej-bee, 36. 

Hop, 111. 

Hordeum jubatutn, 150. 

Hordeum murinum, 91. 

Hordeum vulgare, 13. 

Horse, 22. 

Horsechestnut, 140. 

Horseradish, 134. 

Hospital, 127. 

House-fly, 39. 

Humulus lupulus, 111. 

Hunting-scenes, 18. 

Hyacinthus Orientalis, 141. 

Hyaena, 3, 10. 

Hyksos, 16 to 23, 162. 

Hyoscyamus albus, 67. 

Hyoscyamus datura, 67. 

Hyperboreans, 34. 

Hypericaceae, not found in Egypt, 3, 66. 

Hypericum crispum, 66. 

Hyphaene crinita, 5. 

Hyssopus officinalis, 119. 

Hystrix, the Porcupine, 13. 



Ibex, or Capricorn, 8. 

Ibis, 7. 

Ibrim, 22, 23, 25. 

Ichneumon, 3. 

Idolatry, 4, 21. 

Impatiens balsamina, 131. 

Incense, 23. 

India, see Hindostan. 

India ink, 88. 

Indigo, 25, 50. 

Indigofera, 25, 50. 

Indo-Chinese countries, 35, 93, 116, 148. 

Inscriptions, hieroglyphic, 4 to 99; Hie- 
ratic, 15 ; Greek, 36, 58, 72 ; Assyrian, or 
cuneiform, 47, 54; Demotic, or Encho- 
rial, 52, 83 ; Phoenician, or Punic, 67 ; 
Latin, 87; Hebrew, 100; Coptic, 100, 
118; Kufic, 113 to 136; Arabic, 118. 

Insects, figured at Benihassan, 17. 

Inula helenium, 78. 

Inula odora, 49. 



Ipecacuanha, 146. 

Ipomaea nil, and I. hederacea, 140. 

Ipomaea quamoclit, 143. 

Iris Florentina, 67. 

Iris sisyrinchium, 13. 

Iron, 29. 

Irrigation, 3. 

Isatis tinctoria, 87. 

Italy, 31, 45, 46, 58, 83, 160. 

Ivory, 15, 24. 

Ivy, 57. 



Jackal, 8. 

Jacobites, 104. 

Japan, 114, 147. 

Jasminum grandiflorum, 114. 

Jasminum odoratissimum, 120. 

Jasminum officinale, 114. 

Jasminum sambac, see Mogorium. 

Java, 124. 

Javelin, 17. 

Jerusalem, 23, 40, 49, 53, 96, 121, 125. 

Jews, 50, 85, 96, 102. 

Juari, or dourra, 98. 

Juglans regia, 39. 

Jujube, 89. 

Julian Period, 163. 

Juncus odoratus, 75. 

Juniper berries, 43. 

Juniperus oxycedrus, 43. 

Jupiter, the planet, 158. 

Jussiaea diffusa, 85. 

Justicia adhatoda, 147. 



K. 

Kalabsheh, 25, 87. 

Kalanchoe iEgyptiaca, 130. 

Karnak, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 31, 

40, 48, 51, 83, 88. 
Kaschgar, 110. 
Kauamat, 15. 
Kermes, 17. 
Kerria Japonica, 148. 
Kharesmians, 125. 



INDEX. 



Kidney-bean, 138. 

Kings, Egyptian, their number, 51. 

Konosso, 20. 

Koos, 83, 85. 

Koran, 106, 107. 

Kosser Road, 14, 18, 20, 56, 58. 

Kufic inscriptions, 113 to 136. 

L. 

Lablab, 113. 
Labyrinth, 19. 
Lac, 116. 
Lactuca sativa, 52. 
Ladanuni, gum, 62. 
Lagenaria, the gourd, 30, 31, 48. 
Lagerstroemia Indica, 147. 
Lagurus ovatus, 76. 
Lamium amplexicaule, 134. 
Languages, 7, 19, 29, 41, 154, 162. 
Lantana catnara, 146. 
Lappago racemosa, 132. 
Lathyrus aphaca, 77. 
Lathyrus sativus, 69. 
Latin or Roman literature, 83. 
Laurel, 44. 
Lauras, 93. 

Laurus camphora, 110. 
Laurus cassia, 83. 
Laurus nobilis, 44. 
Laurus sassafras, 143. 
Lavandula spica, 40. 
Lavandula stoechas, 40. 
Lavatera arborea, 132. 
Lavatera Cretica, 132. 
Lavender, 40. 
Lawsonia, 73. 
Lead, 35. 
Leather, 38. 
Lebanon, 27. 
Leek, 56. 

Leersia oryzoides, 151. 
Lemna gibba, 90. 
Lemna polyrhiza, 90. 
Lemon, 117. 

Lemon-grass, see Andropogon schoenan- 
thus, 75. 

51 



Lentil, 32. 

Leonurus eardiaca, 126. 

Leopard, 9. 

Leopard, the hunting, 18. 

Lepidium sativum, 64. 

Lepidium latifolium, 91. 

Lepidotum, 30. 

Lepus cuniculus, 18. 

Lettuce, 52. 

Levisticum, 92. 

Library at Alexandria, 74, 81, 83, 103. 

Lichen rocella, 64. 

Lichens, rare in Egypt, 2. 

Light, theory of its progressive motion, 

156 to 158. 
Light-house, or pharos, built at Alexandria, 

74, 81. 
Lign-aloes, 93. 

Ligusticum Peloponnense, 141. 
Lilac, 121. 

Lilium candidum, 45. 
Lilium Chalcedonicum, 59. 
Lilium martagon, 59. 
Lily, 45. 

Lily of the valley, 137. 
Lime, 117. 
Linden, 63. 
Linen, 5. 

Linum usitatissimum, 5. 
Lion, 3. 
Liquorice, 77. 
Literature, Egyptian, 4, 12, 19, 21, 22, 27, 

28 ; of other nations, 31 ; Greek, 36 ; 

Roman, 83 ; Syriac, 106 ; Muslim, 106. 
Loire, 111. 
Lolium perenne, 20. 
Lolium temulentum, 20. 
Lote tree, 22. 
Lotus Argolicus, 43. 
Lotus corniculatus, 43. 
Lotus, or water-lily, 10, 61. 
Lovage, 92. 
Lucerne, 28. 
Luna, 124. 

Lupine, the edible, 41. 
Lunar Calendar, 164. 
Lunations, 164. 



INDEX. 



Lupinus termes, the edible lupine, 41. 

Luxor, 26, 27, 83. 

Lycopersicon esculentum, see Tomato. 

Ljcium Europasum, 60. 

Lythrum hyssopifolium, 138. 



M. 

Macassar, 120. 

Maccabee coins, 67. 

Macer bark, 93. 

Madagascar-, 19. 

Madder, 68. 

Madeira, 117. 

Magellan, Straits of, 136. 

Magnetic needle, or mariners' compass, 121. 

Maize, 47, 135. 

Malay countries, 24, 62, 68, 74, 106, 120, 

124, 127, 148. 
Mallow, cultivated in Egypt, 47. 
Malva alcea, 90. 
Malva rotundifolia, 46. 
Malva sylvestris, 46. 
Malva verticillata, 47. 
Mangifera Indica, 139. 

Mango, 139. 

Manna, 42. 

Manufactures and Mechanic Arts, 17, 52. 

Maple, 63. 

Marking-nut, 97. 

Marrubium alyssum, 77. 

Massara, 21. 

Mastich tree, 62. 

Mathematical science, 7. 

Matricaria chamomilla, 91. 

Mauritania, or Barbary, 18. 

Mecca, 98, 108, 117. 

Media, 50. 

Medicago sativa, 28. 

Medicine, early work on, 5. 

Medinet Habu, a temple at Thebes, 22, 23 
30, 31, 50, 67, 68, 85. 

Meleagris gallipavo, the turkey, 135. 

Melia azederach, 141. 

Melianthus major, 146. 

Melilotus coerulea, 138. 



Melilotus Cretica, 60. 

Melilotus Messanensis, 60. 

Melilotus officinalis, 60. 

Melissa officinalis, 77. 

Melons, 14, 15, 48. 

Memluks, 125 to 152. 

Memphis, 21, 53. 

Menispermum cocculus, 99. 

Mentha glabrata, 55. 

Mentha pulegium, 51. 

Mentha rotundifolia, 134. 

Mentha sativa, 55. 

Mentha sylvestris, 58. 

Mercurialis, 66. 

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 148. 

Messenian War, 50. 

Meroe, 15. 

Mexico, 136 to 152. 

Military campaigns, 5, 7, 11, 13, 16, 17, 

22, 25 to 30, 53, 74, 82. 
Military posts, 20. 

Millet, 22, 33, 60. 

Mimosa habbas, 75. 

Mimosa pudica, 139. 

Mimosa tortilis, 116. 

Mimusops elengi, 107. 

Mines of copper, 6. 

Mint, 51, 55, 58. 

Mirabilis jalapa, 144. 

Mocha, 9, 35, 38, 122. 

Mode of carrying burdens, 11. 

Mogorium sambac, 116. 

Mollugo verticillata, 149. 

Molucca Islands, 94, 107. 

Momordica balsamina, 18. 

Momordica elaterium, 58. 

Momordica pedata, 150. 

Monasteries of Egypt, 101, 105. 

Money, 56, 58, 67, 89, 100, 110, 123. 

Monkey, 10, 117. 

Months, Egyptian, 6, 159 to 165 ; Hebrew, 
165; Muslim, 165. 

Monumental history of Egypt, 4, 6; of 
Nineveh, 31 ; of Greece, 31 j of Italy, 31. 

Moringa oleifera, 75. 

Morning-glory, 140. 

Morocco-leather. 38. 



INDEX. 



Morus alba, 105. 

Morus nigra, 29. 

Moschus moschiferus, 104. 

Mosques, 108 to 130. 

Mosses, rare in Egypt, 2. 

Mouse, 49. 

Mulberry, 29, 105. 

Mullein, 63. 

Mummies, 16, 25, 27, 38, 45, 46, 68, 102, 

Mummy cases, 4, 5, 6, 12, 15, 19, 20, 23, 

25, 27, 50. 
Mus decumanus, 139. 
Mus musculus, 49. 
Mus rattus, 138. 
Musa sapientum, 106. 
Musca domestica, the house-fly, 39. 
Musca vomitoria, 97. 
Muscari comosum, 64. 
Music, 7. 

Musical instruments, 7, 
Musk, 104. 
Musk-duck, 139. 
Musk-melon, 48. 
Muslims, 107 to 164. 
Mustard, 39, 55. 
Myristica moschata, 107. 
Myrobalans, 110, 111. 
Myrrh, 35. 
Myrtle, 25, 26. 
Myrtus communis, 25, 26. 
Mythology of the Egyptians, 4, 10, 12, 21, 

22, 52, 74 ; of the Hindoos, 4, 10. 



N. 

Napata, 14. 

Narcissus jonquilla, 141, 

Narcissus poeticus, 47. 

Narcissus tazetta, 47. 

Nard, 40, 57. 

Nardostachys jatamansi, 40. 

Nasturtium officinale, 86. 

Naval combats, 30, 108. 

Navigation on the Nile, 6 ; on the Medi- 
terranean, 6, 12, 27, 30; on the Ked 
Sea, and along the coasts of the Indian 



Ocean, 24, 35, 38, 53, 65, 74, 86, 88, 

136; Oceanic, 134, 153. 
Neck-pillow of the Nubians, figured, 5. 
Negro Kace, 12. 
Nelumbium, 26. 
Nepeta cataria, 112. 
Nerium oleander, 87. 
Nettle, 64. 

New Year, the Egyptian, 164, 165. 
New Zealand, 151. 
New Zealand flax, 151. 
Nicandra physalodes, 150. 
Nicotiana rustica, 140. 
Nicotiana tabacum, 140, 
Nigella arvensis, 91. 
Nigella Damascena, 91, 
Nigella sativa, 53. 
Nile, 3, 155. 

Nilometers, 109, 110, 114, 121. 
Nineveh, 31, 47. 
Nitric acid, 50. 

North America, the aboriginals of, 142. 
Northern China, 140. 
Nubia, 16, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 83. 
Nubians, 5, 8, 11, 18. 
Number, properties of, 166, 
Numerals, 7, 166. 
Numida meleagris, 72. 
Nut-galls, 28. 
Nutmeg, 107. 
Nux vomica, 113. 
Nymphaea eaerulea, 10. 
Nympbaja of Zanzibar, 10, 
Nymphasa lotus, 61. 
Nympbjea stellata, 11. 



O. 

Oak, 28. 

Oars, 6, 9. 

Oases, 56, 89, 93, 97. 

Oat, 71, 

Obelisks, 16, 23, 26, 27, 52, 54, 74, 87, 

89, 101, 102. 
Obsidian, 15. 
Ochra, 115. 
Ocymum basilicum, 57- 



INDEX. 



Oenothera biennis, 145. 

Offerings and sacrifices, 10. 

Oil, 52, 59, 61, 107. 

Olea Europea, 32. 

Oleander, see Nerium. 

Olibanum, 23. 

Olive, 32. 

Olympiads, 36, 48, 164. 

Oman, or Eastern Arabia, 69, 117. 

Ombos, 23, 83, 96. 

Onagraceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Onion, 12. 

Onobrychis crista-galli, 77. 

Onobrychis sativa, 141. 

Onopordum Grsecum, 60. 

Opium, 43. 

Opopanax chironium, 78, 82. 

Opuntia, 138. 

Orache, 79. 

Orange, 117. 

Orchidaceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Origanum iEgyptiacum, 67. 

Origanum dictamnus, 72. 

Origanum majorana, 67. 

Orris-root, 67. 

Ornithogaluin Arabicum, 46. 

Ornithogalum elatuin, 132. 

Ornithogallum umbellatum, 46. 

Ornus, see Fraxinus. 

Oryx, 8. 

Oryza, or rice, 74. 

Ostrich, traffic in the eggs and feathers, 7. 

Ottelia alismoides, 85. 

Oxalis corniculata, 115. 

Owl, 4. 



Paeonia, 54. 

Paints, or pigments, Egyptian, 25. 

Palestine, 7, 154. 

Pancratium Illyricum, and Pancratium 

maritimum, 29. 
Pandanus odoratissimus, 35. 
Panegyries, 158. 

Panicum crus-galli, see Echinochloa. 
Panicum colonum, 85. 
Panic um Italicum, see Echinochloa. 



Panicum miliaceum, 60. 

Papal influence, 98, 104. 

Papaver rhseas, 37. 

Papaver somniferum, 43. 

Papaya, 137. 

Paper-rush, 10. 

Papyri, rolls of, or books, 10, 13, 21, 24. 

Papyrus, the paper-rush, 10, 15. 

Paremboleh, 83. 

Parian Marble, 48, 49. 

Parietaria officinalis, 77. 

Parrot, 65. 

Par sees, 43. 

Parsley, 58. 

Parsnip, 93. 

Partridge, the red-legged, 4. 

Passiflora caerulea, 143. 

Passion-flower, see Passiflora. 

Passover, 98, 165. 

Pastinaca sativa, 93. 

Pavo, the peacock, 38. 

Pea, 63. 

Pea, the field, 64. 

Peach, 81. 

Peacock, 38. 

Pea-nut, see Arachis, 142. 

Pear, 26. 

Peganum harmala, 41. 

Pelargonium capitatum, 148. 

Pelargonium zonale, 150. 

Pennisetum typhoideum, 22. 

Pentaptera arjuna, 121. 

Peony, 54. 

Peplis portula, 75. 

Pepper, 68. 

Perdix, 4. 

Perfumes, the traffic in, 5. 

Periploca Grseca, 141. 

Persepolis, antiquities at, 47. 

Persia, 13, 21, 28, 33, 34, 40, 56 to 72, 

82, 86, 99, 106, 110, 154, 161. 
Peru, 138, 140, 142. 
Petroselinum sativum, 58. 
Phalaris Canariensis, 90. 
Phaseolus mungo, 47. 
Phaseolus vulgaris, the kidney-bean, 138. 
Phasianus Colchicus, 63. 



INDEX. 



Pheasant, 63. 

Philadelphia coronarius, 142. 

Philse, 25, 53, 54, 68, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 

89, 96, 97, 98. 
Philological observations, 154. 
Phoenicia, 30, 35, 52. 
Phoenician, or Punic, inscriptions, 67. 
Phoenix, 49, 155, 160, 162. 
Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm, 7, 15, 51. 
Phormium tenax, 151. 
Phyllirea latifolia, 80. 
Physalis alkekengi, 81. 
Physalis somnifera, 71. 
Physeter, 118. 

Physicians, the ancient Egyptian, 5. 
Phytolacca decandra, 149. 
Phytolacca dioica, 151. 
Picris altissima, 34. 
Pig, 9. 
Pigeon, 30. 

Pimpinella anisum, 56. 
Pine, 44. 
Pineapple, 135. 
Pine-nuts, 58. 
Pinus deodara, 120. 
Pinus Halepensis, 44. 
Pinus maritima, 44. 
Pinus pinca, 58. 
Piper betel, 109. 
Piper cubebs, 113. 
Piper nigrum, black pepper, 68. 
Pistacia lentiscus, 62. 
Pistacia terebinthus, 34. 
Pistacia vera, 75. 
Pistia stratiotes, 74. 
Pisum arvense, 64. 
Pisum sativum, 63. 
Pittosporum tobira, 147. 
Plane tree, 45. 
Plantago coronopus, 94. 
Plantago lagopus, 94. 
Plantago major, 79. 
Plantago psyllium, 89. 
Plaster, or chunam, 5. 
Platanus Orientalis, 45. 
Plectranthus crassifolius, 120. 
Plum, 55. 



Po, the river, 46. 

Poa annua, 133. 

Poa eragrostis, 133. 

Poa pilosa, 150. 

Poetry, ancient Egyptian, 28 ; Greek, 36. 

Poinciana pulcherrima, 147. 

Poke, see Phytolacca decandra. 

Pole-star, 168. 

Polyanthes tuberosa, 144. 

Polycarpon tetraphyllum, 133. 

Polygonum aviculare, 84. 

Polygonum bistorta, 71. 

Polygonum fagopyrum, 137. 

Polygonum Orientale, 150. 

Polygonum persicaria, 123. 

Polygonum salicifolium, 123. 

Polygonum tinctorium, 151. 

Polynesians, 2, 11, 151. 

Polypogon Monspeliense, 118. 

Polytheism, 21. 

Pomegranate, 14, 15. 

Pompeii and Herculaneum, 81, 95. 

Poplar, 26, 41. 

Poppy, 37, 43. 

Populus alba, 41. 

Populus nigra, 26. 

Populus tremula, 41. 

Porcupine, 13. 

Portraits of early Egyptian kings, 7, 11, 
21, 22, 25, 28, 37, 40. 

Portulaca oleracea, 75. 

Potato, 138. 

Potentilla reptans, 66. 

Potentilla supina, 66. 

Poterium, 3. 

Pottery, art of making, 9 ; ancient Greek, 
31,47. 

Prangos pabularia, 73. 

Prasium majus, 83. 

Precession of the Equinoxes, 164. 

Precious stones, the traffic in, 6. 

Primulaceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Printing, art of, 129, 134. 

Prunus Armeniaca, 81. 

Prunus cerasus, 80. 

Prunus domestica, 55. 

Psidium, 137. 



INDEX. 



Psittacus, 65. 

Psoralea bituminosa, 60. 

Psoralea Palsestina, 60. 

Psychotria emetica, 146. 

Ptychotis ajowan, 68. 

Pulex, 37. 

Pumpkin, 142. 

Punic, or Phoenician, inscriptions, 67. 

Punica granatum, 14. 

Purslain, 75. 

Pyramids, 6, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 123. 

Pyretbrum parthenium, 126. 

Pyretbrum root, 84. 

Pyrus communis, 26. 

Pyrus malus, 39. 



Quamamil, 88. 

Quarries, at Tura, 11, 51 ; at Massara, 21 

at Silsilis, 26 ; at Philfe, 98. 
Quercus, 28. 
Quercus suber, 58. 
Quicksilver, 65. 
Quince, 42. 



n 



Rabbit, 18. 

Radish, 111. 

Rafts of eartben jars, 9. 

Railroads, 153. 

Ranunculus Asiaticus, 91. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, 70. 

Rape-seed, 59. 

Rapbanus rapbanistrum, 59. 

Raphanus sativus, 111 ; var. oleifer., 59. 

Rat, 138, 139. 

Rattans, 144. 

Reaping grain, 10. 

Red cbalk, 11. 

Reed, 11. 

Registry of deeds, 86. 

Religions, foreign, introduced into Egypt, 

20, 26, 93, 107, 120. 
Reseda luteola, 87. 



phyteuma, 67. 
Resedacese, numerous in Egypt, 3. 
Revival of literature, 134. 
Rbagadiolus edulis, 80. 
Rbamnus infectorius, 92. 
Rheum, the drug rhubarb, 106. 
Rheum Rhaponticum, 80 
Rheum ribes, 116. 
Rhine, the river, 94. 
Rhododendron lepidotum, 113. 
Rhone, the river, 46. 
Rhubarb, the garden, 80. 
Rhubarb, the drug, 106. 
Rhus coriarea, 67. 
Rhus cotinus, 53. 
Ribes floriduni, 150. 
Ribes gracile, 144. 
Ribes grossularia, 134. 
Ribes nigrum, 138. 
Ribes rubrum, 138. 
Rice, 73. 

Ricinus communis, 61. 
River-flats of the Nile, 3. 
Robinia pseudacacia, 146. 
Rocket, Brassica eruca, 76. 
Rome, 24, 25, 26, 83, 99; date of the 

building of, 99, 160. 
Rosacese, rare in Egypt, 3. 
Rosaries, 25. 
Rose, 40. 
Rosemary, 33. 
Rosetta stone, 83, 85, 159. 
Rosmarinus officinalis, 33 
Rubia tinctorum, 68. 
Rubus fruticosus, 45. 
Rue, 64. 

Rumex acetosa, 84. 
Rumex acetosella, 84. 
Rumex obtusifolius, 79 
Rumex patientia, 57. 
Rumex roseus, 39. 
Ruscus bypophyllum. 
Rushes, 11. 
Russia, 151. 
R,uta graveolens, 64. 
Ruta Halepensis, 64. 
Rye, 10, 42. 



INDEX. 



Saccharum officinale, 73. 

Sacred Calendar, the Egyptian, 154 to 164. 

Sacred festivals, Egyptian, 155. 

Sacred numbers, Egyptian, 156, 164, 166. 

Sacrifices, 8, 102. 

Safflower, or dyers' saffron, 43. 

Saffron, 25, 43. 

Sahara, the Desert of, 2. 

Sagapenum, 82. 

Sage, 70. 

Sakhara, 7, 13, 53, 98. 

Sainfoin, 141. 

Salix Babylonica, 143. 

Salix subserrata, 2, 45. 

Salsify, 80. 

Salsola articulata, 32. 

Salsolacese, numerous in Egypt, 3. 

Salvadora Persica, 24. 

Salvia officinalis, 70. 

Samaria, 46, 50. 

Samaritan letters, 67. 

Sambucus nigra, 67. 

San, or Zoan, 29. 

Sanctuaries, 16. 

Sandalwood, 104. 

Sandstone of Silsilis, 26. 

Sanscrit language, 154. 

Santalum album, 104. 

Santolina fragrantissima, 115. 

Sapindus laurifolius, 53. 

Saponaria officinalis, 137. 

Sarbut-el-Khadem, 25, 27, 31. 

Sarcocol, 93. 

Sarsaparilla, 137. 

Sassafras, 143. 

Satellites of Jupiter, 158. 

Satureja? capitata, 65. 

Satureja Juliana, 34. 

Satureja thymbra, 62. 

Sauiet-el-Meitin, 14. 

Saxifraga sarmentosa, 148. 

Scabiosa prolifera, 3, 105. 

Scammony, 29. 

Scandinavian countries, 154. 

Scandix trichosperma, 65. 



Scarabsei, of stone, 20. 

Schech Said, 14. 

Scilla maritima, 55. 

Scirpus lacustris, 139. 

Scolymus Hispanicus, and Scolymus macu- 

latus, 47. 
Scorpiurus sulcata, 65. 
Scorpiurus villosa, 65. 
Scriptural names of plants, 41. 
Scurvy, 94. 
Sebesten, see Cordia. 
Secale cereale, 42. 
Sedum confertum, 90. 
Semecarpus anacardium, 97. 
Semneh, 18, 23. 
Senecio Arabicus, 32. 
Senecio squalidus, 120. 
Senecio vulgaris, 32. 
Senna, 34, 107. 
Sepulchral images, 22. 
Sepulchral vases, 20. 
Sesamum Orientale, 52. 
Sesbania, see -ZEschynoniene. 
Setaria glauca, 132. 
Setaria verticillata, 132. 
Setaria viridis, 132. 
Shaddock, 153. 
Sheep, 8. 

Shepherds, or Hyksos, 21. 
Shoes, ancient Egyptian, 38. 
Siarn, 35. 
Sicily, 113, 121. 
Sicyos angulata, 149. 
Sida abutilon, see Abutilon. 
Sida mutica, 131. 
Sida spinosa, 131. 
Sieges of fortified places, 17, 22 
Sienite, 11, 12, 16, 101. 
Silene behen, 70. 
Silk, 73. 
Silkworm, 105. 
Silsilis, 26, 27, 29, 40. 
Silver, 25, 50, 100. 
Sinai Peninsula, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 

25, 31, 38, 105. 
Sinapis alba, 56. 
Sinapis Allionii, 39. 



INDEX. 



Sinapis juncea, 56. 

Sinapis nigra, 56. 

Sirius, the rising of, 159, 164, 165. 

Sium sisarum, 125. 

Siut, tombs at, 20. 

Skirret, 125. 

Smallage, 45. 

Smilax aspera, 62. 

Smilax China, 139. 

Smilax sarsaparilla, 137. 

Smoking, the custom of, 140. 

Smyrnium olusatrum, 72. 

Snowball tree, 137. 

Solanum iEthiopicum, 97. 

Solanum coagulans, 39. 

Solanum cordatum, 39. 

Solanum dulcamara, 139. 

Solarium lycopersicum, 140. 

Solanum melongena, 112. 

Solanum nigrum, 76. 

Solanum pseudocapsicum, 132. 

Solanum tuberosum, the potato, 138. 

Soleb, 26. 

Solidago virgaurea, 127. 

Solstices, 155, 164. 

Somali country, 33, 35, 62. 

Sonchus oleraceus, 69. 

Sorghum vulgare, 98. 

Sorrel, 39, 84. 

Spain, 110, 111. 

Sparrow, 4. 

Spartium monospermum, 38, 61. 

Spelt, 10, 34. 

Sphasranthus, 85. 

Sphenoclea, 85. 

Spilanthes acmella, 148. 

Spinach, 116. 

Spinacia oleracea, 116. 

Spinning and weaving, figured, 5. 

Sponge, 46. 

Squash, 142. 

Squill, 55. 

Stag, 18. 

Steam, 84, 152, 153. 

Stellaria media, 123. 

Sterculia platanifolia, 151. 

Stomoxys, 34. 



Stone parsley, 89. 

Storax, 33. 

Strawberry, the European, 81 ; the North 

American, 145. 
Strix flammea, 4. 
Sturgeon, 61. 

Strychnos nux vomica, 113. 
Styrax officinalis, 33. 
Suseda baccata, 50. 
Suasda hortensis, 32. 
Succory, 57. 

Sugar, from Asclepias procera, 33. 
Sugar-cane, 73. 
Sunflower, 141. 
Sweet potato, 134. 
Swine, 9. 
Sycamore, 23. 
Syene, or Assuan, 15, 96. 
Syria, 30. 
Syringa vulgaris, 121. 

T. 
Tagetes, 138. 
Talmis, 87, 89. 
Tamarindus Indica, 106. 
Tamarix, 2. 

Tamil language, 35, 38. 
Tanacetum vulgare, 112. 
Tanks, or artificial ponds, 23. 
Tansy, 112. 
Taro, 85. 
Tarragon, 112. 
Tartars, 124, 126, 128. 
Taxes, 20. 
Tea, 114. 
Teak, 74. 
Teazle, 93. 
Tectona grandis, 74. 

Temple, the most ancient, 16; formal de- 
struction of Heathen temples, 103. 
Terebinth tree, 34. 
Terminalia, 153. 
Terminalia belerica, 110. 
Terminalia Chebula, 111. 
Terminalia? vernix, 127. 
Teucrium chamsdrys, 77. 
Teucrium iva, see Ajuga. 



Teucrium marum, 92. 

Teucrium polium, 46. 

Teucrium scordium, 86. 

Thalia dealbata, 152. 

Thapsia, 82. 

Thapsia silphium, 53. 

Thea, 114. 

Thebes, 15, 16, 25, 28, 29, 30, 37, 53, 82, 
86, 87, 93, 96. 

Theobroma cacao, 139. 

Thibet, 104, 114. 

Thistles, 37, 60. 

Thlaspi bursa-pastoris, 70. 

Thuya Occidentalis, 139. 

Thuya Orientalis, 44. 

Thyme, 59. 

Thymus serpillum, 59. 

Tiger, figured, 18. 

Tigridia pavonia, 142. 

Tilia Europsea, 63. 

Timber, in some of the Pyramids, 6; im- 
ported into Yemen, 38. 

Time, divisions of, 159, 165; the Egyptian 
measurement of, 154. 

Tin, 15, 16. 

Tobacco, 140. 

Tomato, 140. 

Torilis anthriscus, 121. 

Tortoise-shell, 73. 

Tragacanth, 77. 

Tragopogon porrifolius, 80. 

Transmigration, the doctrine of, 20. 

Tribulus terrestris, 77. 

Trifolium Alexandriuum, 76. 

Trifolium procumbens, 134. 

Trifolium resupiuatum, 94. 

Trigonella foenum graecum, 43. 

Trigonella hatnosa, 43. 

Tripods, 36. 

Triticum hybernum, wheat, 10. 

Triticum repens, 150. 

Triticum spelta, 10, 34. 

Tropseolum minus, 142. 

Troy, 36. 

Trumpet-flower, 146. 

Tuberose, 144. 

Tulip, 140. 



Tulipa Gesneriana, 140. 

Tura, the quarries at, 11, 51, 67. 

Turkey, the domestic, 135. 

Turkey berries, 92. 

Turmeric, 39. 

Turnip, 64. 

Turks, 105, 125, 127, 129. 

Turpeth, 109. 

Turtle, 73. 

Typha, 11. 



Ulmus campestris, 44. 
University, Arab, 119. 
Urtica dioica, 6 I. 
Urtica nivea, 148. 
Urtica pilulifera, 64. 
Urtica urens, 64. 
Uvaria aromatica, 72. 



Vachellia Farnesiaua, see Acacia. 

Valerian, 57. 

Valeriana Celtica, 57. 

Valeriana Dioscoridis, 57. 

Valerianaceae, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Vanilla, 149. 

Vegetation, the Egyptian, 2. 

Vella annua, 133. 

Verbascum sinuatum, 63. 

Verbena citriodora, see Aloysia. 

Verbena officinalis, 130. 

Verbena supina, 130. 

Vermilion, 65. 

Veronica anagallis, 94. 

Veronica beccabunga, 94. 

Vesuvius, eruption of, 95. 

Vetch, 42. 

Viburnum opulus, 137. 

Vicia faba, the bean, 37. 

Vicia lutea, 69. 

Vicia sativa, 42. 

Vinca rosea, 147. 

Vine, 10. 

Viola odorata, 46. 



Viola tricolor, 137. 

Violaceas, not found in Egypt, 3. 

Vitex agrms-castus, 43. 

Vitis vinifera, 10. 

Viverra geDetta, 3. 

Viverra zibetha, 122. 

Vocal Memnon, the statue, 87, 96, 97, 160. 

Vulpes, 8. 



W. 

Wadi-el-Moyeh, 27. 

Wadi Haifa, 23, 25, 27. 

Wadi Maghara, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19. 

Walnut, 39. 

Wars, see Military Campaigns. 

Water-cress, 86. 

Water-melon, 14, 15. 

Weaving and spinning, figured, 5. 

Weeds on the river-flats of the Nile, 3. 

Weights and measures, 13. 

West Indies, aboriginals of, 134, 135, 136. 

Whales, 118. 

Wheat, 10. 

White Race, figured, 7, 11, 13, 17, 22, 24. 

Willow, 2, 45. 

Willow, the weeping, 143. 

Wine, the art of making, 10. 

Woad, 87. 

Woodwork, ornamental, 30. 

Words, the geographical diffusion of, 154. 

Woven cloth, 5. 



Writing, the art of, 4, 7, 11. 
Writing-tablets, 44. 



Xanthium spinosum, 147. 
Xanthium strumarium, 91. 



Yak, or mountain-bullock of Thibet. 

Yam, 135. 

Yarrow, or milfoil, 112. 

Yemen, 15, 18, 24, 32, 35, 38, 49, 62, 129. 

Yucca aloifolia, 144. 



Zakkoum oil, 107. 

Zanzibar, 38, 88, 118. 

Zapania nodiflora, 144. 

Zea mays, 47, 135. 

Zeduary, 96. 

Zingiber officinale, see Ginger. 

Zizyphus lotus, 22. 

Zizyphus vulgaris, 89. 

Zoan, or San, 29. 

Zodiacal projections, 68. 

Zoological science, 17. 

Zygophyllaceas, numerous in Egypt, 3. 

Zygophyllum coccineum, 120. 



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